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Washington, D.C. The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:15 a.m. in room 4221, the Dirksen Senate Office Building, the Hon. Jacob Javits presiding.

Present: Senators Javits, Clark, Biden, Case, Pearson, Percy, and Baker.

Senator JAVITS. The committee will come to order.
At the request of the chairman, I will preside.

Senator Case is our ranking member but he has kindly yielded to me momentarily.

The Chair wishes to announce to the nominees who will be heard this morning that, at the request of a member of the committee, Senator Percy, of Illinois, we would appreciate it if Mr. Moynihan and Mr.

Toon, nominees respectively for the U.N. and Israel, would return at 2:30 this afternoon. Senator Percy has some questions.

The Chair wishes also to express great satisfaction in commending to the committee the first witness, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, nominated by the President to be U.S. representative to the U.N. with rank and status of Ambassador and U.S. representative to the Security Council.

Mr. Moynihan is a constituent of mine. He has a small farm in West Davenport, N.Y. I commend him to the committee as qualified for the position for which the President has nominated him. He is, as everybody knows, a distinguished member of the academic community at Harvard University and without objection his biography will be made a part of the record at this point.

Is there anything in it you wish to change as printed by the committee? Have you seen it? STATEMENT OF HON. DANIEL P. MOYNIHAN, OF NEW YORK, NOM

Mr. MOYNIHAN. I have not seen it.

Senator Javits. If you will examine it, please, and if there are any changes, please testify to them in the course of your testimony. [The biography of Daniel P. Moynihan follows:]



Position for which considered : United States Representative to the United Nations with the rank and status of Ambassador and the United States Representative in the Security Council.

Present Position : Professor and Member of the Faculty, Harvard University.
Office Address : Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Born: March 16, 1927, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Legal Residence: West Davenport, New York.
Marital Status : Married.

Family: Wife : former Elizabeth Therese Brennan, Children: Timothy Patrick, Maura Russell, John McCloskey.

Home Address : Care of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Education: B. Naval Science, Tufts University, 1946 ; B.A. (cum laude), Tufts University, 1948; M.A. 1949, Ph. D. 1961, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy; Fulbright fellow, London School of Economics and Political Science, 1950.

Honorary Degrees : Harvard University, 1966, A.M.; La Salle College, 1966, LL.D. ; Seton Hall University, 1966, LL.D.; Providence College, 1967, Dr. Public Administration; University of Akron, 1967, Dr. of Humane Letters; Catholic University, 1968, LL.D.; Illinois Institute of Technology, 1968, LL.D.; Villanova University, 1968, Dr. of Social Science; St. Louis University, 1968, LL.D.; Hamilton College, 1968, Dr. of Humane Letters; New School for Social Research, 1968, LL.D.; Tufts University, 1968, LL.D.; Duquesne University, 1968, LL.D.; University of California, 1969, LL.D.; University of Notre Dame, 1969, LL.D.; Fordham University, 1970, LL.D.; St. Bonaventure, 1972, LL.D.; Bridgewater State College, 1972, Dr. of Humanities ; Michigan Technological University, 1972, D.Sc.; Honorary Fellow, London School of Economics and Political Science; Syracuse University, 1969, Centennial Medal; University of Indiana, 1975, LL.D.

Language Ability: Some knowledge of French and Spanish.

1944–47—United States Navy.
1954— International Rescue Committee.

1955–58—Successively Assistant to Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Acting Secretary to the Governor of New York State.

1959–60–Member, New York State Tenure Commission.

1959–61—Director, New York State Government Research Project, Syracuse University.

1961–62—Special Assistant to the Secretary of Labor.

1962—Member, UN Delegation for Negotiating the Long Term Cotton Textile Agreement, Geneva.

1962–63—Executive Assistant to the Secretary of Labor.

1963—Member of the U.S. Delegation to the Conference of Labor Ministers of the Alliance for Progress, Bogota.

1963—Member of the U.S. Delegation to the Second General Ministerial Meeting of the Alliance for Progress, Sao Paulo.

1963–65—Assistant Secretary of Labor. 1965—U.S. Representative at the UN Seminar on Minorities, Ljubljana. 1965–66–Fellow, Center for Advanced Studies, Wesleyan University. 1966–69—Director, Joint Center of Urban Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University.

1969—Assistant to the President for Urban Affairs. Executive Director, Council for Urban Affairs.

1969–70—U.S. Representative on the NATO Committee on the Challenge of Modern Society, Brussels.

1969–71–Counselor to the President, Member of the Cabinet, Member of the Domestic Council, Member of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy.

1971–73—Consultant to the President.

1971–U.S. Representative to the 26th Session of the United Nations General Assembly.

1973–75-Ambassador to India.

1975 to present-Professor and Member of the Faculty, Harvard University. Positions :

1959–60_Secretary, Public Affairs Committee, New York State Democratic Committee.

1966–72—Vice Chairman, President's Temporary Commission on Pennsylvania Avenue.

1967–68—Chairman, Advisory Committee on Traffic Safety, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

1969 -Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Smithsonian Institution.

1971- -Member, President's Science Advisory Committee. 1971- —Chairman, Board of Trustees of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Member: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society, Board of Directors, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Editorial Board, The American Scholar, The Public Interest.

Awards: Anisfield-Wolf Award in Race Relations, 1964 (Beyond the Melting Pot) ; National Book Award Nomination, 1965 (Beyond the Melting Pot) ; Meritorious Service Award of the Department of Labor, 1964.

Author: Beyond the Melting Pot, co-author with Nathan Glazer, 1963. Defenses of Freedom; The Public Papers of Arthur J. Goldberg, Editor, 1966. Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding, 1969. On Understanding Poverty: Perspective From the Social Sciences, Editor, 1969. Toward a National Urban Policy, Editor, 1970. On Equality of Educational Opportunity, Co-Editor with Frederick Mosteller, 1972. The Politics of a Guaranteed Income, 1973. Coping: Essays In the Practice of Government.


Senator Javits. Mr. Moynihan's experience is an unusual blerd of academic experiences and very practical experience in government. At the State level it so happens he was Secretary to the Governor of the State of New York when I was Attorney General of the State of New York; Governor Harriman and I know him very well for that reason and for a very long time personally. And in addition, of course, he has participated in many international conferences with great responsibility, including a session at the U.N. in 1971, the 26th session of the United Nations General Assembly, where he was a U.S. delegate. He has been our Ambassador to India and is now back on the faculty of Harvard University, and is an extraordinarily well-known American.

As to his unique qualification for this position, I ask unanimous consent, without objection, there be introduced into the record in support of my commendation of Mr. Moynihan to the Committee, a piece of Commentary of March, 1975, entitled “U.S. In Opposition," which in a most prescient way develops Mr. Moynihan's views respecting the United Nations, the very post to which he is being named. (For text, see p. 338.)

Senator Case. I think I wish to say on behalf of your colleagues we object for the record. [Laughter.]

Senator JAVITs. One further thing, gentlemen, and that is that I think the United States is facing a very difficult problem with the U.N., especially in the relations with the Third World. In colloquy here a few days ago with a professor of Princeton, Senator Case and I developed our thoughts on how best to handle that particular problem with the most ardent desire for the best relations possible with the Third World and the desire to discharge that responsibility toward the Third World. I find Mr. Moynihan's views very consistent on the whole with the general attitude which was expressed.

Mr. Moynihan would you like to make a statement to the committee and then you will be open to questions by the membership.


Mr. MOYNIHAN. I have not any prepared statement, Senator. I would like to thank you, sir, for your generous remarks. I would like to say I have had occasion to read a summary of the exchange you and Senator Case had, I believe, with Professor Falk and I have heard or read others of the things that you have said in these hearings, the hearings on the U.N. I would like wholly to agree with what you said. I think the first fact of our relations with the new nations should be our perception, that these are and ought to be our allies in the world, allies in terms of the beliefs we share and objectives we share; that there ought to be a genuine political community with these nations of a kind which we do not have with the totalitarian powers and are not going to have in our time.

A certain principle statement of views on both sides can be useful; it requires that we respect what others think and try to understand what they think and ask that they do the same in return. It is no more than you would hope to have in the way of a relationship with people that you agree with about everything. Things where we disagree are marginal compared with where we do agree. And yet it is so easy to grow estranged that the first problem, the first question is how to get away from the confrontation system back toward the quest for understanding an agreement in a situation where this is wholly possible and entirely necessary.

That is about as much as I would wish to say at the outset, Mr. Chairman.

Senator Javits. Thank you very much, Mr. Moynihan.
Senator Case.
Senator CASE. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Moynihan, Senator Javits has very well expressed our general attitude. I wish to say it is a very great pleasure for us to recognize a man of such wit and perspicacity in agreement with the views that we hold.

HONORARY DEGREES What did you ever do in 1968 besides travel the country to get honorary degrees? Did you know how many you got in that year?

Mr. MOYNIHAN. I made a speech for Martin Luther King, Jr., in Florida. I made about 15 for Robert F. Kennedy in California.

Senator CASE. Eight degrees in 1 year, a total of 20. I think it was Robert Frost who said that he had his wife cut up these things and make quilts out of them because there was no place to store them any more. What do you do with yours? As everybody knows, they are the most intractable things as far as folding goes.

Mr. MOYNIHAN. You hang them upright.
Senator CASE. You must have a bag to carry them around with you.

Seriously, the only reason we divert at all is the fact we do seriously agree. What is the reason? Is it largely a matter of personality or is it jealousy or what is it that makes you such a target among certain academic people?

Mr. MOYNIHAN. Well, sir, I think that someone such as the Princeton professor, he and I would disagree about things and not have the same views.

Senator CASE. Is that because you achieved such success as witnessed by the election of honorary degrees?

Mr. MOYNIHAN. Oh, I would never want to say that about a Princeton professor.

Senator CASE. Did you have any trouble in India on account of this outspoken quality?

Mr. MOYNIHAN. Well, no, sir, I think not. I did not speak up very much in India. I thought it was my business to—I think sometimes in those countries we may have been a little more conspicuous than was good for them or us. I was there 2 years and the only press conference I had was to say goodbye. I found that there was a role for speaking privately and getting to know people well but not on public matters, and I think that that was to me an enormous, a great reward of being in India and I had no problem of any kind.

Senator CASE. Your academic discipline is economics?
Mr. MOYNIHAN. No, sir, I am a political scientist, whatever that is.
Senator CASE. You could say the same thing about economics.
Mr. MOYNIHAN. Lately they do.

Senator CASE. This thing called political economy would marry the two.


It is not fair to ask you about the policies of the administration which you are now going to represent, so I would not go into that. If you had anything to say about the "new economic order," I would be glad to have you comment.

Mr. MOYNIHAN. What I would have to say, Senator, would be about what the Secretary of State said in Paris. It will soon be precisely what the Secretary of State says, but today it is “about.'

Senator Case. Even if you were saying it on your own?
Mr. MOYNIHAN. When he said
Senator CASE. What does it mean then?

Mr. MOYNIHAN. Well, I think that what he asked in his speech to the OECD in Paris, is what is the use of trying to define something as undefinable as an old economic order, a new economic order, the intermediates.

Senator CASE. You mean it is only good to make speeches about?

Mr. MOYNIHAN. Precisely. Forums in which you reach general disagreement quickly and irrevocably. Meaningful agreements are reached in minute detail on specifics. I think the Secretary went to Paris and made a first rate speech and he went down a list of such specifics. We will talk commodities, we will talk about agricultural development fund, we will talk about trust fund for the most severely affected by the oil price increase. That kind of specific, as you know from your work as a legislator, is where you can get agreement. To stand up and make pronouncements about whether you are for a new economic order means little. Who wants to be for an old economic order? And yet who knows what a new one means. It seems to me at that level of generalization people almost seek disagreements, and the less of that there is the more you can get on with real issues at which, clearly, the world does not do badly, which is agreement on specifics.

Senator Case. You are reassuring to me. I did not think it meant a

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