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or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea,
air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communica-
tion, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

ARTICLE 42

under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires,
to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concern-
ing the employment of contingents of that Member's armed
forces.

ARTICLE 45
In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent
military measures, Members shall hold immediately available
national air-force contingents for combined international en-
forcement action. The strength and degree of readiness of these
contingents and plans for their combined action shall be deter-
mined, within the limits laid down in the special agreement
or agreements referred to in Article 43, by the Security Council
with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

ARTICLE 46

Should the Security Council consider that measures pro-
vided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to
be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces
as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace
and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade,
and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of
the United Nations.

ARTICLE 43
1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to con-
tribute to the maintenance of international peace and security,
undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call
and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements,
armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of
passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international
peace and security.

2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers
and types of forces, their degree of readiness and general loca-
tion, and the nature of the facilities and assistance to be pro-
vided.

3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as
soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. They
shall be concluded between the Security Council and Members
or between the Security Council and groups of Members and
shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in ac-
cordance with their respective constitutional processes.

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1. There shall be established a Military Staff Committee
to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions relat-
ing to the Security Council's military requirements for the main-
tenance of international peace and security, the employment
and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation
of armaments, and possible disarmament.

2. The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs
of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or
their representatives. Any Member of the United Nations not
permanently represented on the Committee shall be invited by
the Committee to be associated with it when the efficient dis-
charge of the Committee's responsibilities requires the partici-
pation of that Member in its work.

3. The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under
the Security Council for the strategic direction of any armed

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forces placed at the disposal of the Security Council. Questions
relating to the command of such forces shall be worked out
subsequently

4. The Military Staff Committee, with the authorization
of the Security Council and after consultation with appropriate
regional agencies, may establish regional sub-committees.

ARTICLE 48
1. The action required to carry out the decisions of the
Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and
security shall be taken by all the Members of the United
Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may
determine.

2. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of
the United Nations directly and through their action in the
appropriate international agencies of which they are members.

ARTICLE 52

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1. Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence
of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such
matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and
security as are appropriate for regional action, provided that
such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent
with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.

2. The Members of the United Nations entering into such
arrangements or constituting such agencies shall make every
effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes through
such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies before
referring them to the Security Council.

3. The Security Council shall encourage the development
of pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional
arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the initia-
tive of the states concerned or by reference from the Security
Council.

4. This article in no way impairs the application of
Articles 34 and 35.

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ARTICLE 53

Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately

1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of

ARTICLE 56

All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate
action in co-operation with the Organization for the achieve-
ment of the purposes set forth in Article 55.

the part

measures against any enemy state, as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to Article 107 or in regional arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive policy on

of
any

such state, until such time as the Organization
may, on request of the Governments concerned, be charged
with the responsibility for preventing further aggression by such
a state.

2. The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of this
Article applies to any state which during the Second World
War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter.

ARTICLE 57

1. The various specialized agencies, established by inter-
governmental agreement and having wide international respon-
sibilities, as defined in their basic instruments, in economic,
social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be
brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance
with the provisions of Article 63.

2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the
United Nations are hereinafter referred to as specialized
agencies.

ARTICLE 54

The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully in-
formed of activities undertaken or in contemplation under
regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the mainte-
nance of international peace and security.

ARTICLE 58

CHAPTER IX
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
CO-OPERATION

The Organization shall make recommendations for the co-
ordination of the policies and activities of the specialized
agencies.

ARTICLE 59

ARTICLES

W

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ith a view to the creation of conditions of stability and

well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly
relations among nations based on respect for the principle of
equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United
Nations shall promote:

a. higher standards of living, full employment, and con-
ditions of economic and social progress and development;

b. solutions of international economic, social, health,
and related problems; and international cultural and edu-
cational co-operation; and

c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights
and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as
to race, sex, language, or religion.

Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the
Organization set forth in this Chapter shall be vested in the
General Assembly and, under the authority of the General
Assembly, in the Economic and Social Council, which shall have
for this purpose the powers set forth in Chapter X.

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1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of fifty-
four Members of the United Nations elected by the General
Assembly

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, eighteen mem-
bers of the Economic and Social Council shall be elected each
year for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be
eligible for immediate re-election.

3. At the first election after the increase in the membership
of the Economic and Social Council from twenty-seven to fifty-
four members, in addition to the members elected in place of
the nine members whose term of office expires at the end of
that year, twenty-seven additional members shall be elected. Of
these twenty-seven additional members, the term of office of
nine members so elected shall expire at the end of one year,
and of nine other members at the end of two years, in accord-
ance with arrangements made by the General Assembly.

4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall
have one representative.

Functions and Powers

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ARTICLE 66

ARTICLE 71

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1. The Economic and Social Council shall perform such
functions as fall within its competence in connexion with the
carrying out of the recommendations of the General Assembly.

2. It may, with the approval of the General Assembly, per-
form services at the request of Members of the United Nations
and at the request of specialized agencies.

3. It shall perform such other functions as are specified
elsewhere in the present Charter or as may be assigned to it by
the General Assembly.

Voting

ARTICLE 67
1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall
have one vote.

2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall be
made by a majority of the members present and voting.

Procedure

ARTICLE 68
The Economic and Social Council shall set up commissions
in economic and social fields and for the promotion of human
rights, and such other commissions as may be required for the
performance of its functions.

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responsibilities for the administration of territories whose
peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government
recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of
these territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the
obligation to promote to the utmost, within the system of inter-
national peace and security established by the present Charter,
the well-being of the inhabitants of these territories, and, to this
end:

a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and

The Economic and Social Council may make arrangements
for representatives of the specialized agencies to participate,
without vote, in its deliberations and in those of the commis-
sions established by it, and for its representatives to participate
in the deliberations of the specialized agencies.

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