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by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations including
all the permanent members of the Security Council.

3. If such a conference has not been held before the tenth
annual session of the General Assembly following the coming
into force of the present Charter, the proposal to call such a
conference shall be placed on the agenda of that session of the
General Assembly, and the conference shall be held if so de
cided by a majority vote of the members of the General Assem-
bly and by a vote of any seven members of the Security Council.

Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that war by the Governments having responsibility for such action.

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accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of that Declara-
tion, cunsult with one another and as occasion requires with
other Members of the United Nations with a view to such joint
action on behalf of the Organization as may be necessary for
the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.

ARTICLE 107

CHAPTER XVIII
AMENDMENTS

ARTICLE 108

cesses.

A"

mendments to the present Charter shall come into force

for all Members of the United Nations when they have
been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the
General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respec-
tive constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of
the United Nations, including all the permanent members of
the Security Council.

ARTICLE 109
1. A General Conference of the Members of the United
Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter may
be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds vote of
the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any
nine members of the Security Council. Each Member of the
United Nations shall have one vote in the conference.

2. Any alteration of the present Charter recommended by
a two-thirds vote of the conference shall take effect when rati-
fied in accordance with their respective constitutional processes

2. The ratifications shall be deposited with the Govern-
ment of the United States of America, which shall notify all
the signatory states of each deposit as well as the Secretary-
General of the Organization when he has been appointed.

3. The present Charter shall come into force upon the
deposit of ratifications by the Republic of China, France, the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of
America, and by a majority of the other signatory states. A
protocol of the ratifications deposited shall thereupon be drawn
up by the Government of the United States of America which
shall communicate copies thereof to all the signatory states.

4. The states signatory to the present Charter which ratify
it after it has come into force will become original Members
of the United Nations on the date of the deposit of their respec-
tive ratifications.

ARTICLE 111
The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian,
English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall remain
deposited in the archives of the Government of the United
States of America. Duly certified copies thereof shall be trans-
mitted by that Government to the Governments of the other
signatory states.

IN FAITH WHEREOF the representatives of the Governments
of the United Nations have signed the present Charter.

Done at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of
June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five.

“UNITING FOR PEACE"; RESOLUTION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,

NOVEMBER 3, 1950

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The General Assembly,

Recognizing that the first two stated Purposes of the United Nations are:

"To maintain international peace and security, and to that end : to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justices and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;

“To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take

other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;". Reaffirming that it remains to the primary duty of all Members of the United Nations, when involved in an international dispute, to seek settlement of such a dispute by peaceful means through the procedures laid down in Chapter VI of the Charter, and recalling the successful achievements of the United Nations in this regard on a number of previous occasions,

Finding that international tension exists on a dangerous scale.

Recalling its resolution 290 (IV) entitled “Essentials of peace,” which states that disregard of the Principles of the Charter of the United Nations is primarily responsible for the continuance of international tension, and desiring to contribute further to the objectives of that resolution.

Rea ffirming the importance of the exercise by the Security Council of its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and the duty of the permanent members to seek unanimity and to exercise restraint in the use of the veto,

Reaffirming that the initiative in negotiating the agreements for armed forces provided for in Article 43 of the Charter belongs to the Security Council, and desiring to ensure that, pending the conclusion of such agreements, the United Nations has at its disposal means for maintaining international peace and security,

Conscious that failure of the Security Council to discharge its responsibilities on behalf of all the Member States, particularly those responsibilities referred to in the two preceding paragraphs, does not relieve Member States of their obligations or the United Nations of its responsibility under the Charter to maintain international peace and security.

Recognizing in particular that such failure does not deprive the General Assembly of its rights or relieve it of its responsibilities under the Charter in regard to the maintenance of international peace and security,

Recognizing that discharge by the General Assembly of the responsibilities in these respects calls for possibilities of observation which would ascertain the facts and expose aggressors; the existence of armed forces which could be used collectively, and for the possibility of timely recommendation by the General Assemble to Members of the United Nations for collective action which, to be effective, should be prompt,

A.

1. Resolves that if the Security Council, because of lack of unanimity of the permanent members, fails to exercise its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security in any case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, the General Asse bly shall consider the matter immediately with a view to making appropriate recommendations to Members for collective measures, including in the case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression the use of armed force when necessary, to maintain or restore international peace and security. If not in session at the time, the General Assembly may meet in emergency special session within twenty-four hours of the request therefor. Such emergency special session shall be called if requested by the Security Council on the vote of any seven members, or by a majority of the Members of the United Nations;

2. Adopts for this purpose the amendments to its rules of procedure set forth in the annex to the present resolution;

B.

3. Establishes a Peace Observation Commission for which the calendar years 1951 and 1952, shall be composed of fourteen Members, namely: China, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, France, India, Iraq, Israel, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sweden, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and Uruguay, and which could observe and report on the situation in any area where there exists international tension the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. Upon the invitation or with the consent of the State into whose territory the Commission would go, the General Assembly, or the Interim Committee when the Assembly is not in session, may utilize the Commission if the Security Council is not exercising the functions assigned to it by the Charter with respect to the matter in question. Decisions to utilize the Commission shall be made on the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the mem. bers present and voting. The Security Council may also utilize the Commission in accordance with its authority under the Charter ;

4. The Commission shall have authority in its discretion to appoint subcom. missions and to utilize the services of observers to assist it in the performance of its functions ;

5. Recommends to all governments and authorities that they cooperate with the Commission and assist it in the performance of its functions ;

6. Requests the Secretary-General to provide the necessary staff and facilities, utilizing, where directed by the Commission, the United Nations Panel of Field Observers envisaged in General Assembly resolution 297 B (IV);

C.

7. Invites each Member of the United Nations to survey its resources in order to determine the nature and scope of the assistance it may be in a position to render in support of any recommendations of the Security Council or of the General Assembly for the restoration of international peace and security;

8. Recommends to the States Members of the United Nations that each Member maintain within its national armed forces elements so trained, organized and equipped that they could promptly be made available, in accordance with its constitutional processes, for service as a United Nations unit or units, upon recommendation by the Security Council or General Assembly, without prejudice to the use of such elements in exercise of the right of individual or collective selfdefence recognized in Article 51 of the Charter;

9. Invites the Members of the United Nations to inform the Collective Measures Committee provided for in paragraph 11 as soon as possible of the measures taken in implementation of the preceding paragraph;

10. Requests the Secretary-General to appoint, with the approval of the Committee provided for in paragraph 11, a panel of military experts who could be made available, on request, to Member States wishing to obtain technical advice regarding the organization, training, and equipment for prompt service as United Nations units of the elements referred to in paragraph 8;

D.

11. Establishes a Collective Measures Committee consisting of fourteen Members, namely : Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Egypt, France, Mexico, Philippines, Turkey, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, Venezuela and Yugoslavia, and directs the Committee, in consultation with the Secretary-General and with such Member States as the Committee finds appropriate, to study and make a report to the Security Council and the General Assembly, not later than 1 September 1951, on methods, including those in Section C of the present resolution, which might be used to maintain and strengthen international peace and security in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the Charter, taking account of collective selfdefence and regional arrangements (Articles 51 and 52 of the Charter);

12. Recommends to all Member States that they co-operate with the Committee and assist it in the performance of its functions;

13. Requests the Secretary-General to furnish the staff and facilities necessary for the effective accomplishment of the purposes set forth in sections C and D of the present resolution ;

E.

14. The General Assembly, in adopting the proposals set forth above, is fully conscious that enduring peace will not be secured solely by collective security arrangements against breaches of international peace and acts of aggression, but that a genuine and lasting peace depends also upon the observance of all the Principles and Purposes established in the Charter of the United Nations, upon the implementation of the resolutions of the Security Council, the General Assembly and other principal organs of the United Nations intended to achieve the maintenance of international peace and security, and especially upon respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all and on the establishment and maintenance of conditions of economic and social wellbeing in all countries; and accordingly

15. Urges Member States to respect fully, and to intensify, joint action, in co-operation with the United Nations, to develop and stimulate universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and to intensify individual and collective efforts to achieve conditions of economic stability and social progress, particularly through the development of underdeveloped countries and areas.

ANNEX

The rules of procedure of the General Assembly are amended in the following respects :

1. The present text of rule 8 shall become paragraph (a) of the rule, and a new paragraph (6) shall be added to read as follows:

“Emergency special sessions pursuant to resolution—(V) shall be convened within twenty-four hours of the receipt by the Secretary-General of a request for such a session from the Security Council, or the vote of any seven members thereof, or of a request from a majority of the Members of the United Nations expressed by vote in the Interim Committee or otherwise, or of the concurrence of a majority of Members as provided in rule 9."

2. The present text of rule 9 shall become paragraph (a) of that rule and a new paragraph (b) shall be added to read as follows:

“This rule shall apply also to a request by any Member for an emergency special session pursuant to resolution-(V). In such a case the Secretary-General shall communicate with other Members by the most expeditious means of communication available."

3. Rule 10 is amended by adding at the end thereof the following:

“In the case of an emergency special session convened pursuant to rule 8 (b), the Secretary-General shall notify the Members of the United Nations at least twelve hours in advance of the opening of the session.”

4. Rule 16 is amended by adding at the end thereof the following:

“The provisional agenda of an emergency special session shall be communicated to the Members of the United Nations simultaneously with the communication summoning the session."

5. Rule 19 is amended by adding at the end thereof the following:

“During an emergency special session additional items concerning the matters dealt with in resolution—(V) may be added to the agenda by a two-thirds majority of the Members present and voting:

6. There is added a new rule to precede rule 65 to read as follows:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of any other rule and unless the General Assembly decides otherwise, the Assembly in case of an emergency special session, shall convene in plenary session only and proceed directly to consider the item proposed for consideration in the request for the holding of the session, without previous reference to the General Committee or to any other Committee; the President and Vice Presidents for such emergency special sessions shall be, respectively, the Chairman of those delegations from which were elected the President and Vice-Presidents of the previous session.”

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RESOLUTION B

For the purpose of maintaining international peace and security, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, and, in particular, with Chapters V, VI and VII of the Charter,

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