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Bitker, Bruno V., chairman, American Bar Association Advisory Com
mittee on World Peace through Law-----Brown, Seyom, Brookings Institution----*Buckley, William F., Jr., editor-in-chief, The National Review---- 119, • Coffin, William Sloane, chaplain, Yale University. · Cousins, Norman, editor, Saturday Review Dallin, Alexander, Professor of History and Political Science, Stan
ford University--Falk, Richard A., Professor of International Law and Practice, Princeton University----
rsity------------------------------------------Frederick, Pauline, former U.N. correspondent for NBC News------Fulbright, Senator J. W., former chairman, Committee on Foreign
Relations; sponsor of the Fulbright Resolution of 1943_---Fuller, Buckminster, architect------
-------- 182, 18 Gardner, Richard N., Henry L. Moses professor of law and interna
tional organization, Columbia University------Goldberg, Arthur, former U.S. Permanent Representative to the
United States of America to the United Nations with the rank and
33: Scali, Ambassador John A., U.S. Representative to the United Nations 304 Scammon, Richard, Elections Research Center--
197 Segel, Joseph, former chairman, 'board of governors, United Nations
Association; U.S. Alternate Representative to the 29th U.N. Gen-
96 * Stanley, C. Maxwell, president, Stanley Foundation-----
100 Stassen, Harold E., member of the U.S. Delegation to the United Na
tions Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, 1945-
University; author, "A Dangerous Place: The United Nations as a
------------Insertions for the record :
"Clash of the "Two Majorities'," article by Charles W. Yost, New
Republic, Dec. 28, 1974.. "The United Nations Was Never More Relevant Than Today," article
by Charles W. Yost, Saturday Review, January 1975_----
: Times, Nov. 16, 1974.---
Constitution of the United States," by Carl Van Doren (preface)--Resolutions unanimously adopted at a meeting of the Governors Commission
-------------------------------------------Text of H. Con. Res. 206--"Sweeping Change in U.N. is Urged by World Panel," article by Kath
leen Teltsch, New York Times, May 21, 1975----Letter transmitting additional comments from Seyom Brown,
Brookings Institution -----“The United States in Opposition,” article by Daniel Patrick Moy.
nihan, Commentary, March 1975-------
Moynihan, Reader's Digest, June 1975------
Fulbright Resolution --
General Assembly, Dec. 12, 1974.--
July 14, 1975-------
voting at the Biennial Convention of the United Nations Association
of the United States of America, Apr. 17, 1975--. Statement of Edith Wynner of New York------The World Association of World Federalists Proposals for United Na
tions Reform----Statement of Women's League of Conservative Judaism----Letter from Cordell Burch transmitting a copy of “What's Wrong
with the United Nations” by Reed Benson and Robert Lee, The Re
view of the News, Sept. 9, 1970---------------------- ------------
Group, World Federal Authority Committee.---
Church and Society of the United Methodist Church, enclosing
------Statement of Eleanore Schnurr, United Nations Representative,
American Baptist Churches, U.S.A., National Ministries_---
Georgia Lloyd, executive secretary-----
of the United States----
U.S.A., Iowa Division ---
(CNIEO), June 11, 1975------
Chicago Region, Inc-----
World Federalists, U.S.A., New Jersey Branch, Inc----
Donald F. Keys and George Mannello, World Federalist Education
Times Magazine, May 4, 1975----
THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED NATIONS
THURSDAY, MAY 7, 1975
UNITED STATES SENATE,
Washington, D.C. The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a.m., in room 4221, the Dirksen Senate Office Building, the Hon. John Sparkman (chairman] presiding,
Present: Senators Sparkman, Clark, Case, Javits, and Percy.
sdict the Natie amelioasi
We are meeting today to open a series of hearings on the United States and the United Nations. The purpose of these hearings is to put into perspective what our original hopes and aims were, how the U.N. has developed, and what our future policies and attitudes should be.
I think it is fair to predict that recent world developments will focus greater attention on the United Nations. The question is whether the U.N. will be a constructive force in ameliorating difficult situations, such as in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, or whether it will be a destructive force in pitting the developing and third world nations against the developed, mostly Western countries, thereby further increasing the polarization evident at the U.N.
To start us off, the committee has invited a distinguished panel of past officials whose involvement with the United Nations spans the time of the signing of the Charter at San Francisco in 1945 to the Nixon administration.
We have with us the Honorable Harold E. Stassen, the only living U.S. signatory of the United Nations Charter; our former colleague, both in the Senate and on this committee, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, who represented the United States at the United Nations from 1953 to 1960; Justice Arthur J. Goldberg, who held that post from 1965 to 1968; and Ambassador Charles S. Yost, who followed in 1969 and served until 1971. These gentlemen need no further introduction, but before calling on them I would like to ask Senator Percy, whom I hold responsible for these hearings, and have asked to act as cochairman, to say a few words.
STATEMENT BY SENATOR PERCY
Senator PERCY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
I hope you are not implying I am responsible for everything that is said at the hearings. [Laughter.]
I would like to say I was rather surprised when I finished my tour of duty as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly last fall, to learn that it had been 20 years since the U.S. Senate had held hearings on the United Nations. In view of the U.N.'s potential to promote peace, and the misunderstanding at the U:N. today between the developed and developing worlds over many political, economic and social issues today, it seemed best to stand back now to see where we are and what our policies should be in regard to the U.N.
Certainly the hearings that begin this morning and will continue tomorrow, May 8, and on the 14th and 15th, 21st and 22d, will be quite comprehensive. I am most indebted, Mr. Chairman, to you for the decision that you have made to devote as much of the time of the Foreign Relations Committee to these hearings as you have.
We shall be hearing from those who made and executed U.S. policy at the United Nations over the years, from distinguished experts in international relations and from other prominent Americans who have important viewpoints to express. .
I have a deep personal interest because in 1945 I was up in the peanut gallery at San Francisco-I' was in the Navy then—the war was winding down, and with a little time on my hands, I watched the remarkable proceedings, as the U.N. was put together. · I think it rather remarkable that the four witnesses today have represented different branches of government-a Governor, a Senator, a Justice of the Supreme Court, an Ambassador-and two of them played more than one role during their government service. They certainly are among the four most knowledgeable and devoted Americans who could be testifying this morning.
I think it is an auspicious beginning for these hearings.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Senator Percy... · Senator Percy, you stated that you served last year, was it not, in the United Nations?
Senator PERCY. Yes, sir.
U.S. CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATIVES SENT TO U.N. SINCE 1950
The CHAIRMAN. You know, ever since 1950 we have been sending two Congressional representatives to the United Nations for each session. The Senate one year and the House the next year-one Democrat; one Republican.
I want to say that Senator Lodge and I started that in 1950 when President Truman appointed us to go to the United Nations, and the practice has been followed ever since. It is a great experience, and I enjoyed it very much.
We are very glad to have all of you distinguished gentlemen with us, and if you will take the seats at the table, Governor Stassen, Senator Lodge, Justice Goldberg, Ambassador Yost...
That is quite an array of distinguished talent.
Charlie Yost was around the United Nations when I was there. I have known him through the years and the great work that he has done.
We will be glad to hear from you, gentlemen. I will ask Governor Stassen to lead off.