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ng, imitating the baying of watch-dogs and the crowing visible cocks.

Metre.-The exquisite musical quality of this song is larg oduced by the alternation of iambic with trochaic lines. isk movement of the trochaic lines (1, 3, 5-6) is answered, a ere, by the slower iambic movement of the others. Rhym rses of four accents in Shakespeare are chiefly put into ouths of supernatural beings-e.g. the witches in Macbeth, ries in Midsummer Night's Dream and The Tempest.

3, 4. These lines are often punctuated with a comma af kiss'd," "The wild waves whist" being taken independently ean 'The wild waves being silent.' It is much better to t e two lines closely together, = 'kissed the waves into st ss,' i.e. kissed partners (immediate prelude to the dan d thereby hushed the noisy waves into attention.' Profes erford points out that this rendering is confirmed by nctuation of the folios, and by Ferdinand's statement t e music "allayed the fury" of the waters "with its sweet a whist, participle for whisted,' from the verb 'to whist '= nmand silence' (Abbott, S.G., § 342). So in Milton's imi n, Nativity Ode (G. T., LXXXV. 64):

"The winds, with wonder whist,
Smoothly the waters kist."

featly, neatly, gracefully: adverb formed from the O ective, feat, used by Shakespeare, as in Cymbeline, v. v. Tever master had a page so feat." Cp. feateously in Spens othalamion, No. 74. 27. The expression 'foot it featly n traced to Lodge's Glaucus and Scilla, 1589: "Footing tlie on the grassie ground." Shakespeare uses 'foot it' nce' in Romeo and Juliet, I. v. 28, “Â hall, a hall! give ro ! foot it, girls."

. burthen. "The burden of a song, in the old_acceptat the word, was the base, foot, or under-song. It was su oughout, and not merely at the end of a verse. Ma these burdens were short proverbial expressions, such a is merry in hall when beards wag all.' Other burd e mere nonsense words that went glibly off the tongue, giv accent of the music, such as hey nonny, nonny no [cp. N and 20]" (Chappell, Popular Music of the Olden Time, -223).

4. Phoebus, arise

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1649 (G. T., CCLXXXI. 32). It was here that he wrote poems, his History of Scotland under the Five Jameses, and political pamphlets; and here that he entertained Ben Jons making careful notes, which have been preserved and publish of the dramatist's conversation. He was a great student; and, in some other cases, it is difficult to say whether he injur the inspiration of his muse by reading-the imitations, espe ally of Shakespeare, are almost too obvious in his workowed his success to patient study. But the extracts given this volume, and one or two other sonnets, have a permane place in English literature. The poets Drayton and V Alexander were among his correspondents.

If there are echoes of Shakespeare and other poets in t Summons to Love, there is also an anticipation of that majes of diction and rhythm, that grandeur, richness, and fulness sound, os rotundum, which was presently to be revealed Milton, the "God-gifted organ-voice of England."

Metre.-Iambic. The length of the lines and order of t rhymes is irregular, but the irregularity is so skilfully manag as to increase the charm of the melody. In Mr. Palgrav text, 1. 33 is left without a rhyme through the omission of a li after 1. 34.

1. Phoebus, Apollo, the Sun-God of the Greeks.

2. sable.

A favourite word with Milton. Cp. Comus, 22 "Was I deceived or'did a sable cloud .

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4. Rouse Memnon's mother. "Awaken the Dawn from t dark Earth and the clouds where she is resting. This is one that limited class of early mythes which may be reasonab interpreted as representations of natural phenomena. Auro in the old mythology is mother of Memnon (the East), and wi of Tithonus (the appearances of Earth and Sky during the la hours of Night). She leaves him every morning in renewe youth, to prepare the way for Phoebus (the Sun), whil Tithonus remains in perpetual old age and greyness" (F.T.P.). 5. career, course. Cp. Milton, Il Penseroso (G. T., cxLv. 121 Thus, Night, oft see me in thy pale career.

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6. each-where, every-where. "The adjectives all, each, bot every, other, are sometimes interchanged and used as pronouns i a manner different from modern use (Abbott, S. G., § 12 Every is really a strengthened form of each,'=' ever-each.' 7. make, imperative.

11. decore, decorate. Examples of the form to decore' an


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14. but, only. But is a contraction of 'by-out' (cp. 'wi t'), and its first meaning is except.' From 'except'1 eaning often passes to only,' where a negative can be eas pplied: not except ''only' (Abbott, S. G., § 128).

18. The influence of the stars is often referred to in Elizabeth etry. Cp. No. 41. 5-8.

20. white. Cp. Tibullus' birthday ode to Messalla (1. vii. 63At tu, Natalis, multos celebrande per annos Candidior semper candidiorque veni.

Birthday, to be honoured for many years, come thou e iter and still more white"). But 1. 21 seems to show that ssical passage in Drummond's mind was Persius, II. 1-2: Hunc, Macrine, diem numera meliore lapillo, Qui tibi labentes apponit candidus annos.

This day, Macrinus, mark with a stone of more auspici e, the white day, which adds to your account each year glides away"-Conington). Lucky days were marked by t mans with white chalk or a white stone or jewel: see erences given by Bentley on Horace, Odes, I. XXXVI. 10, or E Catullus, LXVIII. 148.

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1. should. The relative that' is omitted in this and ceding line.

7. by Penéus' streams. "Phoebus loved the nymph Daph om he met by the river Peneus in the vale of Tempe essaly]" (F.T.P.). Cp. Frederic Myers' description of N F. Watts' picture:

"Or she whose soft limbs swiftly sped

The touch of very gods must shun,
And, drowned in many a boscage, fled
The imperious kisses of the sun.

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3. Mr. F. T. Palgrave has here omitted two lines which eved to be “hopelessly misprinted":

"Nay, suns, which shine as clear

As thou when two thou did to Rome appear."

poem loses little or nothing by their omission, but the not seem to be any misprint. The phenomenon of a dou is twice mentioned by Livy among the prodigies that occurr ng the Second Punic War, xXVIII. 11 (B.c. 206), XXXIX.

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Thebes to the sound of his music" (F.T.P.).

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33. Zephyr, the personification of the west wind. Cp. Milto Paradise Lost, v. 16, "With voice Mild as when Zephyrus d Flora breathes"; L'Allegro (G.T. CXLIV. 18-19), "The frol vind that breathes the spring, Zephyr, with Aurora playing." 34. play. After this word the original text of Drummon ives only a comma, followed by a line which Mr. F. T. Palgrav mitted:

Kissing sometimes these purple ports of death.”

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The line is obscure, but seems to mean Kissing her lips for th ake of which men are ready to die.' Mr. Quiller-Couch not hat Drummond elsewhere speaks of the lips as "those coral por f bliss" and "Lips, double port of love." Port-gate, La porta: so used in Shakespeare, Coriolanus, v. vi. 6, The cit ports by this hath entered," and Milton, Paradise Lost, IV. 778 'And from the ivory port the Cherubim Forth issuing.'

36. chair, chariot. Cp. Milton, Paradise Lost, II. 930, “A n a cloudy chair ascending rides."

37. Ensaffroning, making saffron-coloured; a fine expressio or the yellow light of dawn. (Pronounced here, metri gratio

s a tri-syllable.)

39, 40. An echo of Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, II. iii. 4: "And fleckèd darkness like a drunkard reels

From forth day's path and Titan's fiery wheels."

p. also Shakespeare, Sonnet, VII., of the Sun :

"But when from highmost pitch with weary car,
Like feeble age, he reeleth from the day."

42. orient, bright. A favourite word in this sense in th Elizabethan and seventeenth century poets. Cp. No. 19. 31 'orient pearl"; No. 36. 10; also Herrick in G. T., CXVIII. 22 some orient pearls" (of the dew); Milton, Nativity Ode, G.T xxxv. 231, an orient wave." Tennyson revived the word in ts etymological sense of rising' (Lat. oriens)"The life re -rient out of dust" (In Memoriam, cxvI.). Shakespeare use Orient for the East,' the quarter of the rising sun, Sonnet, VII. 44. She. Cp. Crashaw in G. T., cIII., Wishes for the Supposed Mistress:

"Whoe'er she be,

That not impossible she,

"The clouds bespangle with bright gold their blue :
Here is the pleasant place,

And everything, save her, who all should grace.”

5. When I have seen by Time's fell hand defaced Shakespeare's Sonnets, LXIV. See Appendix C to this volum 1. Time's fell hand. Cp. "Devouring Time," Sonnet XIX. i he Tempus edax rerum of Ovid, Metamorphoses, XV. 23 Time's injurious hand," Sonnet LXIII. 2.

2. cost, abstract for concrete, 'costly tombs.' Cp. the openi f Sonnet LV., "Not marble, nor the gilded monuments rinces shall outlive this powerful rhyme.'

3. sometime, 'at some time,' 'at one time'; 'towers o fty.'

4. brass eternal recalls Horace's monumentum aere perenn a monument more lasting than bronze"), Odes, III. xxx. mortal rage, the destructive rage of war, rage that bri ortality. Cp. Sonnet lv.:

"When wasteful war shall statues overturn,

And broils root out the work of masonry,

Nor Mars his sword nor war's quick fire shall burn
The living record of your memory.

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'mortal thoughts' in Macbeth, I. v. 42=‘murderous thought 7. win, used absolutely. Cp. King John, II. i. 569, "He th ns of all, Of kings, of beggars, old men, young men, maids. watery main. Cp. Merchant of Venice, v. i. 97, "the main ters." 'Main' is properly an adj., and the full phrase is in sea. In King Lear, III. i. 6, 'main' mainland, as con's "In 1589 we turned challengers and invaded the main in." In No. 41. 5, 'Nativity, once in the main of light the main flood of light.

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With this quatrain cp. Tennyson, In Memoriam, CXXIII. : There rolls the deep where grew the tree.


O earth, what changes hast thou seen!

There where the long street roars, hath been

The stillness of the central sea.'

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state, the Lat. status, from stare 'to stand,' properly denote d condition. "When I have seen . . state itself confound ecay means, therefore, 'When I have seen that there is 1 thing as fixity of condition.' The sentiment is that

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