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o in the next sonnet, 1. 4, the antecedent to 'Whose' is ob ously 'beauty,' not ‘plea.'

6. Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea Shakespeare's Sonnets, LXV. Cp. a sonnet of Spenser's, benning, "One day I wrote her name upon the strand" (Amoretti, xxv.; Golden Pomp, cxvIII.).

2. mortality, death, destruction. Cp. No. 12. 10, "Beyond me, place, and mortality"; "mortality's strong hand” in King hn, IV. ii. ; "mortal rage" in No. 5. 4.

3. rage. Cp. a sonnet of Daniel's (Golden Pomp, CXVII.) Time's consuming rage."


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hold a plea, make good a defence. Cp. Merchant of Venice, . ii. "In law what plea so tainted and corrupt The umber of legal metaphors and phrases in the Sonnets and Plays d Malone to draw the inference that Shakespeare must at one me have been an attorney. Cp. No. 23 (Sonnet XVIII.) 'lease,' late'; No. 39 (Sonnet xxx.) 'sessions,' summon'; No. 42 -onnet LXXXVII.) charter,' 'bonds,' determinate,' 'patent, nisprision,'' judgment.' Such legal metaphors are not, howver, confined to Shakespeare: they are part of the stock-inade of Elizabethan sonneteers. Cp. Drayton's Idea, Sonnet II. My heart was slain, and none but you and I"); R. Barnes, arthenophil and Parthenophe, 1593, Madrigal II.; Zepheria, inzon xx. and xXXVIII., 1594 (Arber's English Garner, Vol. V., 82).

5. honey. Shakespeare uses both 'honey' and 'honeyed' as jectives. Cp. Julius Caesar, II. i., "the honey-heavy dew of umber"; Titus Andronicus, II. v., "Coming and going with thy mey breath"; Henry V., I. i. 50, "to steal his sweet and ›neyed sentences."

6. wreckful. The early editions of the Sonnets give wrackful. 5. Macbeth, v. v. 51, "Blow wind! come wrack! At least we'll e with harness on our back"; and Milton, Paradise Lost, VI. 0,"And now all heaven Had gone to wrack, with ruin erspread."

It is hard to say which is finer in this line-the splendid vividess of the imagery or the perfect echo which the sound gives to e sense each metrical beat is like the heavy thud of a ttering-ram.

10. Time's chest. "In which he is figuratively supposed to y up past treasures. So in Troilus and Cressida, III. iii., Time hath a wallet at his back,' etc. In the Arcadia, chest is

aders hardly worthy of the rest of this magnificent sonne is, however, thoroughly Elizabethan. Cp. Sir P. Sidney: "When Nature made her chief work-Stella's eyes, In colour black why wrapt she beams so bright?'

7. Come live with me and be my


A FINE example of the high-wrought and conventional Eliz than Pastoralism, which it would be unreasonable to critici the ground of th. unshepherd-like or unreal character me images suggested" (F.T.P.).

Four stanzas of this poem (the first three and the fifth gether with one stanza of "Love's Answer," appeared in 7 ssionate Pilgrim, 1599, a miscellany of poetical pieces rak gether from various sources, and all ascribed on the title-pa Shakespeare, doubtless without his consent. In Englan elicon, 1600, a collection of lyrical and pastoral poems (1 inted by Mr. A. H. Bullen) the full poem, with the excepti stanza 6, is given, with the signature "Chr. Marlow." It lowed by The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd and Another same nature made since. In the 1600 edition, according . Bullen, the Nymph's Reply was originally subscrib S. W. R." (i.e. Sir Walter Raleigh), but over these initia the extant copies is pasted a slip on which is printed Ignoto. The poem and the reply have gained additional fame a erest from Izaak Walton's inclusion of them in the Comple gler, 1653: "As I left this place and entered into the ne d, a second pleasure entertained me. 'Twas a handso kmaid, that had not yet attained so much age and wisdo to load her mind with any fears of many things that w er be, as too many men too often do but she cast away e, and sung like a nightingale: her voice was good, and t ty fitted for it: it was that smooth song which was made Marlowe, now at least fifty years ago: and the milkmai ther sung an answer to it, which was made by Sir Walt eigh in his younger days."

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The sixth stanza, with the corresponding verse in the reply, t found in the second edition of the Compleat Angl lton may have written it himself, but more probably to rom some broad-sheet. Raleigh's Reply will be found nch's Household Book of English Poetry and in the Gold пр.

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8. madrigals, from Italian madrigale, properly a particula ind of unaccompanied part-song, the words being a shor pastoral poem, e.g. No. 9; then used loosely for a glee or part ong (Stanford).

11. kirtle, a gown or petticoat. The word is used by Chaucer nd by Keats in G. T., CCCXVIII. 87.

8. Fain would I change that note

THIS beautiful lyric is one of several recovered from the very are Elizabethan song-books for the publication of which our hanks are due to Mr. A. H. Bullen (1887, 1888)" (F.T.P.). The yric, which stands first in the 1897 edition of Mr. A. H. Bullen's yrics from Elizabethan Song-books, was found in Captain Tobias Hume's The First Part of Airs, French, Polish, and other ogether, 1605.

Metre.-Iambic : three feet in each line, except the 7th and 10th n each stanza, which have only two. An extra short syllable ives a trochaic ending to the second and fourth lines of each tanza, and also to 1. 17, 20.

6. sum. Cp. Shakespeare in No. 17. 12, "all thy sum of -ood."

12. Cp. Tennyson, Elaine's song in Idylls of the King:

"Love, art thou sweet? then bitter death must be.
Love, thou art bitter; sweet is death to me.
O Love, if death be sweeter, let me die."

9. Crabbed Age and Youth

"ROM The Passionate Pilgrim (see introductory note to No. 7). here is no real evidence as to the authorship, but in the absence f other claimants it is generally attributed to Shakespeare. It s a charming example of light-hearted Elizabethan pastoral, as resh to-day as when it was written, so that we think of the inger not as one who died three hundred years ago, but as a happy melodist, unwearied, For ever piping songs for ever


Metre.-Trochaic lines of irregular length. The first word,
Crabbed," is to be read as a dissyllable.
The lines are mostly
f three feet, the last foot often shortened to a single long

vllable Four lines have four accents instead of three

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later use there is association with the fruit [the wild apple] ing the notion of 'sour-tempered, morose, peevish, harsh' E.D.). The expression crabbed age is quoted in N.E.D. from ly's Euphues (1579) and Weever's Mirror (1601).

. brave, finely dressed. See note on 'outbraves,' No. 43. 12 0. stay'st, delayest.

10. Under the greenwood tree

OM As You Like It, II. v. Sung by Amiens and othe rtiers of the banished Duke, the song breathes their deligh the open-air life of the forest of Arden. Jaques, who ca ck melancholy out of a song as a weasel sucks eggs," respond h a stanza to the same tune:

"If it do come to pass

That any man turn ass,
Leaving his wealth and ease
A stubborn will to please,
Ducdame, ducdame, ducdame:
Here shall he see

Gross fools as he,

An if he will come to me."

o. 56, "Blow, blow, thou winter wind," is another ens' songs in the same play.

etre.-The feet are iambic, except in the fifth line of th za, where we have a foot not often used in English verse, th hibrachys,

1. Cp. Pandora's speech in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon i. (quoted by Prof. Baker):

"Wilt thou for my sake go into yon grove,

And we will sing unto the wild bird's note."

greenwood. This compound (cp. 'greensward') occurs a as Chaucer. Sir W. Scott uses it as an archaism in h d of The Outlaw, "To keep the King's greenwood," G. T I. 28.

. With the sentiment cp. No. 56, "Blow, blow, thou winte

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Cp. Matthew Arnold, Empedocles on Etna:

"Is it so small a thing

To have enjoyed the sun,

To have lived light in the spring,


loved to have thought

to have dona ""

11. It was a lover and his lass

SUNG by two Pages in As You Like It, v. iii. "This son seems to have become immediately popular. It was embodie within a few months, at latest, of the appearance of the play, i Thomas Morley's First Book of Ayres (1600). It is doubtles Shakespeare's own, being apparently suggested, however, by th song sung by Lodge's Corydon at the wedding feast-a les dainty but not unskilful handling of the same motive (Pro Herford). Lodge's song, "A blyth and bonny country lasse, will be found in A. H. Bullen's Lyrics from the Elizabetha Dramatists.

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We may contrast the tone of another corn-field lyricTennyson's "As thro' the land at eve we went, And pluck' the ripen'd ears." Both are love-lyrics, but the one reflect the temper of Spring, the other the temper of Autumn-th tears that "gather to the eyes In looking on the happy Autumn fields, And thinking of the days that are no more. The first, i may also be said, reflects the temper of the sixteenth, and th second the temper of the nineteenth century (see also th introductory note to No. 1).

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Metre.--Iambic. But the refrain (1. 2) is anapaestic, and i lines 4 and 14, with the rhyme in the middle of the line, th metre is quite lawless.

2. hey nonino. This and similar nonsensical refrains t accompany the music are very common in Elizabethan songs Cp. Nos. 20 and 75.

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4. ring time. Cp. No. 1. 2, "then maids dance in a ring.” 11. Cp. the second stanza of No. 35; Herrick's "Gather y rosebuds while ye may (G. T., CVIII.) ; and a song, "Lov in thy youth, fair maid, be wise," given in Lyrics from Eliza bethan Song-books and in The Golden Pomp. "Take the presen time" is a favourite motto with the Latin poets-Carpe diem.

12. Absence, hear thou this protestation

JOHN DONNE was born in London, 1573; his mother is said t have been a descendant of Sir T. More. As a young man h travelled in Italy and Spain. He took orders in 1615, was mad a royal chaplain by James I., and in 1621 became Dean of St Paul's. He was the most famous preacher of his day, and die in 1631, with a reputation for saintliness. His poems, which

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