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best interpreters, first of themselves, and then of each other.
With these words the Editor reluctantly bids adieu to a task that has brought him more delight than he can dare to hope he will give to any of his readers. Only one pleasant duty remains-that of again thanking Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave for giving permission (in the absence from England of Mr. Frank Palgrave) to annotate the volume, and for his kindness in reading the proofs and making suggestions. This latter service has also been rendered once more by the Editor's friend and colleague, Mr. S. T. Irwin. For the Index of Words the Editor is indebted to his wife. Finally, gratitude is due to the printers for their admirable accuracy and promptitude.
J. H. FOWLER.
The following list of books may be found useful :Courthope, Prof. W. J.-History of English Poetry. Vols. 2, 3, 4.
Saintsbury, Prof. G.-Elizabethan Literature. (Macmillan.)
Symonds, J. A.-Shakespere's Predecessors in the English Drama. (Smith, Elder & Co.)
Seccombe and Allen-Age of Shakespeare. Vol. 1. (G. Bell & Sons.) Ward's English Poets. Vol. 1. (Macmillan.)
Abbott, Dr. E. A.-Shakespearian Grammar. (Macmillan.)
Quiller Couch, A. T.-The Golden Pomp: English Lyrics from Surrey to Shirley. (Methuen.)
Bullen, A. H.-Lyrics from Elizabethan Song-books. (Lawrence & Bullen.)
Bullen, A. H.-Lyrics from Elizabethan Dramatists. (Lawrence &
Bullen, A. H.-England's Helicon. (Lawrence & Bullen.)
PREFACE TO THE GOLDEN TREASURY
THIS little Collection differs, it is believed, from others in the attempt made to include in it all the best original Lyrical pieces and Songs in our language (save a very few regretfully omitted on account of length), by writers not living,—and none beside the best. Many familiar verses will hence be met with; many also which should be familiar:-the Editor will regard as his fittest readers those who love Poetry so well that he can offer them nothing not already known and valued.
The Editor is acquainted with no strict and exhaustive definition of Lyrical Poetry; but he has found the task of practical decision increase in clearness and in facility as he advanced with the work, whilst keeping in view a few simple principles. Lyrical has been here held essentially to imply that each Poem shall turn on some single thought, feeling, or situation. In accordance with this, narrative, descriptive, and didactic poems,-unless accompanied by rapidity of movement, brevity, and the colouring of human passion,-have been excluded. Humorous poetry, except in the very unfrequent instances where a truly poetical tone pervades the whole, with what is strictly personal, occasional, and religious, has been considered foreign to the idea of the book. Blank verse and the ten-syllable couplet, with all pieces markedly
dramatic, have been rejected as alien from what is commonly understood by Song, and rarely conforming to Lyrical conditions in treatment. But it is not anticipated, nor is it possible, that all readers shall think the line accurately drawn. Some poems, as Gray's Elegy, the Allegro and Penseroso, Wordsworth's Ruth or Campbell's Lord Ullin, might be claimed with perhaps equal justice for a narrative or descriptive selection : whilst with reference especially to Ballads and Sonnets, the Editor can only state that he has taken his utmost pains to decide without caprice or partiality.
This also is all he can plead in regard to a point even more liable to question;-what degree of merit should give rank among the Best. That a poem shall be worthy of the writer's genius,-that it shall reach a perfection commensurate with its aim,-that we should require finish in proportion to brevity,-that passion, colour, and originality cannot atone for serious imperfections in clearness, unity or truth,-that a few good lines do not make a good poem-that popular estimate is serviceable as a guidepost more than as a compass,-above all, that excellence should be looked for rather in the whole than in the parts,-such and other such canons have been always steadily regarded. He may however add that the pieces chosen, and a far larger number rejected, have been carefully and repeatedly considered; and that he has been aided throughout by two friends of independent and exercised judgment, besides the distinguished person1 addressed in the Dedication. It is hoped that by this procedure the volume has been freed from that onesidedness which must beset individual decisions,--but for the final choice the Editor is alone responsible. Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate.
Chalmers' vast collection, with the whole works of all accessible poets not contained in it, and the best Anthologies of different periods, have been twice systematically read through; and it is hence improbable that any omissions which may be regretted are due to oversight. The poems are printed entire, except in a very few instances where a stanza or passage has been omitted. These omissions have been risked only when the piece could be thus brought to a closer lyrical unity; and, as essentially opposed to this unity, extracts, obviously such, are excluded. In regard to the text, the purpose of the book has appeared to justify the choice of the most poetical version, wherever more than one exists; and much labour has been given to present each poem, in disposition, spelling, and punctuation, to the greatest advantage.
In the arrangement, the most poetically-effective order has been attempted. The English mind has passed through phases of thought and cultivation so various and so opposed during these three centuries of Poetry, that a rapid passage between old and new, like rapid alteration of the eye's focus in looking at the landscape, will always be wearisome and hurtful to the sense of Beauty. The poems have been therefore distributed into Books corresponding, I. to the ninety years closing about 1616, II. thence to 1700, III. to 1800, IV. to the half century just ended. Or, looking at the Poets who more or less give each portion its distinctive character, they might be called the Books of Shakespeare, Milton, Gray, and Wordsworth. The volume, in this respect, so far as the limitations of its range allow, accurately reflects the natural growth and evolution of our Poetry. A rigidly
chronological sequence, however, rather fits a collection aiming at instruction than at pleasure, and the wisdom which comes through pleasure within each book the pieces have therefore been arranged in gradations of feeling or subject. And it is hoped that the contents of this Anthology will thus be found to present a certain unity as "episodes," in the noble language of Shelley, "to that great Poem which all poets, like the co-operating thoughts of one great mind, have built up since the beginning of the world."
As he closes his long survey, the Editor trusts he may add without egotism, that he has found the vague general verdict of popular Fame more just than those have thought, who with too severe a criticism, would confine judgments on Poetry to "the selected few of many generations." Not many appear to have gained reputation without some gift or performance that, in due degree, deserved it and if no verses by certain writers who show less strength than sweetness, or more thought than mastery of expression, are printed in this volume, it should not be imagined that they have been excluded without much hesitation and regret,-far less that they have been slighted. Throughout this vast and pathetic array of Singers now silent, few have been honoured with the name Poet, and have not possessed a skill in words, a sympathy with beauty, a tenderness of feeling, or seriousness in reflection, which render their works, although never perhaps attaining that loftier and finer excellence here required,-better worth reading than much of what fills the scanty hours that most men spare for self-improvement, or for pleasure in any of its more elevated and permanent forms.—And if this be true of