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THE FIELD OF ART
PUTTING ART TO WORK FOR THE MASSES to take this step and even to-day stands
"HE democratizing of art by relating alone in this respect. The commission has
its creative powers to the develop- undertaken the task of showing the com
ment of the natural resources of the mon people that art has a dollar-and-cents state is comparatively a new movement for value, and is extremely democratic, dethis country, though in Europe art has been spite misleading appearances. Its sphere a popular, democratic institution, enjoyed of influence has been extended beyond that alike by poor and rich for generations. of creating fine canvases and statuary to Americans have poured hundreds of mil- the development of industries having in lions of dollars of their money into the them latent art possibilities. pockets of European tradesmen in order Seventy-five per cent of the State's poputhat they, too, might participate in the lation is of Old World descent. Most of enjoyment of this far-reaching utilization these people found themselves unable to of art. Now comes an American State with compete with machine-made articles, despite a well-defined programme for the adapta- their superior ability in craftsmanship, and tion of art to the work of developing its have allowed their art instinct to be crowded industries and natural resources, which in out by attempting to adapt themselves to time will add many millions to the wealth the competition of American machinery. of the people.
This accounts in no small way for the huge Rich in the art heritage which has come to sums Americans have been spending annuit from the Old World through the medium ally for goods bearing such trade-marks as of its alien citizens, Minnesota is harnessing “Made in Germany,” “Made in Belgium,” art for the development of the common
or “Made in France," which are guarantees people. This is rather a difficult under- of beauty as well as serviceability. taking, due to the fact that the average Minnesota's greatest resource, in the American has looked upon art as the fad opinion of Maurice I. Flagg, director of the of the excessively rich, or a drawing-room State Art Commission, is her people, and profession, but Minnesota has made appre- the first work of the commission has been ciable progress in this new undertaking. devoted to the development of better ideals The coming of millions of immigrants from and an increased earning capacity among the art centres of the Old World has made the workers in the homes and factories. it possible for the United States to reap the Art has been harnessed and put to work benefit of a splendid foundation for such building more attractive farm homes, planwork, but failure to make use of this oppor- ning attractive lawns and yards for farmers tunity has permitted American industries and city residents, fostering infant industo remain in the background while European tries having in them great art possibilities, manufacturers have reaped the profits of making farm life more attractive for the commercial art. The sudden halt in the young people, and doing the thousand-andflow of European artisans to America has one things which Minnesotans have neggiven the nation an opportunity to take an lected heretofore. Nor has the struggling inventory of its resources in the ranks of artist been neglected, for it is Minnesota's the common people for the first time. aim to foster the fine as well as the com
Ten years ago Minnesota set out to prove mon arts. that art is related to the good of the masses The Minnesota manufacturer is being as well as the classes. It created a State shown how to utilize art in the developArt Commission, a bureau patterned on the ment of his business along broader lines. same lines as the State Bureau of Mines He is now adapting something of the beauty or any other department of State govern- of designs and patterns used in European ment. It was the first American State industries of the same character, improv
ing the working and living conditions of turer, thanks to the work of the art com-
beauty and quality, have to laugh if he
and the American pubwere told that art
lic has been willing to could help in growing
pay the price demandbetter and larger crops.
ed. We have had no The working man is
other choice because learning that quality
there has been little or as well as quantity are
no American competidemanded by his em
tion. Not only are we ployer, and that each
willing to pay the price, finished article he turns
but we insist on going out establishes his
abroad for the purpose standing as an artist.
of purchasing. In Flower-pots and shrub
1913 the citizens of bery are taking the
the United States paid places of the tin cans
four hundred millions and dumping spots in
of dollars for enjoying the back yards of the
the beauty side of Euworkers, and there has
rope.” been an increased de
The secret of the mand for paint among
success of the Euthis class of people in
ropean manufacturer an effort to beautify
of china ware is exand improve their
plained in a recent homes. Fatter pay
trade report, which envelopes have been
says that the American the result in every
manufacturer cannot factory where art has been put to work by compete at the present time with the foreign employer and employee.
trade-mark. The American product lacks The incorporation of art into the work of quality, says this report, because we do not the manufacturing plants and industries of have the right kind of clay and do not put America will in time serve to wean the av- beauty into our designs. erage American away from the shopping Americans are apt to boast of the imcounters of Europe to his own stores and mensity of their wheat and corn crops, but shops, as he will find that he can obtain the only a few years ago the value of the insame beauty and quality for which he has dustrial art products of France exceeded been going to Europe to pay the foreign that of a bumper American wheat crop. merchant fancy prices. When that time Having been awakened somewhat by the comes the trade-mark “Made in America” European war, the American manufacturer will have attained something more of world- has been entertaining a vision of a better wide significance, inasmuch as it will have and wider market for his products. He has opened new markets and channels of trade begun to realize that he must begin to study which have been swamped with European the art side of his business if he is to engoods. The vision of an American trade- gage in the commercial scramble into which mark with other distinguishing marks than the starved European industries will plunge the sign of the dollar is one which is begin- at the end of the war. The love of beauty ning to appeal to the far-sighted manufac- —whether it be on canvas, in woman, or
in the manufactured article—is inherent in thousands of women who came from Vienna
At some time not far distant Minnesota ceries and other supplies, receiving only
art as the medium.
rector Flagg promised the aid of the State tion for a campaign to encourage the build-
interest citizens living in villages and subur-
and his own sons and daughters more conMinnesotans have been shown other prac- tent to remain on the farm, and all were tical ways in which art can be put to work more willing workers. And the discovery for the public good. Four years ago the that two ears of corn were growing where commission inaugurated a contest for the one grew before is the surest evidence that best design for a rural home to cost no more art is coming into its own, on the farm, at than three thousand five hundred dollars least. And there is the place where it has complete, hoping thereby to lay the founda- been most needed. O. R. GEYER.
BY ALEXANDER DANA NOYES IN the rapidly moving panorama of the and after the loan subscription, declined no less than the startling diversity of the extremely weak, though prices events themselves, diverts public in- of many stocks had already Why Stocks terest with great suddenness from one fallen to the lowest figures in Declined
quarter to another—the de- a decade. The Italian déThe Great feat of Cadorna on the Aus- bâcle naturally emphasized the downSuccess of Our Second trian front
almost ward movement, but it began before War Loan exactly at the moment of Mackensen had attacked Cadorna. the immensely
successful As the traditional index to an ecosubscription to our second War Loan. nomic situation the fall on the Stock These two occurrences might seem at Exchange excited wide discussion. Prifirst glance to be singularly unrelated. marily, there was no doubt that the Yet at least one motive for the concen- movement was occasioned by sale of trated attack of the Central Powers on stocks, by investors as well as speculathe Italian army was knowledge that tors, in connection with the war taxation. the full resources of the United States The very heavy taxes on rich individuals would presently be engaged on the side of and prosperous corporations made it on its allies. If the Italian disaster showed the one hand prudent for some large the need of the unreserved employment capitalists to convert a part of their inof those resources, so the response to vestments into cash, and on the other the war-loan offering showed our own hand—as with the $122,000,000 set people's mood in regard to the providing aside by the United States Steel Corporaof those resources.
tion out of six months' earnings, to proThe second Liberty Loan, for which vide for the “excess profits tax”—they only $3,000,000,000 had been expressly diminished the surplus of such comsolicited by the Treasury, witnessed an panies available for dividends. Neither oversubscription more remarkable, from result was in any sense disastrous, but every point of view, than that of the both created pressure on the Stock $2,000,000,000 loan of June. In the Exchange. vigor and enthusiasm of the campaign for the general public's subscription, as IN
IN these respects the stock-market well as in the actual results, this great movement merely reflected the conoperation stands out already as a land- ditions known to every one beforehand mark in our financial history. It was and arising from the programme of war evidence both of our people's capacity expenditure adopted by our government. to finance the war and of their willing- The favorite estimate of $21,ness to do so. It is possible that not less 390,730,000 for actual ex- Influence of
Our War than 10,000,000 separate subscribers par- penditure in the fiscal year
Expenditicipated in this remarkable demonstra- ending with next June was tures and tion, as against the 7,000,000 of the last an exaggeration. A sub- Taxes British war loan, the previous high record. stantial part of this was
made up of authorized disbursements for T was a noteworthy incident, and per- purposes which could not possibly be
plexing to some observers, that the performed in a single year, and an even New York stock-market, both during larger part consisted of loans to be made