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sissippi, Ohio and Missouri. 5th. was merely relinquishing a perA Bill for making a road in Mis- sonal preference under the pressouri. 6th. A Bill to subscribe sure of circumstances, and the to the stock in the Chesapeake election of General Jackson, equaland Delaware Canal Company. ly with that of Mr Adams, would 7th. A Bill to extend the then have been regarded as a Cumberland road to Zanesville. pledge to the country of the conSth. A Bill authorizing a subscrip- tinuance of the policy of the pretion to the Portland and Louis- ceding adıninistration. Mr Clay's ville Canal Company. On the principles were similar; but from passage of all these bills, General the ardor of his character, his Jackson's name was recorded in fearless disregard of consequenthe affirmative ; and his vote in fa- ces and his avowed opinions in vor of the tariff of 1824, a tariff behalf of the American System, which was founded on the princi- . and on the subject of South ple of protection, afforded suffi- American independence, apprecient evidence that his opinions hensions were entertained that he accorded rather with those of Mr would not sacrifice enough to exAdams, Clay and Calhoun, than pediency, but would follow those with those of the supporters of opinions out to their legitimate Mr Crawford.
consequences. Hence it was obIn the presidential contest of vious that no sacrifice of principle 1824, therefore, the friends of the was involved in the support, inSecretary of the Treasury stood differently, of any of these canalone in the attitude of opposition didates who stood on a common to the established policy of the ground of policy. Mr Crawford country. The supporters of the alone was supported upon oppoother candidates indeed had their site principles, and as it was manipersonal preferences, but in point fest that in such a contest his of principle there was no essen-' weakness would be evinced, an tial difference between them. At attempt was made to represent an early period of the canvass the him as the only orthodox repubSecretary of War (Mr Calhoun) lican candidate, and to nominate was withdrawn by his friends in him as such to the suffrages of the Pennsylvania, who, yielding to nation through a caucus of the the popular feeling of the State, members of Congress assembled fell in to the support of General at Washington. The attempt toJackson. This example was fol- tally failed. It was regarded by lowed by his adherents throughout a great majority of the people as the Union, with some few excep- an unauthorized interference with tions, and they mainly contributed their constitutional privileges, and to the sudden and rapid augmen- it terminated in the caucus cantation of the strength of General didate's being brought by the votes Jackson during that canvass. of Virginia and Georgia and a
In this transfer of support, bow- few scattered votes from New ever, no sacrifice of principle was York and Delaware, into the supposed to have been made. It House of Representatives as the
lowest of the three candidates, sections of the opposition. This from which the President was to discordance in its materials prebe chosen. Here the choice fell vented any harmonious concert of upon Mr Adams, and from the action at the first session of the moment of his election the parti- nineteenth Congress; but during zans of the unsuccessful candi- the vacation and the succeeding dates united in opposition, either session, great efforts were made avowed or secret, to bis adminis- to promote a closer union between tration. Those who had origi- the different sections of the opponally advocated the claims of sition, and before the adjournment General Jackson found a sufficient it had assumed a consistent shape. motive to opposition in the defeat The first public intimation of this of their favorite, whose election union was given by a leading opthey asserted was demanded by position member from Virginia, the people. That reason howeve who shortly before the close of er could not be urged by the the second session of the 19th friends of the caucus candidate, Congress, announced, that the wlio had been zealously sustained combinations for effecting the to the last, in spite of ill healih, election of General Jackson were although the result in the electoral rearly completed. Shortly becolleges had demonstrated that fore this public declaration, an he had but a slight hold upon the intimation almost equally distinct public favor. Indeed the entire of future opposition, was given by failure of this party in their elec- one of the most prominent leadtion plainly indicated the unpopu- ers of the caucus party in a letJarity of its political creed, and atter to the Legislature of New the commencement of Mr Ad- York, expressing his acknowim' administration it held itself ledgments for his re-election to aloof and apparently uncommitted the federal Senate. In this letter as to its future course. The can- he promises zealously to exert didate who was boldly taken up himself to protect the remaining as the opposition candidate, bad rights reserved to the States and evinced as latitudinarian senti- to restore those of which they ments concerning the powers of had been divested by construcCongress as his successful rival, tion. and to come in to his support Other indications, which could would be to abjure those political not be mistaken, were given of doctrines which were deemed so the intention of the caucus party essential to the independence of to join the opposition, and that one the States.
of the main grounds of opposiThe political principles of the tion would be, that certain powers party already organized, therefore, which the Federal Government were as heterodox as those of the had habitually exercised were existing Cabinet, and any combi- unauthorized by the Constitution nation which might take place and that they ought no longer must be founded upon the sacri- to be submitted to. It had been fice of principle by one of the a favorite doctrine of the Virginia
school of politics, that the powers could be equally zealous, either of the General Government had relying upon a more intimate acbeen extended beyond their con- quaintance with his opinions, or stitutional limits, and the dispute upon those measures which his between the federal authorities character as a candidate, sustained and those of Georgia in relation upon the principle of reform, to the Creek treaty, had rendered should compel him to adopt in it convenient for that State to con- case of success. But after his tend most earnestly for the same inauguration he must decide beconstruction of the Constitution. tween these conflicting pretenA most intimate connexion had sions, and this decision would been cultivated between the politi- compel those to whom that decicians of this school and the lead-sion should prove unpalatable to ing supporters of Mr Crawford in decide in their turn between New York, who inclined to the the abandonment of their politsarne construction of the Consti- ical party or their principles. tution, and who were not much This very position properly viewbehind their southern coadjutors ed was but - another of the fortuin declaring their determination to nate circumstances in which the favor the election of General successful competitor for the Chief Jackson. This determination of Magistracy found himself placed the opposition to combine in his at the time of his elevation. support, induced much specula- Chosen by an unparalleled mation as to the nature of the pledges, jority of the electoral votes, he which were said to have been owed his success to his own popugiven as to his political course, and larity. Generally sanctioning the it was boldly predicted, that an policy under which our naopposition so constituted, could tional institutions had been built not continue united after the go- up, he was at liberty to review! vernment should fall into its hands, his opinions and to establish them without a complete sacrifice of upon incontrovertible and immupriuciple by one of the sections table grounds. His administra of the combined party.
tion was not bound to persist in The President would of course any particular measures which be compelled to adopt the literal experience had proved to be inconstruction of the Constitution expedient; but claiming as it did or to pursue the policy marked to be constituted upon the basis out by his predecessors. During of reform, it was able to modify the pendency of the election, the the existing policy, and to carry public might be left in doubt. out its principles under all the Such as were inclined to promote advantages offered by the lights his elevation in the north and of experience and the developwest could justify their preference, ment of public opinion. Equally by appealing to bis votes when uncommitted was he respecting in the Senate in favor of the the parties, which had formerly Tariff and Internal improvement, distracted the country. His adwhile his supporters in the South vice to Mr Monroe in 1816 to
discard all party feelings, and to to their service and their good. remember, ihat as Chief Magis- As the instrument of the Fedetrate he acted for the whole, and ral Constitution, it will devolve on not for a part of the community, me, for a stated period, to execute
sentiments which did equal the laws of the United States; honor to his head and his heart, to superintend their foreign and and which he reiterated as bis their confederate relations; to settled opinion in 1824, left him manage their revenue; to comfree to call to his councils the mand their forces; and, by ablest and most virtuous men of communications to the Legislathe nation, without regard to the ture, to watch over, and to proparty denominations by which they mote their interests generally: had been previously distinguished. And the principles of action by Under these fortunate circum- which I shall endeavor to accomstances General Jackson assumed plish this circle of duties, it is the Executive Government on the now proper for me briefly to exfourth of March, 1829, with a plain. surplus of more than five millions Ir administering the laws of of dollars in the national treasury, Congress, I shall keep steadily in the country respected abroad, at view the limitations as well as the peace with all the world, and in extent of the Executive power, a state of unexampled and pro- trusting thereby to discharge the gressive domestic prosperity. functions of my office, without
After taking the oath of office transcending its authority. With he delivered according to the foreign nations it will be my study custom of his predecessors an
to preserve peace, and to cultivate inaugural address setting forth the friendship, on fair and honorable principles upon which he intended terms; and in the adjustment of 10 administer the government. any differences that may exist or That address is as follows: arise, to cxhibit the forbcarance
becoming a powerful nation, rath• Fellow CITIZENS : About to er than the sensibility belonging to undertake the arduous duties that a gallant people. I have been appointed to perform, • In such measures as I may be by the choice of a free people, I called on to pursuc, in regard to avail myself of this customary the rights of the separate States, and solemn occasion to express I hope to be animated by a prothe gratitude which their confi- per respect for those sovereign dence inspires, and to acknow- members of our Union ; taking ledge the accountability which my care not to confound the powers situation enjoins. While the mag- they have reserved to themselves nitude of their interests convinces with those they have granted to me that no thanks can be adequate the confederacy. to the honor they have conferred, • The management of the public it admonishes me that the best revenue — that searching operareturn I can make, is the zealous tion in all Governments is dedication of my humble abilities among the most delicate and im
portant trusts in ours; and it Considering standing armies as will, of course, demand no in- dangerous to free governments, considerable share of my official in time of peace, I shall not seek solicitude. Under every aspect to enlarge our present establishin which it can be considered, it ment, nor disregard that salutary would appear that advantage must lesson of political experience, result from the observance of a which teaches that the military strict and faithful economy. This should be held subordinate to the I shall aim at the more anxiously, civil power. The gradual inboth because it will facilitate the crease of our Navy, whose flag extinguishment of the National has displayed, in distant climes, · Debt — the unnecessary duration our skill in navigation, and our of which is incompatible with real fame in arms; ihe preservation independence- and because it of our forts, arsenals, and dock will counteract that tendency to yards, and the introduction of public and private profligacy progressive improvements in the which a profuse expenditure of discipline and science of both money by the Government is but branches of our military service, too apt to engender. Powerful are so plainly prescribed by pruauxiliaries to the attainment of dence, that I should be excused this desirable end, are to be found for omitting their mention, sooner in the regulations provided by the than for enlarging on their imporwisdom of Congress, for the spe- tance. But the bulwark of our cific appropriation of public money desence is the national militia, and the prompt accountability of which, in the present state of our public officers.
intelligence and population, must • With regard to aproper selec- render us invincible. As long as tion of the subjects of impost, our government is adninistered with a view to revenue, is would for the good of the people, and seem to me that the spirit of equi- is regulated by their will; as long ty, caution, and compromise, in as it secures to us the rights of which the Constitution was form- person and of property, liberty of ed, requires that the great inter- conscience, and of the press, it ests of agriculture, commerce, will be worth defending; and so and manufactures, should be long as it is worth defending, a equally favored; and that, per- patriotic militia will cover it with haps, the only exception to this an impenetrable agis. Partial rule should consist in the peculiar injuries, and occasional mortificaencouragement of any products tions, we may be subjected to, but of either of them that may be
a million of armed freemen, posfound essential to our national in- sessed of the means of war, can dependence.
never be conquered by a foreign Internal Improvement, and the foe. To any just system, therediffusion of knowledge, so far as fore, calculated to strengthen this they can be promoted by the natural safeguard of the country, constitutional acts of the Federal I shall cheersully lend all the aid Government, are of high impor- in my power. tance.
• It will be my sincere and con