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to repeal or diminish the duties on the goods, and to prevent frauds on various articles of general con- or false valuations by foreign partsumption.
'ners or agents of the resident imThis hostility to the tariff had porters. The bill received its been manifested early in the 1st and 2d readings and then session by many of the friends of remained on the table until the the administration; but an equally 15th of April, when, after disposstrong feeling of dissatisfaction ing of some preliminary business with the existing law, on the in the Committee of the whole ground of its inadequate protec- house, Mr Mallary moved, that tion to the woollen manufacturer, the Committee take up the bill had induced the friends of the amending the tariff, which was policy to bring forward the sub- carried. ject with the view of obtaining a The bill having been read modification of the law more through favorable to their interests, and to Mr Mallary explained that the prevent the frauds, which were object of the bill being merely to alleged to be daily practised on the give effect to the Tariff Bill of revenue.
1828, it involved no principle A bill was accordingly reported which was likely to distract the in the House of Representatives opinions of the House, as he preby Mr Mallary, chairman of the sumed that all would unite in givcommittee on manufactures, on the ing force to an existing law. 27th of Jan., 1830, to regulate He then proceeded to show in the eatry of woollen importations. what manner the law of 1828 This bill provided, that a sworn
had been violated, and to point copy of the invoice of manufac- out the efficacy of the remedy tures, of which wool is a compo- proposed by the bill under connent part, should be delivered to sideration. On the policy of forthe collector and compared with eign countries in reference to the goods which were to be sent their trade, he made some reto the custom-house for the pur- marks, exonerating France, Holpose of comparison.
land, &c, from any attempts to Provision was also made for embarrass our trade. England the appraisement of the goods, adopting her new notions of free and for the forfeiture of thereof trade, has also adopted the imif the appraised value exceeded pression that it is almost doing the invoice price more than 10 per God service to put down our procent; } thereof if more than 15 tective policy. He stated what per cent; and for the forfeiture of were the regulations of the existthe whole, if more than 20 per ing law by which collectors of cent. A reappraisement could be the Custom Houses were governdemanded by the importer, or he ed. He showed that the cause of might appeal to the Secretary of the great frauds that had been the Treasury, and provision was committed, was to be found in the also made for forfeiture for alter- fact that the goods were not left in ing or counterfeiting the marks the possession of the collector, as
the law presumed that they would the power to prevent them. Here be, and that the only goods over he complimented the vigilance which he was able to exercise con and industry of the present Coltrol, were the packages in the Ap- lector in the highest terms. He praiser's Office. He read from a had done his duty as far as he private memorandum some opin- could, and the present bill would ions on the subject of the law. give that power which is required
Mr Cambreleng wished to to make his exertions effectual. know the authority to which he He stated, on the authority of an referred.
Appraiser, what was the practice Mr Mallary replied that the au- in the Appraising Department. thority was a good one.
Having gone through these Mr Drayton rose to order. statements, he inquired where
He wished to know if the gen- was the security which this law tleman from Vermont was not was to give to the revenue? It bound to give up his authority was alleged that the foreign manwhen asked for it.
ufacturer and agent are honest The Chair decided that Mr men, who are to be trusted. Yet Mallary was in order, and that it members of this House, it had was entirely at his discretion to been declared on this floor, could give or withhold his authority, not be trusted to calculate their
Mr Mallary then proceeded to own mileage: and the Speaker read the memorandum which he could not be permitted to appoint had commenced, together with a draughtsman. another which specifies the forms He took a view of the condiat the Custom House. One pack- tion of the importing business. age in twenty only is sent by the Before the war, there were about Appraiser, and the other nineteen fifty importing merchants in are distributed in all quarters, New York: now, there are not where they are beyond the reach more than five or six. At Bosof the Collector either for the pur- ton there were thirty or forty : pose of enforcing penalty or ascer- there are about seven. taining value.
There are about six or seven out He stated that goods which it of seventy in Philadelphia ; and was known would produce five they are in about the same ratio dollars in Boston, had passed the in Baltimore. Although there Custom House in New York un were formerly about 160 importder the dollar minimum.
ing merchants, he could only now As to the evasion of the reve make out about sixteen. The nanue, he referred to the message of ture of the importing business lias the President, and to the report also undergone great changes. of the Secretary of the Treasury, He admitted the influence which to show that they are such as re- auction sales had had in the corquire remedy. The Collector of ruption of trade, but contended New York also admitted that mon- that this corruption had been strous evasions of the revenue greatly increased by the successful have taken place : but he wanted frauds practised on the revenue.
On the subject of the individ- evils which had been proved to uals who are engaged in the im- exist. porting trade, he stated that many The subject was then postponed of these were foreigners, who for other business, until the 26th came here to carry on importa- of April, when upon motion of Mr tion, abuse our country, live two Mallary the house again went into or three in a garret, where they Committee of the whole, and remake out their invoices, write es- sumed the consideration ofthe bill. says on free trade, and having an Mr McDuffie replied to Mr swered the purposes for which Mallary, and commenced by saythey came, return home to enjoying, that the bill under considerathe profits of their labors. Thus tion was designed to enforce exthe fair and high reputation of the isting laws of the country, and American merchant had been un- effect a more faithful collection of dermined: but he hoped that the the duties on imports. This was day was at hand when this reputa- an object right and proper in ittion would be again placed on its self, and one which he was willonce elevated station.
ing to promote. He would be He stated, that from all the evi- always in favor of enforcing the dence he had seen, he was sa tis- faithful collection of the revenue, fied that in ten years there had even though he might object to been evasions of the revenue to the laws, by which it was levied. the amount of thirty millions, In this case, however, he would being an average of three millions attain the faithful collection of the a year, in consequence of the revenue by a mode different from fraudulent invoices of ad valorem that contemplated by the bill. He goods. He then referred to the would do it by diminishing the ceprogress which smuggling had ties, and thereby removing the made within a short time, on the inducement to evade the duties. frontier. From an investigation, With this view he moved to amend he had recently come to the the bill by striking out all of the inevitable conclusion, that great bill after the first section, and frauds were thus committed on inserting provisions reducing the the publie.
duties on woollen and cotton manAfter going through the general
the general ufactures, iron in bars and bolts, subject, he explained the details hemp flax, molasses, indigo, cotof the bill, as regards their char- ton bagging, to what they were acter and operation, obviating previous to the tariff of 1824; the objections which had been and that the duty on salt be remade against it. The Committee duced to 15 cents per bushel of had avoided the introduction of 56 pounds, from and after the any new principle, and had kept 30th of June next, and 10 cents as near the letter of the old law after June, 1831. as possible.
Mr McDuffie said that the He concluded with urging on course prescribed by his amendthe House the necessity of enact- ment, would afford the best secuing some remedies for the rity for the faithful collection of
the revenue. He expressed his
Mr Wilde then moved conviction that the present Tariff amendment, the effect of which system was not only destructive was to repeal the tariff of 1828, of our commerce, ruinous to our which was negatived 68 affirmacommercial marine, and oppres- tive, 120 negative. Mr Gorham sive on the Southern States, but then moved a reconsideration of also oppressive on the great mass the 2d amendment proposed by Mr of the community, even on the McDuffie relating to the duties manufacturing States themselves, on hemp, iron, Aour, molasses, where nine individuals are injured indigo and cotton manufactures. for the benefit of one. He then Mr Gorham said that he had voted went at great length into all the in good faith with the friends of arguments which have been from protection, against what was retime to time advanced against the garded as a general hostile moveTariff policy, and continued his ment against the tariff. His own argument on that question during original objections to the tariff the residue of that day and were known, and his reasons for also the 28th and 29th of April, refusing to repeal it after the syswhen the bill was again considered. tem had been established. He had The discussion being thus begun, now voted with the friends of the was continued in Committee on system, against any part of the the 3d, 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th, 10th, repeal proposed by the gentleman and 11th of May, when the bill from South Carolina, even on was reported to the House with those articles, iron, hemp, &c, on an amendment, which was in ef- which he most disliked to confect the substitution of a new bill, tinue the duty ; but as the decision haring, however, the same object of the House on the salt duty in view. This bill with some showed that it was willing to diunimportant amendments will be minish the duty on one article, it found among the Acts of Con- was necessary to re-open the subgress in the second part of this ject, and see whether it would not volume.* Upon the report being also modify the duty on other artiread, Mr McDuffie moved the cles equally deserving of reducamendments proposed by him in tion. He, therefore, had made Committee. The first, reducing this motion, and went on to susthe duties on woollen manufac- tain it by argument at consideratures, was negatived, 68 affirma- ble length. tive, 120 negative. The second re Mr Storrs, of N. Y. concurred lating to cotton, hemp, iron, mo- with Mr G. in his objections to lasses, &c, was negatived, 70 aff. the repeal of the salt duty, and 117 neg. and the third reducing in favor of his motion. The the duty on salt, to 15 cents per State of New York had been a bushel after September 1st, 1830, firm supporter of the protecting and 10 cents after September 1st, system, but let its friends repeal 1831, was carried, 120 affirmative, the salt duty, and thus touch one 83 negative.
great source of her canal fund,
* Vide 2d part, page 222
and force her to resort to a direct it possible to agree upon any bill tax to supply the loss, and gentle- upon this subject, he would, to men would find that State not make way for such a motion, going with them much longer in withdraw the motion he had made. supporting the other parts of the Mr Doddridge, of Virginia, Tariff.
having intimated a disposition to After some desultory debate make the motion suggested by the House adjourned to the next the member from Massachusetts, day, when Mr Gorham again Mr Gorham withdrew his motion, briefly explained his object in and Mr Doddridge moved to remaking the motion and asked what consider the vote upon M B rrinwould be the effect of now mov- ger's amendment for reducing the ing the previous question ? duty on Salt.
The Speaker said it would then Mr Wayne, of Georgia, asked bring back the House to the ques- whether it was the intention of tion of reconsideration.
the gentleman from Massachusetts Mr Gorbam then asked, that, to renew his motion if the pendsupposing he withdrew his motion ing motion was rejected. to reconsider, and then moved Mr Gorham declining to make the previous question, what would any pledge on that point be the effect ?
Mr Wayne, taking it for granted The Speaker said the effect that such was the intention of Mr would be to bring back the bill Gorham, made a decided speech before the House in its original against the course now proposed, shape, as reported by the Com- considering it as a mere proposimittee on Manufactures, exclud- tion, call it by what'name gentleing all the amendments made in men would, of bargain and sale Committee of the Whole.
against which he inveighed with Mr Gorham said, such was his considerable warmth and zeal. own view. He would therefore Mr Barringer, of North Carowithdraw his motion to reconsider, lina, deprecated a protracted deand move the previous question. bate on this question of recon
He considered the vote upon sideration, and expressed great the Salt Duty as breaking in upon regret that so much difficulty the present system of revenue, should exist in obtaining a reducinstead of regulating its collection, tion of the duty on this necessary which was the object of the orig- of life. He dwelt upon the course inal bill now under consideration of the State of North Carolina in He appealed to gentlemen whether reference to this duty and 10 the it was possible to pass any bill on Tariff generally, and made a very this subject at this Session, if the strong appeal to the magnanimity whole field of debate was thus and spirit of conciliation of memthrown open. Mr G. concluded bers from other States to grant by saying, that, under this view this little boon to a State which of the case, if any gentleman had heretofore asked for so little, would move to reconsider the vote and submitted so cheerfully to the upon the Salt Duty, so as to make laws regulating the duties on im.