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upon me.'

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glory, which is the glory of but the greater part prefer an Colombia. Dispose of the office elective and temporal Chief Maof President, which I respect- gistrate.' fully resign into your hands. From this day I am no more than It may be necessary with a view a citizen, armed to defend my to a full and complete understandcountry and ready to obey its laws. ing of the important events of this Discontinue my public remploy- year, to explain the character of ments forever. I make to you the Congress to which this mesa formal and solemn delivery of sage was addressed. The electhe supreme authority which the tions were undoubtedly free and national suffrages have conferred regular. The different parties ex

erted themselves as customary in

contested elections, in favor of their Besides the message of the Li- respective candidates; and the berator, there was presented to contest terminated in the choice Congress by his order, an exposi- of a large majority of ancient and tion relating to the different bran- well tried patriots, and among the ches of administration, and the most illustrious in Colombia. political circumstances of the Re- Among the deputies at large,

Bolivar had unquestionably a maThis document, signed by the jority, embracing therein a portion President of the council, 25th of of those, who were in favor of a January, 1830, after pointing out republican system of government, the evils which had afflicted the and who were unwilling to berepublic, contains the following lieve the Liberator other than extraordinary expressions. friendly to the system, which they

• During the last four years themselves were pledged to supthere have been discussions more port. The conduct of Bolivar at or less warm, more or less impar- this moment, when the mere extial, upon the form of government pression of his opinions in favor of suited to Colombians, and in the a republic, would bave prostrated multitude of writings, the opinions the hopes of the agitators and gone of almost all the citizens have far to have reconciled the feuds exbeen expressed.

isting throughout the country, was • All without exception bave vacillating and temporizing. He manifested their desire for the refused to continue in office, but establishment of a government, declined the expression of his which shall be the firmest founda- opinion as to the form of Constition of liberty, which shall secure tution they should adopt. It is individual rights, and preserve sa- certain, had it been his wish, Bocred the inviolability of property livar might have been elected of every kind. In regard to the President, but the deference of executive power alone, there are that portion of his friends, who differences of opinions. Some de- were attached to a liberal form of sire a Supreme Magistrate for life, government and who held the balothers an Hereditary Monarch, ance of power, would carry them

no further, and as he persisted in The Constitution was indeed his refusal to serve, they waited on obeyed, but a jealous distrust of another candidate. Meanwhile the government at Bogota, was the long smothered flame burst evinced even in the act of renderforth, and Venezuela, with Paez ing it obedience. at her head, declared herself in

This jealousy, like that which dependent of the Central Govern- exists in our own country, was ment at Bogota.

excited and fostered as well by We will here briefly trace the local parties as by the peculiar causes which led to this result. situation of the country.

From the year 1821, when the The two great branches of huConstitution of Colombia was first man industry, Manufactures and proclaimed, the municipality of Agriculture, were brought into Caraccas on taking the oath ob- direct collision. While the deserved, that that portion of the partments of the North were enrepublic had not been properly gaged in agricultural pursuits, represented in the formation of the labor and wealth of the South that compact, and repeated mani- were entirely devoted to manufestations of discontent were sub factures. sequently evinced by the inhabit

Instead of mutual assistance ants of Venezuela towards the and support, dependent as they government at Bogota, whieh ex

are upon each other, the same cited fears, that they would think petty jealousies, that have elseof separating from the rest of the where been exhibited between republic. In 1826, as we have these important branches of dobefore remarked in a previous mestic industry prevailed there volume of this work, a revolution to the fullest extent, and seemed broke out proclaiming the federal to widen the breach, which was form of government, and although already almost beyond repair. the Liberator was able at that The plan of the Bolivian contime to repress it, the fire of dis- federation reanimated the projects cord still burnt unnoticed. In the of the South and of Venezuela department of the South, and in favor of the federal system, and particularly in Quito (capital of was the immediate cause of the the department of the Equator) overthrow of the Constitution. they took the oath of allegiance The following letter, written by to the Constitution in 1822, after General Bolivar to General having freed themselves from the Herez, who was then living at Sparish sway, but expressed their Liina as a member of the Council unwillingness to be dependent on of State, having received his apa Central Government resident at pointment as such from the LibeBogota.

rator, served to encourage the From the first, they constantly hopes of the dissentients. insisted, that the Constitution had been formed without their

Dec. 4, 1826. concurrence, being at the time During the eight days that I of its promulgation under the have remained in Bogota, 1 have yoke of Spain.

been solely engaged in enforcing

upon the Vice President and Se- Captain Generalship of Venezuecretaries, the necessity of adopt- la followed the example. ing the plan of the confederacy The cause assigned was the of the six States, and I believe attempt on the part of the heads that the Vice President will sup- of the government to subject Veport it with all his influence. We nezuela to a monarch. have agreed not to reassemble the General Pedro B. Mendez in Congress, and to convoke a Grand a letter to General Bermudez Convention, when it will be easy published by him, makes use of to confirm the right of that which this strong expression. After in fact now exists. Venezuela is describing in studied language the in truth independent, and she will advantages of monarchy, he says, enter deeply into this plan, be- the principal question in New cause torn to pieces by warm Grenada is, as to the best means passions and by jarring interests, of carrying it into effect.' vacillating without a government, This disclosure was followed and full of misery as she is, she by a burst of indignation, which cannot but adopt it with pleasure. resounded throughout the repubAll the South anxiously desires it lic, and convinced the partisans and New Grenada cannot remain of the measure, of the difficult isolated between two States em nature of their undertaking to debracing its boundaries. This let- liver over the country into the ter, as

respects its politics, is also hands of a foreign monarch. A for General Santa Cruz and his representation signed by 1500 worthy ministers, to whom you citizens of Caraccas on the 24th will impart these suggestions, that Dec. 1829, was sent to General they may be prepared when Pe- Bolivar, informing him of their rez shall propose to Colombia the resolution, and concluding with confederation heretofore agreed these words on.

• The world will investigate the The Constitution being thus causes of the misfortunes, deaths, overthrown, various efforts were and horrors which will ensue, made to restore it, and the best and will not be deceived by the hopes of the people tested on the pretexts, by which they are Congress of 1830.

sought to be imputed to us. We These hopes however proved would leave open the graves of fallacious, the expectations from the victims, that our posterity may the Congress were destroyed by see the blood shed by their faththe plan of a monarchy before ers, and the wounds which they mentioned, and Venezuela, alarm- received from the hands of those ed at the prospect, declared a who wished to destroy their heroic separation.

patriotism. The 25th November, 1829, The news of the commotion Caraccas declared her separation in Venezuela and her separation from New Grenada, by disown- from the republic, having reached ing the authority of Bolivar, and Bogota, the question was at once all the provinces of the ancient presented to Congress; whether

force should be employed to central form of government. It compela submission to the central

was feared even before its adopgovernment, or conciliating mea- tion, that the Constitution would sures adopted. Bolivar proposed be shipwrecked on one of two to Congress on the 27th of Janua- shoals, either that it would be ry, 1830, to go personally to treat necessary to sustain it by force, in with Paez, on the boundary line order to insure its adoption by of Venezuela, in order to bring Venezuela, and expose the counhim over to the union; and to try to the horrors of civil war, or make his efforts of more avail, that it would fall through from the he recommended that Congress separation of Venezuela and the should by direct vote authorize

consequent want of the consent of him to undertake the mission all the States, necessary to its After a long debate, it was resolv- adoption. ed, to send to Venezuela commis The Government then existing sioners authorized to treat with at Bogota, sent a division under Paez, and instructed to present to the command of General O'Leary him and the towns under his con to the dividing line of Venezuela trol, the basis of the Constitution and New Grenada to prevent the framed for Colombia, according to progress of the revolution in that which, the Government was to be part of Colombia which encamped republican, popular, representa- in Pampluna, while the governtive, elective, alternative and re ment of Venezuela, fearing an at sponsible. General Antonio Jose tack, on their part sent another de Sucre, Jose Maria Estenes, column to the frontier of New Bishop of Santa Marta, and Grenada under the command of Francesco Aranda, members of General Santiago Marino which the same Congress, were named took up its quarters in Gaudalito. for this commission of peace, and On all sides, the dread of a civil it was believed, that Venezuela on war prevailed, the prospect of understanding the basis of the which was rendered the more ternew Constitution, would desist rible from the fact, that the defrom the undertaking of separa- partments of the South were inting herself from the republic and clined to follow the example of the formation of an independent Venezuela and to constitute themState.

selves into independent States. In the meantime the battalion A confederation was proposed of Boyaca raised the cry of liberty, by some as a means of harmonizdisowned the authority of the lib- ing local pretensions and preserverator, and being unable to sustaining the national integrity, but men itself against the forces in Magda- of influence in Bogota opposed it lena, set out for Maracaibo and and Congress rejected the mea put itself under the command of sures considering themselves as the new government of Venezuela. sembled in conformity with the

Congress meanwhile proceeded fundamental law, constituting in the discussion of the project of New Grenada and Venezuela into a Constitution, recognising the a central republic, and as therefore

invested with no other power than General Marino approached the that of remodelling the Constitu- Tachura (the river which sepation upon the basis of a central rates the territories of New GrenaGovernment.

da and Venezuela) and on the 21st A project was then proposed by of April the inhabitants of Cucuta some of the deputies, of district proclaimed themselves indepenassemblies of the departments, dent of the central government, with the power of deliberating in disavowed the authority of Boliall municipal matters and of pro- var, declared themselves infav or posing to the executive the Pre- of the federal system, and asked fects of their respective depart- the protection of Marino against ments : which project was adopted the body of troops then in Pamand incorporated into the Consti- pluna. tution.

This revolution occurred before But the agitation was great on the eyes of the Commissioners on all sides, and Venezuela still re- the part of the Congress, who mained unmoved. New proofs were then in Cucuta, having been of the inflexible resolution to sep- prohibited by an order from Paez, arate daily arrived at Bogota, and froin entering the territories of in nearly all the acts of its govern- Venezuela. ment and in the public papers, On the part of Venezuela, Mawas manifested an inveterate aver- rino, Ignacio Fernandez Peira sion to Bolivar, who they suppos- and M. Tobar were named as ed, was to obtain the command commissioners for the purpose of of the republic.

meeting the commissioners from Among the population of New Congress. Grenada itself, there was evinced They met in San Jose de Cumuch sympathy with the Venezue- cuta on the line of the Tachura, lians, and a repugnance to the em on the 18th of April, and accordployment of force to compel a sub- ing to the protocol of the confermission to the central government, ence published in the Gazette of and petitions were presented in Colombia, the official paper signed March to Congress from nearly as the only result of their meeting, all the towns of the puovinces Pa- the following propositions were payan, Pasto, Buoniaventuera, presented by the commissioners Choco, Neiva and Pampluna, on the part of Venezuela. praying that war might not be 1. That it be permitted to New declared against Venezuela and Grenada and the departments of that the Federal system or con the South to constitute themselves federative form of government freely and independently as Venemight be adopted to preserve zuela had done. the integrity of Colombia.

2. That Congress decide on In the province of — another the proper means to promote the revolution broke out on the 4th of foreign relations of the country April, disowning the general gov- and to preserve the public credit

, ernment and placing itself under until the representatives of the the protection of Venezuela.

different States should agree upon About the middle of April the the understanding to be establishdivision under the command of ed among them for the future.

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