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the enemy.

marched upon the city with the their unwillingness to submit to avowed intention of taking it by the authority of any government storm. The number of troops but that of Bolivar, whose recall remaining in the capital was but to the head of the republic, they 600, and of these nearly 400 de- stated to be the wish of the peoserted or fled at the approach of ple as well as of themselves. The

But two courses report of Urdaneta was confirmed were left to the President; eith- by Simenes the leader of the preer to give up the city to the hor- vailing party, and Mosquera was rors of an assault, or to submit to distinctly given to understand, that necessity, and capitulate at once. nothing short of the reassumption He determined upon the latter, of supreme power by the Liberaand appointed commissioners to tor, would satisfy them. On the treat with the insurgents for such same day, Mosquera, finding that terms of surrender as should se no alternative was left to him, recure to the citizens their lives and signed; and General Urdaneta property. On the 28th, the con was appointed temporary Presiquerors entered the city without dent, until the arrival of Bolivar, committing any excess,

excess, and whose recall to power was decreed Mosquera, looking upon their suc- by a meeting of some of the solcess as the triumph of a military diers and citizens. faction, with which the civil pow On the 7th of September, Urer of the state was unable to con daneta wrote to Bolivar, informtend, assembled the council on ing him of what had takenplace the 29th and declared the govern- at Bogota, and calling upon him ment dissolved.

in the strongest terms to come The council earnestly advised and take charge of the governand entreated the President to re ment. tain his authority, and continue to Bolivar consented to comply fulfill the duties of his exalted sta- with the call of the people, and to tion; and Mosquera, though with take upon himself the office of the great reluctance, consented to fol- governinent, declaring, however, low their advice, at least, until it that it should be only until new could be ascertained what were elections could take place, when the wishes of the people. Urda- he should return once more to neta, whose military reputation private life, from which nothing gave him some influence with the but the wishes of his fellow citiconquerors, was appointed Secre- zens could have induced him to tary of War in the place of General Paris, (who had retired on account of sickness) and was in On the 17th December, 1830, structed to ascertain the senti- died General Simon Bolivar, the ments of the soldiery, and their Liberator of South America. His disposition to obey the existing character and services we shall government. On the 4th of Sep- hereafter fully examine; our tember Urdaneta reported that the present purpose is with the clostroops had represented to him ing scene. Had Bolivar adher

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ed to his original purpose of leav- memory, and funeral processions ing Colombia, bis life might have were had in almost every town in been spared — his fame certainly the republic. His last proclama

as it was, he died th chief of tion to his countrymen evinced the a party, in arms against the consti- niost noble sentiments of patriottutional government of his country. ism, and it is deeply to be lamentGreat allowance must be made ed that with the expulsion of on account of the discordant ma- Spanish power, and the formation terials that he was obliged to bring of a free constitution, Bolivar, like into the government, and the char our own Washington, had not at acter of the people by whom he once retired to the shades of priwas surroundel.

vate lise. ular forms, or to the peaceful ad His will exhibits, what none ministration of equal laws, they ever doubted, bis total disregard themselves formed a great ob- of fortune. Men like Bolivar are stacle to the establishment of re- seldom governed by pecuniary mopublican institutions to be con- tives, and it would bave been far trolled only by public opinion. better for his country, if his disinStill, with all these allowances, terestedness had been equally exthere is much which needs ex- hibited, in his disregard of the planation in his political career, temptations of power. and the mystery which hangs That we may form some idea of over the latter part of his life, the state of parties of Colombia, compels history to pause, before we subjoin a statistical account of definitively pronouncing upon his the population of the different character.

Provinces and Departments of His death occurred at Cartha- Colombia — considering as libergena at his country seat, where als, all who opposed themselves to he had resided since his resigna- the usurpation of Urdaneta, after tion of the supreme command. the overthrow of the administraEvery respect was paid to his tion of Mosquera.

Departments. Provinces. Population. Liberals. Under Under Cumana. 70,000

Urdaneta Espinar Orinoco. Guayana.

45,000 Barcelona.

45,000

175,000 Margarita

15,000 Venezuela.

Caraccas.
Carabobo.

350,000 350,000
Maracaibo.

48,700 Coro. Sulia.

30,000 Merida.

50,000

162,100
Truxillo.

33,400
Varinas.
Apure.
A pure.

80,000 80,000 These four Departments formerly com

767,1 prised ancient Venezuela, and now comprise the State of Venezuela.

Pichincha. Equator.

Imbubabura. 255,000

Chimborazo.
Guayaquil

Guayaquil.
Manabi.

90,000
Cuenca. 78,000
Asuai.

Loja. 48,000 175,000

Jaer. 49,000
These three Departments are those of 520,000
the South, and are now constituted as a
State under the name of the Equator.
Cauca, since ad-
Popayan.

156,000
Buenaventura.
ded to the

15,000
Pasto.

30,000
Equator.
Choco.

22,000
721,000

721,000 Bogota.

172,000 Cundinamarca. Antioquia.

104,000 Mariquita. 45,000

371,000 Neiva.

50,000 Tunja.

200,000 Socarro. Boyaca.

159,000

425,000 Pamplona.

75,000 Casanare.

12,000 Panama.

50,000 Ystmo.

90,000 2 Veragua.

40,000 Cartagena.

100,000 Santa Marta. 62,000 Magdalena.

239,300 Mompor.

70,000 Rio.

7,000j |1,507,100 1,057,300 90,000

[graphic]

It appears from the foregoing, that the population under the sway of Urdaneta, consisted of 1,057,300 souls.

The population of the provinces which had separated from the central government, amounted to 1,507,100 souls. In addition is the population of the Isthmus under the administration of Espinar, which had declared itself in favor of Bolivar, and was equally opposed to Urdaneta and the liberal states, amounting to 90,000.

CHAPTER XIV.

BUENOS AYRES.

Condition of Country. - Civil War. - Retreat of Rosas. - New

Government. Pacification. Viamout elected Governor. Proceedings concerning Dorrego's Execution. - Rosas elected Governor. - New Disturbances. Quiroga defeated. - Invasion of Cuyo. Meeting of Legislature. Condition of Country.

Monte Video. The history of the Argentine Buenos Ayres and the formerly Republics was brought down in a confederated provinces are in but previous volume of this Register, a very little better condition now, to the preliminaries of peace as to the sound action of the govagreed upon on the 24th of June, ernment and laws, their social and in 1829, between the province of moral improvement, and the regBuenos Ayres and those of the in- ular operations of industry, than terior : General Lavalle being they were at the time to which we then self-constituted Provincial last brought up the record. GenGovernor of the former, and com eral history will find little or no mander of its forces. The task room for the particulars. of pacifying the interior was as We must refer back a little in signed to General Rosas. A brief point of time, to preserve the narration of the events which sub- chain of the narration. General sequently happened, during the Paz was at the head of the Uniperiod of time comprehended in tarian party, opposed to the fedthe present volume, is necessary eralists of Cordova and Santa Fe, to the execution of its plan. Å and had taken possession of the more uninteresting detail, howev- former city, from which Bustos er, can scarcely be found in the retired on his approach, with annals of any nation, civilized or about 800 men.

about 800 men. Paz pursued savage. The only historical les- him for some distance and returnson taught by it is, that a country ed. Bustos rallied his forces, cannot be tranquil, whose desti- and having joined General Quironies are confided to ambitious ga, made his appearance again, military chiefs; and the only re with a force of 5000 men. Paz did sult of these events has been, that not wait for a siege, but went out

to meet the enemy, and some se- of the Treasury; Thomas Guido, vere fighting ensued, on the 22d Secretary of State and of Foreign and 23d of June, which ended in Relations; Manuel Escalada, Secthe total rout of the federalists; retary of War and Marine (which fifteen hundred of them being office had been held by Rosas, either killed or captured.

under Dorrego) and I. A. Gelli, The news of this victory pro- Minister of Police. Another duced great sensation in the city proclamation promising security of Buenos Ayres. By the Con- and tranquillity followed. On the vention of the 24th of June, rep- 8th Rosas dismissed the several resentatives for the Provincial bodies of Indians who had acted Congress were to be elected with : under him, to their respective all convenient speed, and that territories. body was to organize a perma The language of the new minnient Government; on the forma- isters was of an encouraging chartion of which, Lavalle and Rosas acter, though the Secretary of were to lay down their temporary State candidly declared that, 'in authority. The hopes and pre- a field covered with · ruins, it tensions of the Unitarians increas- would be difficult to avoid stumbed; and at the election held on ling.' the 26th July, Lavalle, by his in By a new convention between Auence, and the bayonets he com- Lavalle and Rosas, on the 24th, manded, carried everything his the elections of July 26th were own way. Rosas saw, in the re- declared- void ; and by an arsults of the election, no security rangement unintelligible to citifor the solfilment of the terms on zens who live under a pure dewhich he had insisted on the 24th mocracy, General Juna Jose June, and withdrew with his Viamout, an ancient officer of the troops to the distance of twenty corps of Patricios, and who had miles from the city. His attitude not meddled in these civil feuds, was too formidable not to be re was placed provisionally at spected; and new negotiations head of the Government of the were commenced. To refer to Province; in war to be assisted the events in the order of their by a council of twentyfour, a dates, on the 3d of August La- senado consultativo, selected from valle issued a proclamation, stat- the most respectable owners of ing that Government'was deter- real estate, merchants and ecclemined to maintain the preserva- siastics. tion of peace, and assuring the Solemn Te Deum was celecitizens that a renewal of civil brated at the Cathedral, for the war was not to be dreaded. The termination of civil war. Coninterior provinces, were, however, gratulations on the return of peace at that moment in a very unset were received from every quartled state. On the 7th he an ter. The French Consul returnnounced the formation of an en- ed from Montevideo and resumed tirely new Cabinet. Manuel I. his functions. Lavalle was apGarcia was appointed Secretary pointed by the new Governor

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