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print for the editors of the journal openly countenancing and upholdentitled the Courrier Français, ing the citizens in their plans of and that all agreements lawfully acting in open delance of the made should be carried into royal authority, and thus commueffect, it is in vain that M. Gaul- nicating the character of full and tier Laguionie would avoid a com- perfect legality even to violence, pliance with his engagements, on if it should be committed in selfihe ground of a notice from the defence against any violence on Prefect of Police, enjoining on the part of the Crown. In fine, bim obedience to the Ordinance the tribunals had declared that a of the 25th, which Ordinance be- revolution would be lawful. ing contrary to the Charter could Reverting, then, to the mornnot be obligatory, either upon the ing of Tuesday, we find the Temps, sacred and inviolable person of the Figaro, and the National apthe King, or upon the citizens pearing without a license. The whose rights it attacks :- Con- National and the Temps, espesidering farther that, according to cially, by means of well devised the forms of the Charter, ordinan- secret arrangements, were printed ces can only be issued for the and published in spite of the vigipurpose of executing and main- lance of the Police. They were caining the laws, and that the issued gratuitously at their respecabove Ordinance on the contrary tive offices, and in the same way would have the effect of violating distributed in various quarters of the provisions of the law of July the city. The conductors of 28th, 1828:- the Tribunal or- these two papers, who had been dains and decrees that the agree- distinguished for their real and ment between the parties shall be courage, professed a determination carried into effect, and conse- to defend themselves and their quently condemns par corps Gaul- premises by force, if any violence tier Laguionie to print the Cour- should be offered by the agents of rier Français within twentyfour the Government. Crowds of hours, and in case of his failure so people thronged their doors, to to do reserves the right of the edi- whom they threw out their palor 10 sue for damages,' &c. pers, with injunctions to every

individual to take up arms in These decisions of the courts defence of his country. Young upon the Ordinance complete the men ran through the gardens, singular picture of illegality pre- distributing the National or septed by the operations of the the Temps to the eager multitude iofatuated King. The decisions, around, who formed into groups which we have given an account to bear read aloud the ardent apof, embrace the whole question at peals to their patriotism contained issue ; for the ground, on which in those free-spirited journals. lo one of the Ordinances is pro- this way, information concerning nounced unconstitutional, applies the Ordinances, and the views of equally to each of the other. the liberal party thereon, came to Here therefore have the be much more universally circucouris of justice directly and lated on Tuesday than it had

we

been the day before ; for that, the face of crowds of excited which had been previously known spectators, who cheered on the only to particular classes of per- printers to stand for their interest sons, was now thoroughly under- and their rights, and who regardstood by all Paris.

ed the scene as what it really Out of these bold proceedings was, an outrageous invasion of of the editors of the National and private property at the mere lawthe Temps grew the first occasion less will of a tyrant. Every looker for resort to actual force. Sev- on regarded the case as his own, eral hours elapsed after the dis- and left the spot full of indignatribution of their papers, before tion against the King, the Ministhe Ministers decided what steps ters, and all their subordinate to take. At length about noon a agents, considering their conduct commissary of Police with a strong as no better than robbery or force of gendarmes, mounted and housebreaking, and fully resolved on foot, attacked the office of the to second the editors and printers National in the Rue Saint Marc. in manful defence of the Charter. They demanded admission, but Already the Police were beginwere refused, wbile copies of the ning to be satisfied that their efjournal were thrown out of the forts had now become of no avail, windows, and distributed before in opposition to an entire People; the eyes of the gendarmes them- for although they had orders to selves. At length, these men arrest the conductors and editors broke open the doors, seized on of newspapers for subscribing the the types and other materials, and celebrated Protest, in the disorsent the chief redacteur to prison, der and confusion of the time they leaving a guard of mounted offi- found it wholly impracticable. cers near the spot. The same Well might one of the patriotic things took place at the office of editors say, in a circular to his the Temps. In addition to which subscribers : Between right and it is said that, finding it difficult violence the struggle cannot be 10 break into the doors of the lat- protracted, and we shall soon see ter office, the commissary sent for our national flag unfurled.' The various smiths, who refused to aid Press, in short, had done its duty him in picking the lock; and he unflinchingly, in early protesting was obliged, at last, to call for against the illegal proceedings of one of the myrmidons of the pri- the Government, in calling upon sons, whose business it was to the People to maintain their rivet the chains of the galley- rights, and in setting the first exslaves. These operations took ample of resistance, of self-sacriup several hours, in one of the fice, and of defiance of tyranny most frequented parts of Paris, in and usurpation.

CHAPTER XVI.

FRANCE, CONTINUED.

The Three Days. Military Arrangements. - Marmont. - The

Garrison. - Dispersion of the People. Night of Tuesday. The Citizens arm on Wednesday. Marmont's Plans. Deputation of the Citizens. — Movements of the Troops. Conflict at the Hôtel de Ville. Retreat of the Troops. Their Conduct. - Barricades Thursday. The Polytechnic School. Positions of the Garrison. - Combats. - Capture of the Louvre. - Eracuation of the Tuileries and of Paris. - Conduct of the People.

Their Losses.

It is one of the remarkable the Government to prevent a civil facts connected with the Revolu- war, or to succeed in it if it should tion of the Three Days, that, break upon thein in spite of their when the Ministers were about to preventive exertions. undertake the overthrow of the In the Moniteur of Wednesday, Charter, - when they might and the 28th, appeared an Ordinance should have known the temper conferring the military command and spirit of the Nation, - no of Paris upon Marshal Marmont, military preparations of any sort Duc de Raguse, dated Sunday, were made, but everything went the 25th. But it is said the Oron in the blind confidence of un dinance was antedated ; and at doubting security. Like the stu- any rate on the morning of Tuespid ostrich, who is said to plunge day, the 27th, M. de Raguse was her head in the sand, and inag- wholly uninformed of the condiine she has escaped her pursuers tion of affairs; for he was actually because she has voluntarily blind- stepping into his carriage at St ed herself to them, Charles the Cloud io make an excursion into Tenth rested tranquil in the royal the country, when his aide informidleness of his nature, under the ed him of the disturbed state of fancied shelter of his own benight- Paris the evening before, and thus ed ignorance. Hence it was that, prevented his departure. About until Tuesday morning, two days noon of that day he was sent for after the Ordinances were signed, by the King and invested with the no arrangements were made by command, which he actually en

men.

tered upon at the Tuileries a few veterans, capable at any time of hours afterwards. These facts affording an army of fifty thousand appeared in evidence in the se- men at a day's notice, and dwellquel, when the Ministers were ing in a city peculiarly fitted by brought to trial before the Peers its style of construction to be the for issuing the Ordinances. theatre of civic warfare. And yet

The exact state of the military had the Ministers possessed any force at the disposal of Marmont forethought for the occasion, troops is also well ascertained by infor- were to be had in abundance at mation derived from different Saint Denis, Sèvres, Vincennes, sources. It consisted of the Versailles, and other places near Guards, troops of the Line, and Paris, sufficient in number to have others to the amount of about balanced, if not overcome, the twelve thousand

The extemporaneous levies of the citiGuards were composed in the zen-multitude. outset of three Swiss regiments of When Marmont arrived in Painfantry, having eight battalions ris, the necessity for prompt and three thousand eight hundred measures for repressing disturmen ; of two regiments of caval- bances in various parts of the city ry, having eight squadrons and had become urgent. Immense eight hundred men; and of an crowds of the laboring classes artillery force of twelve pieces were collected in the region of the served by one hundred and fifty Palais Royal and of the Tuileries, men. There were four regiments and near the hotels of some of vi the Liue, wili eleven battal- ile Ministers, who, alth

who, al hough armions, and four thousand four hun- ed only with bludgeons and dred men, who almost immedi- stones, treated with utter contempt ately professed themselves neu- all the efforts of the Police for tral, and who, if they did not aid their dispersion. che People, were certainly of little darmes rode up and down the or no service to the King. There streets and squares to no purpose; were also eleven companies of they were everywhere insulted Fusiliers Sédentaires or Veterans, and reviled. The citizens had consisting of one hundred men now closed their shops, and an each, who gave up their arms to overwhelming multitude of men, the citizens instead of opposing all animated with the same hatred them; and the Gendarmerie, of the Government, and openly horse and foot, one thousand three proposing the most daring acts of hundred strong. Of all this force, resistance, inundated the streets only the Guards and part of the in that most frequented quarter of Gendarmerie can be considered the city. Thus far, it is true, effective, amounting to about six they were only a mob; but they thousand men, on whom Marmont were gradually changing their had to depend to meet the whole character, and iheir reiterated atpopulation of Paris, a brave and tacks upon the Hôtel Wagram on martial people, vehemently ex- the Boulevard des Capucines, the cited, many of them discharged official residence of M. de Polig

The gen

was no

nac, must have taught the Pre- Bourdeaux, near the Tuileries, but mier that what he saw

was so closely pressed upon and transient ebullition of popular pelted with stones, tiles, and other heat. Accordingly, at half past missiles, as to be held in check four o'clock in the afternoon, for a while. On the other hand Marmont issued his orders to the Guards endeavored to make get the troops under arms, and way by riding among the people bodies of infantry and cavalry were and striķing them with the flat of hastily marched to the Place du their sabres. At this point the Carrousel,the Place Louis Quinze, firing commenced, and it is singuand the Boulevards. The regu- lar enough that the first shot was lar troops were then for the first fired by an Englishman. This time called upon to take part in man, whose name is said to have the passing events.

been Foulkes, lodged at an EngIt being now late in the after- lish hotel at the corner of Rue noon, and an hour when the great des Pyramides and Rue Saint thoroughfares of Paris are always Honoré; and as the detachment full of people, the crowd continu- endeavored to pass he loaded a ed to increase by the influx of fowling piece and discharged it citizens into the narrow streets against them from the windows, near the Palais Royal, until these The soldiers fired a volley in rebecame wholly impassable. The turn, which killed the EnglishPolice having endeavored in vain man and two other persons. to open a communication by dis. Meanwhile another and a stronger persing the mobs, demended the detachment had sought the Rue assistance of troops. In fact, one Saint Honoré by the Rue de of the gendarmes had already l’Echelle, who were also arrested been killed by the citizens. Here- in their progress by the mass of upon small detachments of the people accumulated in the Rue Guard were sent to clear the Saint Honoré between the two streets, and preserve order in the detachments. Here was the first vicinity of the Palais Royal espe- example of a barricade, which cially, as apprehensions began to was formed on the sudden by overbe entertained that the citizens turning an omnibus, one of the would break open the shops of the long coaches which ply from one gunsmiths and armorers, which part of Paris to another, and abound in that region, and possess placing it across the street.

Bethemselves of arins. It appears hind this off-hand entrenchment, that the pieces of the troops form- the citizens received the summons ing these detachments were not of the Guards to surrender, and generally loaded, and that they answered it only with a shower of had orders to conduct themselves tiles and pavement stones.

At with moderation and temper, and length the troops forced the barnot to fire unless they were fired ricade, and after two discharges upon by the people. One small in the air fired the third time upon detachment endeavored to de- the people, and finally drove them bouche by the Rue du Duc de slowly along the street. Other

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