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published would represent the ing, however, whatever is exloss of the troops as being greater aggerated in the popular statethan the whole number of troops ments concerning the Revoluengaged in the contest. But it tion, enough of glory remains is not so. In fact it has been to the Parisian population, and pretty satisfactorily ascertained enough of consequence in the that the loss on both sides did victory achieved, to render it one not exceed three thousand men of the most interesting events in in killed and wounded. Deduct- modern history,

1

CHAPTER XVII.

FRANCE, CONTINUED.

Provisional Government of Thursday. - La Fayette. Proposal of the King. - The Duc d'Orleans made Lieutenant General. tate of Paris. Expulsion of the Bourbons. - Remarks.

We gave in the preceding of the Government and of the chapter, a sufficiently minute his- Moniteur. But on Friday it retory of the military events of the appeared under the dates of July Three Days, which in so brief a 29th and 30th, with the following period completely destroyed the official article : power of Charles Tenth. But in

'PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT. the emergency of a popular Revolution, it is often easier to destroy

The Deputies present at Parthan to renew, easier to overthrow is have found it necessary to asexisting institutions than to estab- semble to remedy the serious lish new ones in their place. dangers, which threatened the Fortunately on the present occa- security of persons and property, : sion the People, who for the time A Commission has been appointed being had resumed their natural to watch over the interests of all, authority, were temperate and ju- in the entire absence of a regular dicious in their views, and after organization. they had fought for and won their

Messrs Audry de Puyraveau, liberty, returned peaceably to

Comte Gérard, Jacques Lafitte, their ordinary pursuits, leaving to Comte de Lobau, Mauguin, Odier, the chosen and respected public Casimir Perrier, and de Schonen, men of the Nation to reorganize compose the Commission. the forms of Government. The

General La Fayette is ComMoniteur, that expressive chron- mander in Chief of the National icle of political changes, did not

Guard. appear on the 29th. Being the

• The National Guard are masorgan of the rulers de facto, who ters of Paris at all points.' may happen to have the control These few sentences proclaimof affairs, how could it speak on ed to France and to Europe, the that day when there were no rul- triumph of the Charter and the ers? It was an interregnum alike downfal of its assailants.

were

FRA

The individuals composing the Louis Minister of Finance. VaCommission were universally rious proclamations were issued known as the uncompromising on that day by General La Fayadvocates of the popular cause on ette, by General Dubourg, whom occasions without number, and the citizens themselves had at their names

a sufficient first installed in temporary comguarantee to the People at large mand and who subsequently actof the character of the measures ed under La Fayette, and by the they would pursue, even had not Deputies. The latter, in the La Fayette been announced as midst of an ardent appeal to the commander of the National citizens to arm, apprises them of Guards.

the appointment of La Fayette to In fact, to the population of the command of the National Paris these appointments were Guard, and also announces the not a novelty. No longer re- establishment of a Provisional strained by considerations of del- Government. Three most honicacy, or any fear of compromis- orable citizens,' say they, 'have ing themselves, the Deputies had undertaken its important funcassembled at the house of M. La- tions : These are Messrs La fitte on Thursday, and made Fayette, Choiseul, and Gérard.' various arrangements of great im- It does not appear that the Duc portance. In placing La Fay- de Choiseul ever acted under this ette at the head of the National authority ; but his associates enGuard, they had appealed to the tered immediately upon the zealold sensibilities and historical re- ous discharge of the duties ascollections of the People, in the signed to them. The Hôtel de same way the popular leaders of Ville became the seat of public Wednesday had done in raising affairs once more, as it had been the tricolored flag. La Fayette in former times of revolution. and the tricolor were equally, In fact, in everything the days of under the Bourbons, proscribed popular rule seemed to be restormemorials of the Revolution. - ed. But it was by the lavish use Immediately on receiving his of the name, influence, and exerappointment, he announced his tions of La Fayette that order acceptance in a proclamation, in- was in reality maintained. He viting the Mayor and Municipal was replaced in the command of Committees of each arrondisse- the citizen soldiery which he bad ment of the city to send officers to led in 1789. His name was the Hôtel de Ville to receive his invoked by the Deputies in their orders. In this paper the Com- proclamation as the talisman of mission, of which we have spoken, public safety. And he again was are styled the Constitutional Mu- put forward as first in the Pronicipal Committee of the city of visional Government, which the Paris. It was soon after announc- exigencies of the time called into ed that the Comte Alexander de being. Never was more honoraLaborde was appointed provision- ble tribute paid to the popularity, al Prefect of the Seine, and Baron integrity, patriotism, and self-de

votion of any man, in ancient or these nominations appear in the modern times, than in the sponta- Bulletin des Lois, although they neous resort of the casual deposi- never found their way into the taries of power to La Fayette, as Moniteur. A deputation from the only individual in France, the King repaired to the Hôtel whose personal influence could de Ville towards evening to prosupply the total absence of an pose an accommodation, but disestablished or admitted govern- covered that it was too late, and ment derived from the laws. In that there was no longer any hope the unpretending form of Com- for Charles or his dynasty; and mander of the National Guard, he with these consolatory tidings they in fact exercised the functions, returned to Saint Cloud. which, in ancient Rome and in Among those who had the conthe Republics of South America, trol of public affairs at this time, the would have belonged to the name general sentiment already pointed and authority of Dictator. towards one individual, who alone

When Polignac and his col- could give consistency to the leagues arrived at Saint Cloud, Revolution, by embracing the and laid down that power, which popular cause as his own. The they had used so disastriously for Duc d'Orleans united in his

pertheir King, they could persuade son a multitude of considerations, the infatuated prince to listen to all marking him out as the personarguments of accommodation on- age whom France now needed ly by awakening his apprehen- at the head of her Government to sions for the safety of the Duch- give consolidation and respectaesse d'Angoulême, who was then bility to the new order of things, on her return from a journey, and and assure to it the confidence of knew nothing of what had trans- Europe. It was a consummation pired. His fears that a single to which, as we have before exmember of his family might suf- plained, all eyes had long been fer, outweighed, in his selfish looking, as a possible if not a mind, all consideration of the probable event. Perhaps in this lives of his subjects and the mis- case, as in many other great eries of a protracted civil war; changes which history records, and to these fears, not to any prin- the anticipation of this result had ciple of public good, he yield- a decided influence in leading to ed himself up, in consenting to re- its accomplishment.

It is true cal the fatal Ordinances and ap- that many of the victorious party point a liberal Cabinet. The desired pure republican forms, in Duc de Mortemart, who was in place of a monarchy of whatsoservice at Saint Cloud as Captain ever degree of liberality. Others of the Guards, was made Prime there were, who still proudly cherMinister, and empowered to se- ished the name of Napoleon, and lect his colleagues. He began urged that the dynasty of victory by naming Comte Gérard Minis- and the Revolution should be reter of War, and M. Casimir stored to power in the person of Perrier Minister of Finance; and the Duke of Reichstadt. But

the great current of opinion, — throne, it must therefore be by and in such a crisis opinion is compact, and on such conditions everything, ran in favor of the as the public voice should see fit family of Orleans.

to impose. As the wealthiest subject of And whatever recommendation France, the Duc d'Orleans pos- the Duc d'Orleans gained by his sessed that hold on the public proximity to the royal family, he regard, which great riches, wor- derived å still greater one from his thily and liberally employed, are immediate parentage, his educacalculated to impart. His rank tion, his own personal character, placed him next to the reigning and the qualities of his family. family, and of course drew atten- The son of the Montagnard tion to him, whenever the subject Philippe Egalité, who contribuof a substitute for the elder ted more than any other single branch of the Bourbons came to individual to heave Louis XVI. be discussed. The Duc d'Or- from his throne, inherited a revoleans, it will be remembered, was lutionary taint in his blood, from lineally descended from Philippe, which no elements of royal relaonly brother of Louis XIV. from tionship in its composition could whom Charles X. derived his de- purify it, -and was thus driven scent, the common ancestor of from the affections of the restorthe two families being Louis XIII. ed royal family into unavoidable son of Henry Quartre, the splen- sympathy with the Nation. At dor of whose qualities had per- an early age, the then Duc de petuated his memory in the hearts Chartres, with his two younger of the French, in spite of all the brothers, was intrusted to the tuiodium attached to the misrule of tion of Madame de Genlis, who his posterity. At the same time, conducted his education entirely as the Duc d'Orleans had no upon the plan of Rousseau's claims to the succession, so long Emilius, thus giving a hardihood as the Dauphin, or his nephew, to his body and a masculine freethe Duc de Bordeaux, or any le- dom to his mind, which seldom gitimate posterity of theirs, sur- fall to the lot of modern princes. vived, the elevation of the former Having completed his education, would be a revolutionary act, a he joined the famous Jacobin violation of the jus divinum prin- Club in 1791, and during the ciple, a departure from the line of same year entered into active serhereditary succession; and there- vice as colonel of a regiment in fore the Duc d'Orleans would the army of the North. In that owe bis crown to the choice and age of hard fighting and rapid free will of the French Nation, promotions the Duc de Chartres just as much as if he were a mere did not languish for the want of soldier of fortune elevated by his employment or honors. Through bare personal merits from the a quick succession of engagesubaltern duties of the camp, and ments in the spring and summer the indiscriminate ranks of the of 1792 under Biron and LuckPeople,

If he ascended the ner he rose to the rank of lieu

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