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act of adhesion of the Peers. ed never to occupy the throne The Prince then rose and said : to which the national will has

“I have read with great atten- called me; but I yield to this tion the Declaration of the Cham- will, expressed by the Chambers ber of Deputies and the act of in the name of the French Peoadhesion of the Chamber of Peers. ple, for the maintenance of the I have weighed and meditated all Charter and the laws. The wise their expressions. I accept with- modifications which we have made out restriction or reserve the con- in the Charter guaranty the secuditions and engagements, which rity of the future; and France, it contains, and the title of King I trust, will be happy at home and of the French, which it confers respected abroad; and the peace upon me; and I am ready to of Europe more and more conswear to their observance.' firmed.'

M. Dupont de l'Eure, acting To render the ceremony more Keeper of the seals, delivered the impressive the insignia of royalty form of the oath to the King, who, were presented to the King by according to the New England four Marshals of France. Marform of swearing practised in shal Macdonald presented the France, raised his hand, and pro- crown, Marshal Oudinot the scepnounced the words of the oath as tre, Marshal Mortier the sword, follows:

and Marshal Molitor the hand of • In the presence of God I justice. swear faithfully to observe the M. Dupont de l'Eure concludconstitutional Charter, with the ed the proceedings by inviting modifications expressed in the the Deputies to meet the next Declaration of the Chamber of day to take the oath of fidelity to Deputies; to govern only by the the King and obedience to the laws and according to the laws; constitutional Charter and the to cause exact and impartial jus- laws, and the assembly separated tice to be done to every one ac- amid acclamations of applause, the cording to his rights; and to act Duc d'Orleans being now Louis in all things with a sole view to Philippe, King of the French. the interest, the happiness, and The first care of the King was, the glory of the French People.' of course, to fix the organization

The King then having subscrib- of his Cabinet on a permanent ed the three documents, sat down basis. The Moniteur of August and pronounced the following 12th announced that M. Dupont brief speech :

de l'Eure was appointed Keeper 'I have performed a great act. of the Seals; General Gérard, I deeply feel the weight of the Minister of War; the Duc de duties which it imposes upon me; Broglie, of Public Instruction ; but my conscience tells me that I M. Guizot, of the Interior; Bashall fulfil them; and it is with ron Louis, of Finance; Comte the full conviction of this that I Molé, of Foreign Affairs; and have accepted the conditions pro- Comte Sébastiani, of Marine. posed to me. I could have wish- At the same time MM. Lafitte,

Casimir Perrier, Dupin, and Big- ments, which occupied the attennon became members of the Cabi- tion of the new Ministers, those net without holding portfolios. of the journalists were not the These eminent individuals, most least urgent. While their fearof whom we have had frequent less conduct had certainly entitled occasion to mention in the fore- them to be well considered, yet if going pages, . represented the they were desirous thus to canmoderate party among the ene- cel the merit of their professedly mies of the late dynasty; and the patriotic exertions by receiving same reasons, which had seemed compensation as for mercenary to exact the hasty proceeding of services performed, it may well the Deputies in the transfer of be supposed that no Government, the Crown, namely, the danger in the then state of France, would of commotions in France and the feel disposed to slight the pretennecessity of conciliating the rest sions of those, who governed the of Europe, — spoke loudly in movements of the newspaper favor of the formation of a Cabi- Press. net of moderate views.

The next care of the new MinThe Ministers immediately isters was to place themselves in proceeded to reform the officers amicable communication with the of the army and the employés in various powers in Europe. As to the civil departments, by substi- the United States there was of tuting for those, who held their course no room for doubtor difficuloffices or commissions from the ty. Mr Rives was among the earlilate Government, men of their est of the diplomatic agents in Paris own political opinions. This was to offer his good wishes to a Govundoubtedly just and proper in ernment, which, beside

beside the such a case as a change of dynas- advantages of having plausible ty, a political Revolution brought grounds of right to stand upon in on by the usurpation of the pre- the sense of legitimacy, had the vious head of the State, and es- nobler claim to respect, in the sential, indeed, to the stability of republican sense, as being the the new institutions. The officers product of the sovereign will of of the old army now had their re- the People. Our Government venge for the neglect to which entered, without hesitation, into they had been doomed during the most cordial and friendly inthe two last reigns. To have tercourse with that of Louis Pbilbeen prominent in the days of the ippe. Nor could Great Britain Republic or the Empire became fail to see that, in the recent a title to reward, not a badge of events, France had but imitated disgrace. The victors of the the proceedings of the revoluThree Days did not manifest any tion, by virtue of which alone the indisposition to be recompensed House of Hanover ascended the for the toils and dangers and loss-throne. Whatever sympathy the es they had undergone during the Duke of Wellington had for the last week of July. In the claims fate of Charles X., it was imposfor official honors and emolu- sible for him to deny that this

unhappy Prince had provoked with well founded dread lest the and justly incurred his misfor- diffusion of the sentiment of freetunes. Nor would the Duke, or dom and national independence any other English Minister, how- from France to other countries ever strained the notions he might should kindle up intestine comentertain of legitimacy, have pre- motion and foreign war from one sumed to propose the quixotic 'end of Europe to the other. It plan of refusing to acknowledge is not surprising that Sovereigns, Louis Philippe. England, there- whose whole rule was a series of fore, from principle, and the usurpations such as that which Netherlands, as much from fear had just hurled Charles X. from as principle, manifested no re- his throne, and who held their luctance in renewing their amica- authority only by the tenure of ble relations with France. Aus- conquest or successful oppression tria, Prussia, and Spain 'were less of their natural subjects, should prompt in doing so; but they, begin to feel a terrible looking like some of the minor States, did forward to judgment, when they not feel bold enough, either indi- heard the lesson of popular vidually or collectively, to defy strength and popular vengeance, the revolutionary spirit, which if which the barricades of Paris duly provoked, seemed as capa- proclaimed to every subject of ble now, as it was thirty years misrule throughout the civilized before, of sending out its armed world. missionaries to preach a fearful They saw that France had redoctrine of liberty and conquest opened a school of liberty for the in every corner of Europe. Rus- teaching of nations. The Marsia made a stand against the dan- seilles Hymn had again become gerous example of popular right classic verse, chanted by every taking to itself the companionship voice and seemingly sacred to of popular might; but the do- every heart, where but a few mestic troubles of the Czar weeks before to lisp its name compelled him also to temporize, would have been sedition. The and at last acknowledge the new Reveil du Peuple rang once more Government when he could no through France, arousing her longer help doing it. France myriads like a trumpet call. herself, with the democratic vigor The tricolored flag, which had of a national effort, speedily arm- waved in triumph over so many ed her population and assumed well fought and hard won fields the attitude of defensive energy of battle, was unfurled again, and suited to her new position; and Aung abroad to the breeze as the while professing an earnest desire standard of a martial people, full to preserve peace, prepared her- of enthusiasm and ardor, and self to encounter the hazards of proud to avow those forbidden war without reluctance or appre- tenets of national independence, bension.

which European princes would All Europe now stood in fear- gladly keep confined to these ful and anxious expectation, filled wilds of America. What wonder

that Nicholas, or Frederick Wil- mists that hover about the lower liam, or Francis of Austria, or sky. It ceased to be a considWilliam of Nassau should have eration simply of the now comtrembled in the inmost recesses paratively trifling inquiry, of what of their palaces ? For they saw dynasty should sit on the throne France again revolutionary, re- of Saint Louis. In the develvived, regenerate, snapping asun- opement of the principle which der the chains which had been was now the basis of the public fastened upon her at Waterloo law of the French, that neither like Sampson escaping from the divine communication to a favortoils of Delilah, and standing up ed individual or family, nor in her strength as an armed transmission by hereditary sucknight ready to do battle against cession, nor prescription, nor all challengers.

concession from the head of the

church, nor consecration by his It comes not within the scope legates and bishops, was the leand compass of our present pur- gitimate source of power, but that pose to follow the effects of the it flowed only from the supreme Revolution at home or abroad. will of the People;—and in the The repetition of the barricades consideration whether the defence of Paris in Brussels, the troubles of their own institutions did not in Italy, the revolt of the heroic require them to anticipate the Poles, the discussion of constitu- formation of a hostile league of tional reform in England, - these crowned heads, and to propagate and other kindred topics belong the faith of liberty as it were to the history of another year. in partibus infidelium, so as to We leave the French with the raise up beforehand an adversary form and conditions of Govern- league of the governed millions ment which their leaders had for their reciprocal protection chosen for them, entering upon against the governing few;- in the agitated career of freedom such deep and all comprehensive under better auspices than in the subjects of interest was the rise old time. The whole field of mind of France now absorbed, to political disquisition was now the exclusion of every meaner open to her writers and her thing. To the French there had speakers. With them, it was no commenced a period of daring longer a dispute of ordinances speculation, of bold purpose,

of or double vote, or censorships, brilliant promise : to all but the and still less of Villèle or Polig- French, a period of vehement nac, those ministerial bugbears, agitation and uncontrollable sowhich had so long been used to licitude. The meteor star of frighten men withal. These were revolution had arisen to pour trivial questions which had pass- forth its stormy light upon the ed away forever, and yielded nations: but what presumptuous place to more stirring matters, as gazer could presume to calculate the rushing tempest clears off the its orbit?

CHAPTER XIX.

NETHERLANDS.

Opposition of the Allies to Republican Governments. - Kingdom of the Netherlands - The Creation of the Congress of Vienna.

United Provinces, Islands, &c, of German Origin. - Walloons of the Gallic race. — Contests of the Fifth Century between the Šalians and Saxons. — Conversion of Witikend to Christianity.

Conquest of the Country by Charlemagne.- Corporate Trades. - Charles the great grandfather of Charles Fifth. Marriage of his daughter with Maximilian of Austria. - Connexion with Ferdinand and Isabella. - Charles Fifth. Reformation. Inquisition. Philip. William of Japan.

The obnoxious Minister Granville. Gueux or Beggars, the title of the Opposers of Government. - Division between the Protestants and Catholics. - Union of the Seven United Provinces. — Power of the Dutch in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Conquests in the East and West Indies.- French Revolution. - Batavian Republic. - Kingdom of Holland. -- French Province. - Belgium annered to France. - Revolution of 1813. — Restoration of House of Nassau. - Constitution. Belgium united with Holland. - Assembly of Notables. - Amended Constitution. — Public Debt. Situation of the Netherlands as to Foreign Powers. — Internal Disputes from the Catholic Religion and Education. Free Trade and Restriction. - Ordinances as to Language. — Budget. - M. de Potter. - His Trial.- Session of 1829. Ministerial Responsibility. - Law on the Press. - Revolution of 26th August, 1830. — Demands of the Belgians. -- Meeting of the States General, 12th September, 1830. — King's Speech.Provisional Government at Brussels. - Attack of Prince Frederic. Recognition of Belgians by the Prince of Orange. Return of M. de Potter to Brussels. Character of King William.

When in 1814, after the down- pean society, a cardinal principle, fal of the great chieftain, the by which they were actuated, was Plenipotentiaries of the primary hostility to all republics. Recolpowers met in Congress to parcel lecting what Kings and Emperors out the fruits of their victories and had suffered from the anarchists to reconstruct the fabric of Euro- and military despots of France, they

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