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favor of power, the removal of M. protect the good citizens against Van Maanen, a new electoral the evil disposed and to avert system established by law, or the from the Kingdom the scourge of more direct election by the people, civil war, have been adopted the establishment of the jury, a without delay.' He then intinew law respecting the organiza- mates that a separation of the tion of the judiciary, the penal re- Provinces, which the constitution sponsibility of the Ministers to be and fundamental law had united, established by law, a law to be might become necessary, and on enacted fixing the seat of the the 13th the King proposed for the high court (which had been plac- discussion of the Chambers the ed at the Hague) in the South- two following questions: First, ern Provinces, the cessation of whether experience bas indicated the prosecutions against the liber- the necessity of modifying the naal writers, the abrogation of all tional institutions: Second, whethcondemnations for political offen- er it is consistent with the general

good to change what is established These reclamations were, how- by treaties and the fundamental ever, soon followed by a propo- law between the two great divissition for the separation of Belgi- ions of the Kingdom. um from Holland. The Com The Deputies from Belgium, mittee of Public Safety, formed at first, appeared in the assembly; 11th September, were specially but they were insulted by the charged — 1st, with securing the people of the Hague and ultimatemaintenance of the dynasty : 2d, ly withdrew. maintaining the principle of the The King determined to use separation of the North from the force towards his refractory subSouth : 3d, to take the necessary jects; and on 21st of September measures for the interests of com a proclamation was issued froin merce, industry, and public order. Antwerp by Prince Frederick for

The States General met on the occupation of Brussels, where 12th September : the King, in a Provisional Government had his address to them, thus noticed been organized, consisting of the recent revolutionary move- Messrs Vanderlinden, d'Hoogments : ' in the midst of the great- voorst, Ch. Rogier, Felix de est tranquillity and prosperity a Mérode, Juan Van Halen, a revolt suddenly breaks out at native of Spain, who had been Brussels, and this example is imi- distinguished for his remarkable tated in some other places. Con- escape from the Spanish Inquisiflagrations and pillage marked tion, and had served in the army these disorders, too afflicting for of Russia, was placed at the head my heart, the nation, and humani- of the military force. ty, for me to present the mournful On the 22d September, Prince picture of them to this assembly. Frederick marched on Brussels. The measures, so far as they On the 24th, 25th, and 26th there depended on the Government to was most terrible carnage in the arrest the progress of the evil, to

of the evil, to streets; the houses, &c, were

several times taken and retaken. measures connected with the esThe Dutch army evacuated the tablishment of Belgium as an inBelgic capitalon the 27th, having dependent sovereignty. sustained a loss of 3000 out of In closing our notice of the the 9,500 men, who had taken Netherlands, to which we shall part in the expedition.

never again be permitted to allude, On the 16th October, the as a united power, it may not be Prince of Orange, who had been improper to make a few remarks made Governor General of the respecting the King, who was Southern Provinces, acknowledg- destined to be the first and last ed the independence of Belgium Sovereign of this creation of the by a proclamation from Antwerp, Holy Alliance. in which he authorizes, even in William is propably the most those places where he still retain- virtuous Sovereign in Europe. ed the ascendency, the election of His honesty is quite proverbial, members to the national Congress. and though he never gained the This attempt, however, of the affection of the Belgians, they heir apparent to put himself at never refused to admit his integrity the head of the revolution and and the goodness of his intentions. thus retain in the royal family the That he possessed a high order most important portion of the of intellect, or was equal to the Netherlands, the loss of which was arduous task of reconciling the menaced by the events then oc- opposite interests of the two diviscurring, was without result. ions of bis Kingdom, no one will

The King, in his message, pretend. His great faults were opening the States General of the those of his nation, whose prejuNorthern Provinces, on the 19th, dices he seemed to have imbibed. expresses his surprise at the course A manifest preference was given pursued by his son, of which he to the Dutch in the public employseems not to bave been apprized. ments, and there was too evident

During the attack of the Prince an indisposition to countenance Frederick, M. de Potter returned the Catholic religion, which was to Brussels, where he was receiv- embraced by at least two thirds ed with triumphant marks of con- of the people. As an adminisfidence. He was subsequently trator, the King, even if he did installed chief of the Provisional not recognise the principle of the Government.

irresponsibility of the Sovereign, The further events in relation should have confined his attention to the separation of Holland and to a general superintendence. InBelgium, including the decision stead, however, of following that of the representatives at London system, he entered into the minuof the Powers, who were parties test inquiries on the most unimto the organization of the King- portant matters ; and it was said dom of the Netherlands, will that no question occurring at a properly fall within the scope of Custom House could be settled our next volume, in which it will until the King had personally exalso be our duty to detail the amined the point. The Sove

To say

reign of the Netherlands was dis was actuated by the circumstances tinguished for the readiness by which had arisen subsequently to which all classes of his subjects the reference, and which so sengained access to him; but so sibly affected the independence likewise is the Emperor of Aus- of his position, would be to distria; and in a constitutional King regard the reputation universally such qualities are perhaps rather enjoyed by the unfortunate mondefects than virtues. In his com- arch. A knowledge of the charmercial operations the King seem acter of the royal umpire would ed actuated by that love of trade induce us to ascribe the error of in which the burghers of Amster- bis decision rather to the head dam so much delight; and he than to the heart. was actually a partner in several But it is certain that we owe joint stock companies, of which no special gratitude to the King he was the originator.

of the Netherlands. In the recent decision of the nothing of that monarch's refusal controversy on the North eastern to accede to the commercial reciboundary, referred to him by the procity, proffered by us to all naUnited States and Great Britain, tions, we cannot forget that our his Netherlands Majesty has, it is claims, growing out of the arbicertain, fulfilled the expectations trary measures dictated by Napoof neither party, but literally leon to the former Government of adopted the course which the en- Holland, and which were clearly lightened negotiator, to whom presented to view in the able corthe subject of a reference was once respondence of Mr A. H. Everett confided, feared might be adopt- with Baron Nagele, never receiyed to our prejudice. He seems

ed that attention which they prereally, instead of taking strict eminently merited from a Soveprinciples of law for his guide, to reign, who of all others had reaphave tried to split the difference.' ed, though indirectly, the greatest To suppose, however, that even advantages from the French usurin this matter, open as it justly is pation. to severe animadversion, the King

CHAPTER XX.

THE PENINSULA.

Spain. Rumors. Queen's Death. - Public Expectations. - Arrival of the new Queen. Law of Succession. Portugal.

There is no country, whose and consists of letters written, or domestic condition or its internal purporting to be written, from affairs are more misrepresented persons in the Peninsula. These than those of Spain. It is not accounts are incorrect, exaggermerely that all the information, ated, and mendacious, to a degree which we derive from the jour- of which those unacquainted with nals of Spain itself, is of a suspi- the fact can have no conception. cious nature, as having been sub- The strange absurdities concernjected to the examination of the ing the state of things in Spain, local authorities before publication, which made their appearance soon and having been so qualified as after the French revolution of to meet their views, or at any July, were a tissue of such downrate prepared and printed by the right falsehoods, affording a fair journalist with the terrors of the example of the fact to which we police continually before his eyes. refer, and illustrating the difficulty This cause of distrust attaches to of obtaining authentic information intelligence derived from the as to passing events in that counSpanish gazettes, in common with try. those of other nations, which en However, the period of time, joy the blessing of an absolute which our historical record emgovernment and a shackled press. braces, was one of great tranquilliNor is it owing entirely to the ty; and such periods are barren jealous policy of the Spanish of matter for the pen of the annalmonarchy, which is so little dis- ist. It was not the less fruitful of posed to court the scrutiny of rumors, got up for the amusement foreigners, or even to admit of of the cafés of Paris, or for some much examination on the part of other less innocent purpose. The its subjects themselves. Our cur- earthquake, which filled with rent intelligence in regard to the misery the district of Orihuela in affairs of Spain is generally deriv- the Kingdom of Murcia, was sufed from the French newspapers, ficiently appalling in itself, without

ances.

the aid of any artificial amplifi- their country, of pardon, and of cation, But when the news readmission to the career of disreached us filtered through the tinction in public service. They newspapers of Paris, it appeared anticipated an act of grace and that all Cadiz had been submerg- indulgence as highly likely to aced, although pains were taken, it company so auspicious an event, was added, to conceal the dread- and as being, in fact, a natural inful calamity, by which so many gredient of the rejoicings and

pubfamilies in the Kingdom and so lic hilarity of the nation. They many abroad would incur loss and conceived, also, that they had suffering, through the merchants some reason to expect this from collected from various regions the lively and amiable character in that rich commercial city. Not of the new Queen, and her supmuch more credit is due to the posed indisposition to submit to statements, so often repeated, of the influence of the priesthood to troubles in Catalonia, the standing the same extent with her predetheatre of insurrection for the cessor, whose life was wholly manufacturers of the newest news. given up to rigid ascetic observIndeed, if we except the acknowledgment of Don Miguel by In another important point of Spain in October, 1829, hardly view, the anticipated marriage any political event has occurred was connected with political subto invite attention, except what jects. The Infante Don Carlos. relates to changes in the royal the eldest brother of Ferdinand family.

and presumptive heir of the Crown, The King of Spain lost his third was, either in reality or in suppoconsort on the 17th of May, 1829. sition, the rallying point of the Like her two predecessors she apostolical party. Whatever dedied suddenly, in the flower of fects of character Ferdinand may her age, without children. A possess they are traits of weakness treaty of marriage was very soon rather than of cruelty. The bitafter entered into between Ferdi- terness of political hostility has nand, and his niece Maria Cristi- diffused very erroneous impresna de Borbon, daughter of Fran- sions in regard to this prince. Incis, King of Naples, and half sis- stead of being the fierce, bigoted, ter of the Duchesse de Berri, and brutal tyrant, which some publiat this time twentythree years of cations have represented him to age. The large number of Span- be, he is unquestionably disposed iards, who are exiles in foreign to pursue as gentle a policy, in lands, or, if not banished, yet are the management of his Kingdom, languishing at home as impurifica- as the maintenance of his authoridos, or men laboring under civil ty will admit. Nothing but the disabilities on account of their opposition of the Sovereign himopinions or conduct in political self has prevented the re-estabaffairs, looked forward to the in- lishment of the Holy Office in tended espousals as affording Spain. Since the occupation of them a hope of restoration to the country by the French armies

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