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in the reign of Louis XVIII., Maria Cristina in Spain, it is to more disturbances and insurrec- be observed that her parents, the tions have arisen from the abso- King and Queen of the Two Silutists, eager to push the Govern- cilies, the latter herself an Infanta ment on to greater violence and of Spain, were to accompany the intolerance, than from the perse- new Queen to Madrid." They cuted friends of the Constitution. came from Naples by the South At the present time, it can hardly of France, and crossing the Pybe affirmed that any liberal party renees proceeded through Barexists among the Spaniards. The celona and Valencia to Madrid. sword, the scaffold, exile, the Catalonia was ruled at this time dungeon, have done their work with a rod of iron by the Conde upon the unhappy Constitution- de España, Captain General of the alists, until few remain upon their province, and one of the sternest native soil, bold enough to move agents of absolutism in Spain. in any

scheme of reform or liberty. The numerous individuals in BarTheir bravest and best have per- celona, who suffered on account ished, or now waste their energies of opinions, crowded around the in the obscure sufferings of pro- path of the young Queen, to swell tracted banishment, in the heart- her welcome with their acclamasickness of hope deferred; and tions, promising themselves her aid what can be hoped from the dis- in making their

peace with the king. heartened and persecuted men, Similar gratulation attended her who have just escaped the worst in other parts of her progress onpunishment of unsuccessful re- wards, and on her arrival in the bellion ? In Spain, therefore, court of Madrid itself, — her enthere is no question except be- tire journey being one long unintween more or less liberal mem- terrupted ovation. The impuribers of the absolutist party, and it ficados continued to the last to is to the former rather than the hope and expect the most agreealatter division that the wishes of ble results from the marriage, the King are believed to lean, although without any very specific while Don Carlos favors the apos- grounds of encouragement. tolical or ultra section of the ene The Queen reached Aranjuez mies offree institutions. Ofcourse, on the Sth of December. She that portion of the Spanish nation, was received there by the Infanwhich deprecates the blind vio- tes, Don Carlos and Don Franlence of the apostolicals, looks to cisco, the former of whom had the continuance of the sceptre, in authority to enter into the conthe hands of Ferdinand as prefer- tract of marriage as proxy for the able to its transfer to Carlos, and King. On the 11th she entered has anxiously desired the birth Madrid, amid all the rejoicings so of a Prince of the Asturias to peculiar to the Spanish people. give succession to the elder line. The King and Queen of Naples In addition to these circum- and their

daughter were attended stances, so much calculated to by a brilliant cortège of the pubattach interest to the arrival of lic authorities and troops from the

gate of Atocha, by which they since frowned upon by the Court, entered Madrid, to the Palace at to write an epithalamium, and the other extremity of the city. liberally recompensed the poet for Ferdinand and his two brothers his performance. But the reprode on horseback by the side of resentations of Senor Calomarde, the coach which contained the the Minister of Grace and Jusyoung Queen, with the manolos tice and all powerful delegate of Madrid dancing the fantastic of the apostolical party in the mogiganga before them through Cabinet, overcame the better inthe principal streets, every house tentions of the King, and preventbeing ornamented with brilliant ed his recovering the forfeited hangings suspended from the bal- title of amado Fernando, which conies, and every avenue and the war of independence had conwindow full of the multitudes of secrated. Only a few scanty faadmiring spectators. The con vors were dealt out to individuals, tract of marriage was subscribed who like the Conde de Cartageby the royal parties in person that na, Don Pablo Morillo, bore the evening, and the next day the stigma of royal reprobation after religious ceremony of the velacion having served their country but was solemnized in the convent of too faithfully and zealously. Atocha. Splendid illuminations, The King and Queen of Nawith bull fights and theatrical rep- ples continued in Spain during resentations prepared for the oc- part of the winter of 1829 and casion, completed the rejoicings 1830, partaking of the festivities of the inhabitants of Madrid. of the court of Madrid, after

Meanwhile no act of amnesty which they returned home again made its_appearance.

The by the way of France. If the Duque de Frias and some other treasure expended in this costly principal grandees, who had been royal progress had heen approliving under a kind of general dis- priated towards the payment of trust on account of their liberal certain of the just debts of Naopinions, embraced this occasion ples, which she has so long pleadto offer their congratulations, and ed poverty as an excuse for not to propitiate the good will of the discharging, it would have spoken King. It was whispered that better for the justice and honesty Ferdinand himself proposed that of King Francis. the healing measure, which the The promise of offspring by his popular sentiment called for, Queen was hailed by Ferdinand should be frankly accorded. He with peculiar joy, in consideration countenanced the public expecta- of the long disappointment of his tions by some unequivocal acts wishes in this respect. He took emanating from himself. Thus occasion from this circumstance he invited the venerable and ami- to revive the ancient constitution able Don Manuel Josef Quintana, of the Spanish monarchy in rewho, like every other ardent friend gard to succession. When Philof letters, had favored the cause ip of Anjou became King of of the Constitution and had been Spain, among other violent chang

es in the institutions of the coun ers generally. Much speculation try, he saw fit to introduce the was occasioned abroad by the fact Salic law of his own family, in of the recognition of Don Miguel derogation of the rules of descent by the United States. These things which had elevated himself to depend so entirely in Europe the throne, and which had always upon selfish considerations of obtained in the States of Castille. family, or artificial combinations In anticipation of the possibility to preserve the balance of pɔwer, that the unborn infant might prove or a blind submission of all other a daughter, and that no male off- questions to the single one of lespring might be granted to his gitimacy or constitutionalism, that prayers, Ferdinand, in the plen- no stable or consistent principle of itude of the legislative authority of recognition there prevails. Hence absolutism, repealed the Salic law it is that Europeans are slow to of Philip V. and restored the comprehend the principle, which rules of succession of the Gothic ies at the foundation of our forand Austrian lines, which de- eign intercourse, of holding friendvolve the descent upon female, ly relations with every other esin default of male heirs. The tablished government, without result justified the forethought of scrutinizing the casuistical points the King, as the child proved to of right, which the government be a daughter, who now therefore may put forward to justify its own has claims to the Crown adverse existence. It is sufficient for us to those of Don Carlos.

as a government, to know that the We defer to another year the sceptre of Miguel is received by history of events in Portugal. the Portuguese themselves. As They chiefly consist of the tyran men and Christians, we trust no nical vagaries of the usurper Mi- European will exceed us in repguel, who, although acknowledg- robation of his character and coned during the year by Spain and duct, or in solicitude that better the United States, did not obtain rulers and better days may be the countenance of the great pow- given for unhappy Portugal.

CHAPTER XXI.

ENGLAND.

mons.

Retrospective View of the Settlement of the Catholic question in 1829. - Its Consequences. - Its essential connexion with

other projects of Reform, especially of the Representation in the House of Com

Meeting of Parliament, February, 1830. — Debates on the Addresses in answer to the Speech from the Throne. Universal Distress of the Country. Amendments to the Addresses proposed; rejected. Amendment moved by Lord King. Reduction and Substitution of Taxes. Parliamentary Reform. Affairs of India. Foreign Affairs. -- Greece. - Portugal

. Death of George IV. – Notices of his Life and Character of William IV. - Notices of his previous Life.

Dissolution of Parliament. Meeting of the new Parlament. Declaration of the Duke of Wellington against Parliamentary Reform. Threatened Riots in London. - Postponement of the Royal Banquet on Lord Mayor's Day. Civil List

. - Motion for Inquiry carried against the Ministers. They resign. New Ministry. Earl Grey Premier. Reform. Riots and

Disturbances in the Country. The most prominent event of and even Christianity itself in any the year 1829 in the history of other than these privileged forms Great Britain was the Revolution, of worship were not only excluded for so it might justly be denomi- from all countenance and support, nated, in the religious establish- but prohibited by penalties, perment of the country. By the secuted by disabilities, or at best Revolution of 1688, and the sub- partially exempted from proscripsequent acts of Parliament for tions by an oppressive and insothe settlement of the Crown, the lent toleration. Since their civil Protestant Religion had been in wars of the 17th century, the Britcorporated into the political con ish nation, mistaking the expulsion stitution of the State. Not only of tyrants for the establishment of the succession to the Crown, but liberty, had fancied themselves the enjoyment of almost all politi- free, and had accustomed themcal rights by individuals was ex- selves to the pride of freedom. clusively confined to sectarians of They had cast off the spiritual dothe Church of England, or of the minion of the Church of Rome, Kirk of Scotland; and while and the hereditary misrule of the the whole people were heavily Stuarts. But in breaking their taxed for the support of ecclesi- own setters they had riveted them astical institutions of those de- upon others. For a tyrannical nominations, all other religions, Church of Rome they had only

substituted a tyrannical Church of ever erroneous we may deem the England. The Protestant refor- principle to be, which had thus mation had so far prevailed among made religious intolerance a funthe people in the island of Great damental law of the realm, we Britain, that the adherents to the cannot withhold the tribute of reRomish faith were there left in a spect from the motive of the small minority; but the combined scruple which never ceased to rigor of Church and State weigh- sway the determination of the ed with equal severity upon large King. At the time when the bodies of dissenters from the legal separate political existence of Ireestablishment and in Ireland, land was merged in her union with where a great majority of the Great Britain, when Mr Pitt, who people had retained their allegi- had been nearly twenty years at ance to the Pope, and their devo- the head of a successful administion 10 the Catholic creeds, the tration, and had enjoyed during British laws for the establishment that long period the most unof the Protestant faith and the bounded royal favor, had pledged maintenance of the Protestant himself to obtain from Parliasuccession, were engines not of ment the revocation of the Cathofreedom but of the most odious lic disabilities, this impracticability oppression.

of the King, not only disabled Mr During a long series of years Pitt from the performance of his there had been a succession of engagement, but brought his adstruggles by the sufferers under ministration itself to a sudden and this tyranny, assisted by the more unexpected close. Several years disinterested efforts of the friends after, and subsequent to the deof civil and religious liberty, to cease of Mr Pitt, the same King cast off this galling yoke, and to had abruptly dismissed another recover the natural right of wor- administration for merely proposshipping God according to the ing to bring forward the project dictates of their own consciences. of Catholic emancipation in ParThe greatest of all the obstacles liament, and in the formation of a in their way was that the mainte- Ministry to supply their places nance exclusively of the Church of had made it an express condition England and of the Kirk of Scot- that they should never bring forland had been incorporated in the ward this obnoxious measure coronation oath of the British in Parliament, nor even make King. In the deeply conscien- mention of it to him. His suctious mind of George the Third, cessor, George the Fourth, inherthe question of Catholic emanci- ited the scruples of his father, but pation was not a question of po- not his stubbornness of adherence litical expediency, nor of tolera to them.

Until the last year of tion, nor of justice, but of fidelity his life, he had resisted by all the to his oath. He did not permit influence that he possessed, the himself to examine or investigate introduction and progress of any argument from any other consid- plan for admitting the Catholics to eration. He adhered inflexibly the equal enjoyment of civil and to what he had sworn — and how- political righis. Even so late as

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