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aggregate, in hand, of 17,029 24 1-2-a as Indian pottery, Indian arrow points, small balance of the agricultural fund (made of flint,) and pieces of wood in being added to it.
various shapes. January, 1830.— The Legislature ad The Gold Mines.-From the slight journed sine die, on the 8th inst. after a experiments made during last summer, session of 54 days. Among the acts the
prospects of a rich deposit of gold passed was one respecting the crime of in Rowan, were apparently as good as Bigamy. It alters the punishment from in any part of the State ; but from a lack death, to imprisonment, branding and of enterprise, and other concurring obwhipping
stacles, the experimental labors were enThe Legislature of this State at the tirely suspended for a period of seven or session of 1829–30, also authorized the eight months. But some new mines Superior and County Courts to declare having been this spring discovered, and bastard children legitimate upon the pe a better spirit infused into the proprietition of the putative father, but the ef- tors of those opened last season, the opfect of the legislation is only to enable erations at the Rowan mines have been the child to inherit the real estate where. commenced afresh with the prospect of of the father may die seised, and to en realizing fair profits in the business.title him to a child's share of the per. Among other new discoveries, is a vein sonal estate, and to impose on the fa- mine, on the land of Williamson Harris, ther all the obligations of a parent to- Esq. which promises to rival the rich wards his lawful children.
veins in Mecklenburg. It also by resolution, requested the at In Davidson, Cabarrus, and Mecklentention of Congress to the offence of at- burg counties, new machinery is being tempting to sell a forged order or draft erected, in addition to the various works upon the U. S. Bank-an offence which heretofore in operation. Horse power, had not been provided for in the act of it is now generally conceded, is not as incorporation.
effective and economical, for driving the March. On the 28th of this month, machinery, as either steam or water the Court House of Hartford Co. was power; the former mode is, consequentdestroyed by fire, with all the records ly, rapidly giving place to the two latter. contained in it.
In those counties, immense quantities of June. Fossil Discoveries. A short the precious metals are realized, not ontime since workmen employed in search. ly from the gold mills, but by means of ing for gold, discovered three posts just the divers other contrivances used for at the top of the slate formation, and be separating the fine gold from the grosser low the stratum of flint rocks (quartz?] substances. which contains the gold. These posts Burke county appears to stand unrivalwere sunk perpendicularly in the slate, led, thus far, in North, as well as South and about four feet from each other, in a America, for the extent and richness triangular position. They were dug up of her deposit mines. New discoveries and examined, and found to be of post are almost daily made ; and it would oak timber, about four feet long and ten seem as though the ariferpus strata perinches in diameter; the lower ends were vaded the banks of every river,creek and sharpened, while the upper evidently branch in that whole extent of country, appeared to be sawed off transversely; Recently, Rutherford county has vied in the sides were mortise holes, together with her neighbor Burke, for distincwith the marks of an axe, too apparent to tion in her golden resources. We learn be mistaken from the position in which from the Spectator, that a mine lately these posts were found, it would seem discovered on lands of Thomas Seans, that they had formed the legs of a rude and worked by Charles Hill, yielded in table or bench at some former period. one week, by the labor of four hands, In proof that no modern cause could have $162 worth of metal. Besides, there placed them where they have now been had previously been a goodly number of found, the ground is elevated and near mines opened in Rutherford ; some of the creek, and beneath any alluvial de- which had been pretty extensively and posits of soil : yet when and by whom profitably worked. they were placed, must for the present The operations of the mines in Montremain a subject of inquiry and specula- gomery, Anson, and Guilford counties, tion. At many other mines sticks of are not as extensive as formerly; yet a timber and logs have been found, in and saving business is done at all those which on the slate formation, together with a are worked with any degree of spirit variety of articles, formed by art, such and economy, and in many instances a
rich reward is realized for the labor be suffered, not only by those engaged in stowed.
the mining business, but by nearly the In Haywood county, (a correspon- whole community engaged in the gold dent of the Raleigh Star, states) Gold region, for want of such an establishhas been discovered on the lands of Col. ment. Crude gold is quite a common Robert Love, and E. Deaver, near article of traffic throughout this region; Waynesville ; and the probability is, that and in some measure, is made the circuwere suitable experiments to be made, lating medium of the country; its intrinvaluable mines could be opened there. sic value is uncertain, and there being
Such being the condition of the min. no establishment, in which the public ing business, -extensive and valuable at will repose confidence, to ascertain and this time, and yet richer and more prof- affix such value, a door is necessarily itable in prospective,-it is much and opened for much speculation and persincerely to be regretted, that the prop- plexity among those who deal in the arosition of the Hon. Mr Carson, for the ticle. Another session of Congress will establishment, in the Gold Region, of a be anxiously looked to, for the accombranch of the United States Mint, or plishment of a measure which is viewed even an Assayer's Office, should have in anticipation, as fraught with many failed of receiving the sanction of Con- benefits to the gold region. gress. A very great inconvenience is
November, 1829. The Legislature met On the subject of the Tariff' it asserts on the 23d inst. at Columbia.
that the Manufacturers press their The Message of the Governor was claims upon the bounty of Government transmitted to the Legislature on the in a manner unparalleled in the history 24th inst.
of legislation. The direct interest of It notices with satisfaction the change individuals or of particular sections of in the administration of the General country, is made the basis of a system, Government -- and observes that in the sapping the foundation of the honest laory it is the most perfect government bor and constitutional rights of other on earth, whether it prove so in practice sections. It is entirely obvious that is to depend on a fair and honest expo- those states owning slaves, have a dissition of its powers.'
tinct and separate interest from such as • It is in vain to suppose, that a coun- have none. try so extensive, embracing such a vari The Governor then proceeds to men. ety of interests as ours, can be govern. tion the Protest of the last Legislature ed exclusively by Congress, without de. which was forwarded to Washington, stroying its present free institutions.- and entered on the Journals of ConThat is the best government, which in. gress. terferes least with the interests and The details of the arrangement of property of its citizens. If the preten. the State Government are stated to be sion lately set up by Congress, to pass not sufficiently simple and harmonious, laws to bind the states " in all cases and amendments are suggested. “There whatever,” or, what is the same thing, is but little accountability felt now, in to do whatever the general welfare re. the fiscal affairs of this state. A great quires, be sustained, then, this govern. portion of the finances are in the hands ment, instead of being one in which lib- of irresponsible agents whose honesty is erty is enjoyed and the right of property the only public security. It is submit. protected, is a hateful despotism. Let ted whether it would not be expedient the consequences be what they may, to make Columbia the seat of governthose must answer for them, who pre- ment, in fact, and the place of resisent the alternative of servile submission, dence, of the principal Executive Offior constitutional resistance, to usurped cers.' powers. It might better comport with Defects are perceived to exist in the timid women and cowardly men to pay present system of imperfect responsibil. black mail to freebooters, than to arm ity, &c. in the clerks and sheriffs, and and repel them. But an intelligent and it is not • an uncommon thing for suitors brave people will not look to the possible to lose their debts by the insolvency of consequences involved in the defence of those officers. Strictly speaking, the pubtheir dearest and most invaluable rights.' lic ought to underwrite for their fidelity.
A revision of the Criminal Law of the • The pledge made in 1818, to approstate is recommended. The punish- priate one million of dollars to objects of ment for some offences is uncertain and internal improvement has been redeemfor many too severe. Some assistance ed, and another million has almost been to the planting interest is next proposed. expended. The objects within the conOn the capital embarked in this busi- templation of the Legislature are nearly ness, few persons make, it is said, more completed. The benefits resulting from than 4 per cent, while the legal interest these appropriations are now successfulin Carolina is 7 per cent. That planter ly developing themselves. The interwho is now paying 7 per cent interest is course between Columbia and Charlesengaged in a losing business. By re ton by the state road, has been much faducing the rate of interest, you will save cilitated, and great improvement in the such from the ruin incident to indiscre- navigation of the rivers below the falls, tion and procrastination.'
has been realized. The Rocky Mount • We have also a deep concern in Canal will soon be completed, which adopting such legislation as will give to will open a communication to one of the the mass of our population an interest best bodies of land in the southern counin agriculture. Every planter who dis. try. How far the improvement of this poses of his land and slaves, feels a di- fine river will be extended beyond our minished zeal in behalf of Southern in- line, will depend upon the enterprise of stitutions, and most of them invest the the citizens of North Carolina.' proceeds in the U. S. Bank Stock. To
• The sums, heretofore invested in permit such to be exempt from taxation, public works and their unfinished state is holding out a premium to them to abandon their own State, while it in- longer, the continuance of the office of
in some instances, require for a season creases the burthen of taxation on the Superintendent of Public Works.' balance. It is therefore recommended that the Stock of the Bank should be
The road police is defective, but some taxed.
measures have been adopted for its imNoticing the late Census of the State,
provement. the Governor remarks, · The increase of
The Financial Resources of the State population has been limited owing to
are thus enumerated :-" There was in emigration. Nothing tends to retard the Treasury, on the 1st of September permanent improvement of the country 1829, $131,219; this, added to the ordi. more than the roving habits of our peo- nary, revenue of the present fiscal year, ple. It is natural that the new states
would give $466,762, exceeding the should desire to increase their popula- highest estimate of public expenditure tion, and with it their political influence $236,390. The large amount of surplus in the Union. Among other scheines to revenue, exhibited by this estimate of effect this purpose is to be ranked the the resources of the state, proves her gratuitous distribution of the public ability, in time of unparalleled depresland to emigrants. How far it may be sion in her great staples to sustain her politic to adopt countervailing measures
credit. Whether it would be prudent to on this subject, you will determine. The continue the ordinary taxes now imporight to set limits to emigration is an sed, with a view to an accumulation of original principle in the body politic. the means, through the agency of the Without insisting upon an interdict of Bank, to meet the public debt, when it emigration, you will consider, how far becomes due, deserves your considerait becomes your duty to make it the in. tion. The profits upon the funds already terest of the citizen to reinain on his na
yested in that institution, are supposed tive soil. By protecting resident free
to be entirely competent to the ultimate holders from an involuntary sale of real liquidation of the public debt. Besides estates, local attachments would be fos- this, the state has a just and constitutered. Whether such an interference tional claim against the United States, with a relation of debtor and creditor be for more than $160,000, which we can considered politic or not, -at all events, not otherwise than believe will be speeda re vision of the law, relating to Sherily liquidated by the General Govern. iff's sales, so as to permit a defendant, or any one for him, to redeem a purchase
• The South Carolina College, (at Co. of real estate made at Sheriff's sale lumbia,) is in a prosperous state, whethwithin a year, with an authority in the we regard the number or the habSheriff to put the purchaser in posses. its of the students. A regulation has sion in case of a failure to redeem lately been adopted, permitting stuwould be an improvement.'
dents to board out of Commons, which
the Governor approves. It is supposed had the authority of his great name the whole number of students this win- been more decidedly with the opinion of ter will be 120.
S. C. in reference to a modification of About $37,000 are annually appro- the tariff of 1828. Nothing but a relinpriated for Free Schools. "The benefit quishment of the principles of that law derived from this appropriation is partial, would satisfy S. C., and although not founded on no principle, and arbitrarily then inclined to express any fears of the dispensed by the Commissioners. If the disposition of Congress to make such a . fund could be so managed as to educate modification, the report recommended thoroughly a given number of young the Legislature to wait, until it should men, and to require them afterwards to be satisfied by the course of Congress, teach a limited time, as an equivalent, that there was no redress against the the effects would be soon seen and felt.' oppression of an interested and com
• The Judicial System of the State, bined majority, but by the conservative corrected by the Legislature in 1824, is power residing in the state as a sovedeserving of much praise. Under its reign.' This report, which recommend. influence litigation is diminishing, and ed delay, but disclaimed any intention of the manners and habits of the people giving up the doctrine of nullification, are improving. Some additional amend was agreed to after an ineffectual atments are suggested to prevent mis- tempt to lay it on the table. The vote trials at Common Law, the tendency of on laying it on the table, stood, Ayes 42, which is to produce a litigious and quar- Nays 72. relsome disposition. The modern prac
appeared by a report of the Comtice is, as soon as the Jury come into mittee on Schools, that the number of court and say they cannot agree, they public schools established in the state are discharged, and the case stands over was 513, wherein 5361 scholars were for further trial. In civil cases, the ma educated at the annual expense of $35,jority of the Jury ought to determine 310. the case. The abolition of the old prac FINANCES. — The comptroller general tice of constraining the Jury to agree, reported a balance in the Treasury on ought to be followed by such an im- the 1st of October, 1828, of $118,518 provement as wonld put an end to Receipts between that time mis-trials.' At present, by the land and 1st Oct. 1829,
328,072 law, a plaintiff has a right to two fair Disbursements,
315,370 trials of his title: 'one verdict on the Balance Oct. 1st, 1829, 131,220 merits does not conclude the plaintiff, as Estimates for 1829–30. it does the defendant. This right to a Expenses of Executive Dept'. 6,980 second action is oppressive, intolerably
39,172 so, except to an insolvent or wealthy
13,400 Dec. Resolutions expressive of the Legislative,
22,640 sense of the Legislature against the re Miscellaneous,
141,540 newal of the charter of the U. States Among these last items, are for Free Bank, were introduced in the State Sen- Schools, $37,000; Pensions, $14,000 ; ate, and on the 15th of Dec. passed that Public buildings, $25,000 ; Jurors and body, Ayes 26 and Noes 10.
Constable certificates, $16,000; and inA report in favor of the establishment terest on old 3 per cents $6,000. of a national bank was then taken up The public debt of the state, as it and indefinitely postponed.
stood at the end ef 1829, amounted to The next day a report was called up $1,670,000; falling due in the House of Representatives, con $800,000 in
1840 cerning the relations of the state, with 200,000
1842 the general government. This report 250,000
1844 commenced with expressing the gratifi 300,000
1846 cation of the Legislature, at the election Sinking fund applicable to this debt of Gen. Jackson as President, and its amounts to $363,000. confidence in the course of policy indi The Committee of ways and means, cated in his annual message. It would estimate an annual surplus of $50,000 have been desirable however, (it adds) to be carried to the sinking fund.
November 2, 1829. The Legislature mended by his important services and assembled at Milledgeville on the 2d spotless integrity What is most to be inst. Thomas Stocks was elected Pres- regretted, is the determination of the ident of the Senate, and William Y. Federal Government to enforce the law Hensel, Secretary; and Col. Warren regulating trade and intercourse with Jordan was chosen Speaker of the House the Indians. If the evidence collected of Representatives,and William C. Daw. by our commissioner proves that the son, Clerk.
land between the two lines is compreThe Message of Gov. Forsyth was hended in the last Creek contract, the presented on the following day. Its first law of Congress does not apply to it: subject is, respecting the Cherokee lands. the Cherokees are not the rightful occuIn compliance with a resolution to that pants, the question of its constitutionality effect, immediately after the close of the being waived, cannot operate after June last session of the Legislature, examina- 1830. If not already within the exceptions were made relative to the boun- tion of the 19th section of the act, in dary between the Creeks and Chero- June next the Cherokees in Georgia kees, and a surveyor employed to mark will become so, as they will be within the line. The territory described by the ordinary jurisdiction of the state. this survey is estimated to contain 1824 Hope is entertained that circumstances square miles, or 1,667,360 acres ; the soil may allow the Secretary of war to is represented to be fertile. A map of countermand the order before the time it was sent with the evidence to sup- arrives for its execution, and that no ocport its accuracy to the President of the currence will produce any excitement United States, with a request that he or collision between the General and would have the Indians residing upon State Governments. The application to the territory immediately removed. The the President of the United States to answer given, in two communications interfere, was inconsistent with our through the Secretary of War, are sub- alleged right to determine all such quesmitted to the Legislature. “In the first, tions without the intervention of the auwe are told, “the President considers thority either of the Executive or Legisit improper for him to offer any opinion lature of the Union; but having been on the question of title,” but earnestly made, in deference to past usage, and desires that Georgia will forbear any from a sincere desire to act in concert course that may appear compulsory. In with the administration of the General the second, that the President prefers Government, a regard for consistency, to refer the matter, for the present, to a not less than a due respect for the audifferent tribunal.' General Coffee, of thority to which we have appealed, Alabama, has been selected to proceed compels us to wait tranquilly for the deat once to collect evidence on the facts, cision we have invoked. upon which the claim of the State to the It proceeds to say that the opinions occupation of the lands is founded. upon which the act extending the State The Governor thus proceeds — • The laws over the Indians within our terricomplaints of the Cherokees of intrusions tory is founded, accord with those of the upon their lands, have produced an order present administration of the Federal from the War Department, for the re Government. In the exercise of our moval, after the 15th of October, of those sovereign power, limited as it is, only white persons who have settled between by the constitution of the United States, the ancient and modern line separating there is little danger of our again meetthe Creeks and Cherokees. This order ing with formidable obstacles from the is a decision against us until further imposing authority of the Executive of inquiry. To what tribunal allusion is the Union. While indulging sanguine made, is not explained. We cannot ob- expectations that the compact of 1802 ject to any investigation of the facts will be either fulfilled, or put in train deemed necessary to justify the removal for fulfilment before June, 1830, pruof the Indians; but the character of the dence requires that legislative provisstate would be compromitted by any at- ion should be made on the possibility tempt to enter into an investigation as that those expectations may be disapthe adversaries of the Cherokees, before pointed. The Indians who may continany commissioner, however recom ue within our jurisdiction after June