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tory, that the practice obtained its constitutional compacts cannot be first footing. In most, if not all obtained from communities like other disputed questions of appro- ours, it need not be anticipated priation, the construction of the elsewhere; and the cause in Constitution may be regarded as which there has been so much unsettled, if the right to apply martyrdom, and from which so money, in the enumerated cases, much was expected by the friends is placed on the ground of usage. of liberty, may be abandoned :

This subject has been one of and the degrading truth, that man much, and I may add painful re- is unfit for self-government, adflection to me. It has bearings mitted. And this will be the case, that are well calculated to exert a if expediency be made a rule powerful influence upon our bith- of construction in interpreting the erto prosperous system of govern- Constitution. Power, in no govment, and which on some ac- ernment, could desire a better counts, may even excite despon- shield for the insidious advances dency in the breast of an American which it is ever ready to make citizen. I will not detain you upon the checks that are designed with professions of zeal in the to restrain its action. cause of Internal Improvements. But I do not entertain such If to be their friend is a virtue, gloomy apprehensions. If it be which deserves commendation, the wish of the people that the our country is blessed with an construction of roads and canals abundance of it: for I do not should be conducted by the Fedsuppose there is an intelligent citi- eral Government, it is not only zen who does not wish to see highly expedient, but indispensably them flourish. But though all are necessary, that a previous amendtheir friends, but few, I trust, are ment of the Constitution, delegatupmindful of the means by which ing the necessary power, and dethey should be promoted: none fining and restricting its exercise certainly are so degenerate as to with reference to the sovereignty desire their success at the cost of of the States, should be made. that sacred instrument, with the Without it, nothing extensively preservation of which is indissolu- useful can be effected. The bly bound our country's hopes. right to exercise as much jurisdicIf different impressions are enter- tion as is necessary to preserve tained in any quarter ; if it is ex- the works, and to raise funds by pected that the people of this the collection of tolls to keep country, reckless of their constitu- them in repair cannot be dispensed tional obligations, will prefer their with. The Cumberland road local interest to the principles of should be an instructive admonithe Union, such expectations will tion of the consequences of acting in the end be disappointed ; or, if without this right. Year after it be not so, then indeed has the year, contests are witnessed, growworld but little to hope from the ing out of efforts to obtain the example of free government. necessary appropriations for comWhen an honest observance of pleting and repairing this useful

work. While one Congress may for the exercise of power by the claim and exercise the power, a constituted authorities, while those, succeeding one may deny it, and for whose benefit it is to be exerthis fluctuation of opinion must be cised, have not conferred it, and unavoidably fatal to any scheme, may not be willing to confer it. which, from its extent, would pro- It would seem to me that an honest mote the interests and elevate the application of the conceded powcharacter of the country. The ers of the General Government to experience of the past has shown the advancement of the common that the opinion of Congress is weal, presents a sufficient scope to subject to such fluctuations. satisfy a reasonable ambition.

If it be the desire of the people The difficulty and supposed imthat the agency of the Federal practicability of obtaining an Government should be confined amendment of the Constitution in to the appropriation of money, in this respect, is, I firmly believe, in aid of such undertakings, in vir- a great degree, unfounded. The tue of State authorities, then the time has never yet been, when the occasion, the manner, and the ex- patriotism and intelligence of the tent of the appropriations, should American people were not fully be made the subject of constitu- equal to the greatest exigency, tional regulation. This is the and it never will, when the subject inore necessary, in order that they calling forth their interposition is may be equitable among the seve plainly presented to them. To eral States; promote harmony do so with the questions involved between different sections of the in this bill, and io urge them to an Union and their Representatives; early, zealous, and full considerapreserve other parts of the Consti- tion of their deep importance, is tution from being undermined by in my estimation, ainong the highthe exercise of doubtsul powers, est of our duties. or the too great extension of those A supposed connexion between which are not so; and protect the appropriations for internal imwhole subject against the delete- provement and the system of prorious influence of combinations to iecting duties, growing out of the carry by concert, measures which, anxieties of those more immediconsidered by themselves, might ately interested in their success, meet but little countenance. has given rise to suggestions which

That a constitutional adjustment it is proper I should notice on this of this power, upon equitable prin- occasion. My opinions on these ciples, is, in the highest degree, de- subjects have never been concealsirable can scarcely be doubted; ed from those who had a right to nor can it fail to be promoted by know them. Those which I have every sincere friend to the success entertained on the latter have freof our political institutions. In no quently placed me in opposition Government are appeals to the to individuals as well as communisource of power, in cases of real ties, whose claims upon my frienddoubt more suitable than in ours. ship and gratitude are of the No good motive can be assigned strongest character ; but I trust

there has been nothing in my means of large appropriations, as public life which has exposed me a substitute for the security which to the suspicion of being thought the system derives from the princapable of sacrificing my views of ciples on which it has hitherto been duty to private considerations, sustained. Such a course would however strong they may have certainly indicate either an unreabeen, or deep the regrets which sonable distrust of the people, or a they are capable of exciting. consciousness that the system does

As long as the encouragement not possess sufficient soundness for of domestic manufactures is di- its support, if left to their volunrected to national ends, it shall tary choice and its own merits. receive from me a temperate but Those who suppose that any posteady support. There is no ne- licy thus founded can be long cessary connexion between it and upheld in this country, have looked the system of appropriations. On upon its history with eyes very the contrary, it appears to me that different from mine. This policy, the supposition of their dependence like every other, must abide the upon each other is calculated to will of the people, who will not excite the prejudices of the public be likely to allow any device, against both. The former is sus- however specious, to conceal its tained on the grounds of its con- character and tendency. sistency with the letter and spirit In presenting these opinions I of the Constitution, of its origin have spoken with the freedom and being traced to the assent of all candor which I thought the oceathe parties to the original compact, sion for their expression called for, and of its having the support and and now respectfully return the approbation of a majority of the bill which has been under considpeople; on which account, it is at eration, for your further deliberaleast entitled to a fair experiment. tion and judgment. The suggestions to which I have

ANDREW JACKSON, alluded refer to a forced continu

May 27, 1830, ance of the national debt, by

A Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation, between

the United States of America, and His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil.

In the name of the Most Holy and Indi- resolved to fix, in a manner clear, visible Trinity.

distinct, and positive, the rules

which shall in future be religiously The United States of Ainerica observed between the one and and His Majesty the Emperor of the other, by means of a Treaty, Brazil, desiring to establish a firm or General Convention of Peace, and permanent peace and friend- Friendship, Commerce, and Naviship between both nations, have gation.

For this most desirable object, who shall enjoy the same freely, the President of the United Siates if the concession was freely made, has conferred full power on Wil- or on allowing the same compenliam Tudor their Chargé d'Affaires sation, if the concession was conat the Court of Brazil; and His ditional. It is understood, howMajesty the Emperor of Brazil ever, that the relations and conon the Most Illustrious and Most ventions which now exist or may Excellent Marquez of Aracaty, a hereafter exist between Brazil member of his Council, Gentleman and Portugal, shall form an excepof the Imperial Bed-chamber, tion to this article. Councillor of the Treasury, Grand Art. 3. The two high contractCross of the Order of Aviz, Sen- ing parties being likewise desirous ator of the Empire, Minister and of placing the commerce and paviSecretary of State for Foreign gation of their respective countries, Affairs, and Miguel de Souza on the liberal basis of perfect Mello e Alvim, a member of his equality and reciprocity, mutually Council, Commander of the Order agree, that the citizens and subof Aviz, Knight of the Imperial jects of each may frequent all the Order of the Cross, Chief of coasts and countries of the other, Division in the Imperial National and reside and trade there in all Navy, Minister and Secretary of kinds of produce, manufactures State for the Marine, who after and merchandise : and they shall having exchanged their said full enjoy all the rights, privileges and powers, in due and proper form, exemptions, in navigation and have agreed to the following arti- commerce, which native citizens cies :

or subjects do, or shall enjoy, ARTICLE 1. There shall be a submitting themselves to the laws, persect, firm and inviolable peace decrees, and usages, there estaband friendship between the United lished, to which native citizens or States of America and their citi- subjects are subjected. But it is zens, and His Imperial Majesty, understood that this article does his

and subjects, not include the coasting trade of throughout their possessions and either country, the regulation of territories respectively, without which is reserved by the parties distinction of persons or places. respectively, according to their

Art. 2. The United States of own separate laws. America, and His Majesty the ART. 4. They likewise agree Emperor of Brazil, desiring to that whatever kind of produce, live in peace and harmony with all manufactures, or merchandise, of the other nations of the earth, by any foreign country, can be from means of a policy frank and time to time, lawfully imported equally friendly with all, engage into the United States, in their mutually, not to grant any partic- own vessels, may be also imported ular favor to other nations in re- in vessels of Brazil : and that no spect of commerce and navigation, higher or other duties upon the which shall not immediately be- tonnage of the vessel and her carcome common to the other party, go, shall be levied and collected,


whether the importation be made on the like articles, being the proin the vessels of the one country duce or manufactures of any other or the other. And in like manner, foreign country : nor shall any that whatever kind of produce, higher or other duties, or charges manufactures, or merchandise of be imposed in either of the two any foreign country, can be from countries, on the exportation of time to time, lawfully imported any articles to the United States, into the Empire of Brazil, in its or to the Empire of Brazil reown vessels, may be also imported spectively, than such as are payain vessels of the United States: ble on the exportation of the like and that no higher or other duties article to any other foreign country: upon the tonnage of the vessel nor shall any prohibition be imand her cargo, shall be levied or posed on the exportation or imcollected whether the importation portation of any articles, the probe made in vessels of the one duce or manufactures of the United country, or of the other. And States, or of the Einpire of Brazil, they agree

that whatever may be to or from the territories of the lawsully exported, or re-exported United States, or to or from the from the one country in its own territories of the Empire of Brazil, vessels, to any foreign country, which shall not equally extend to may in like manner, be exported all other nations. or re-exported in the vessels of ART. 6. It is likewise agreed, the other country. And the same that it shall be wholly free for all bounties, duties, and drawbacks, merchants, commanders of ships, shall be allowed and collected, and other citizens or subjects of whether such exportation, or re- both countries, to manage themexportation, be made in vessels of selves their own business, in all the United States, or of the Em- the ports and places subject to the pire of Brazil. The government jurisdiction of each other, as well of the United States however con- with respect to the consignment sidering the present state of the and sale of their goods and mernavigation of Brazil, agrees that a chandise by wholesale or retail, as vessel shall be considered as with respect to the loading, unloadBrazilian when the proprietoring and sending off their ships ; and captain are subjects of Brazil they being in all these cases to be and the papers are in legal form. treated as citizens or subjects of

Art. 5. No higher or other the country in which they reside, duties shall be imposed on the or at least to be placed on a footimportation into the United States, ing with the subjects or citizens of of any articles the produce or the most favored nation. manufactures of the Empire of Art. 7. The citizens and subBrazil, and no higher or other jects of neither of the contracting duties shall be imposed on the parties shall be liable to any emimportation into the Empire of bargo, nor be detained with their Brazil, of any articles the produce vessels, cargoes, or merchandise or manufactures of the United or effects, for any military expeStates, than are or shall be payable dition, nor for any public or private

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