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lowed the term of six months to Ministers and Public Agents of the merchants residing on the any other power, shall, by the coasts and in the ports of each same act, be extended to those of other, and the term of one year, to each of the contracting parties. those who dwell in the interior, to ART. 28. To make more arrange their business, and trans- effectual the protection which the port their effects wherever they United States and the Empire of please, giving to them the safe Brazil shall afford in future to the conduct necessary for it, which navigation and commerce of the may serve as a sufficient protection citizens and subjects of each other, until they arrive at the designated they agree to receive and admit port. The citizens and subjects Consuls and Vice-Consuls in all of all other occupations, who may the ports open to foreign combe established in the territories or merce, who shall enjoy in them dominions of the United States, all the rights, prerogatives, and and of the Empire of Brazil, shall immunities, of the Consuls, and be respected and maintained in Vice-Consuls of the most favored the full enjoyment of their personal nations : each contracting party, liberty and property, unless their however, remaining at liberty to particular conduct shall cause them except those ports and places in to forfeit this protection, which in which the admission and residence consideration of humanity, the of such Consuls may not seem contracting parties engage to give convenient. them.

ART. 29. In order that the ART. 26. Neither the debts due Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the from the individuals of the one na- two contracting parties, may ention to the individuals of the other, joy the rights, prerogatives, and nor shares nor money, which they immunities, which belong to them, may have in public funds, nor in by their public character, they public or private banks, shalleverin shall before entering on the exerany event of war or national differ- cise of their functions, exhibit their ence be sequestrated or confiscated. commissions or patentin due

ART. 27. Both the contracting form, to the government to which parties being desirous of avoiding they are accredited : and having all inequality in relation to their obtained their exequatur, they public communications and official shall be held and considered as intercourse, have agreed and do such, by all the authorities, magisagree, to grant to their Envoys, trates, and inhabitants, in the conMinisters, and other public Agents, sular district in which they reside. ibe same favors, immunities and ART. 30. It is likewise agreed, exemptions, which those of the that the Consuls, their Secretaries, most favored pation do, or shall officers, and persons attached to enjoy ; it being understood, that the service of Consuls, they not whatever favors, immunities, or being citizens or subjects of the privileges, the United States of country, in which the Consul reAmerica, or the Empire of Brazil sides, shall be exempt from all may find it proper to give the public service, and also from all

kinds of taxes, imposts, and contri- more effectually protecting their butions, except those which they commerce and navigation, the two shall be obliged to pay on account contracting parties do hereby of commerce, or their property, agree as soon hereafter, as cirto which the citizens or subjects cumstances will permit them, to and inhabitants, native and foreign, form a Consular Convention, of the country in which they re- which shall declare specially the side are subject; being in every- powers and immunities of the thing besides subject to the laws Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the of their respective States. The respective parties. archives and papers of the Con Art. 33. The United States sulate shall be respected inviolably, of America, and the Emperor of and under no pretext whatever, Brazil desiring to make as durable sball any magistrate seize or in as circumstances will permit, the any way interfere with them. relations which are to be estab

Art. 31. The said Consuls lished between the two parties by shall have power to require the virtue of this treaty, or general assistance of the authorities of the convention of peace, amity, comcountry, for the arrest, detention merce and navigation, have deand custody of deserters from clared solemnly and do agree to public and private vessels of their the following points : country, and for that purpose they 1st. The present treaty shall shall address themselves to the be in force for twelve years from courts, judges, and officers com- the date hereof, and further until petent, and shall demand the said the end of one year after either deserters in writing, proving by an of the contracting parties sball exhibition of the registers of the have given notice to the other of vessels or ship's roll, or other pub- its intention to terminate the same: lic documents, that those men were each of the contracting parties repart of said crews; and on this de- serving to itself the right of giving mand so proved, (saving however, such notice to the other, at the where the contrary is proved,) end of said term of twelve years : the delivery shall not be refused. and it is hereby agreed between Such deserters, when arrested, them, that on the expiration of shall be put at the disposal of said one year after such notice shall Consuls, and may be put in the have been received by either, public prison, at the request and from the other party, this treaty expense of those who reclaiın in all the parts relating to comthem, to be sent to the ships to merce and navigation, shall altowhich they belonged, or to others gether cease and determine, and of the same nation. But if they in all those parts which relate 10 be not sent back within two peace and friendship, it shall be months, to be counted from the permanently and perpetually bindday of their arrest, they shall be ing on both powers. set at liberty, and shall no more 2dly. If any one or more of be arrested for the same cause. the citizens or subjects of either

ART. 32. For the purpose of party shall infringe any of the


articles of this treaty, such citizen by and with the advice and conor subject shall be held personally sent of the Senate thereof, and by responsible for the same, and the the Emperor of Brazil, and the harmony and good correspond- ratifications shall be exchanged ence between the nations shall within eight months from the date not be interrupted thereby; each of the signature hereof, or sooner party engaging in no way to pro- if possible. tect the offender, or sanction such In faith whereof we the Pleniviolation.

potentiaries of the United States 3dly. If (which indeed cannot of America and of his Majesty the be expected,) unfortunately, any Emperor of Brazil have signed of the articles contained in the and sealed these presents. present treaty, shall be violated or infringed in any way whatever, it Done in the City of Rio de is expressly stipulated, that neither Jeneiro, this twelfth day of of the contracting parties will or the month of December, in der or authorize any acts of repri

the of our Lord Jesus sal, nor declare war against the

Christ, one thousand eight other, on complaints of injuries or

hundred and twenty eight. damages until the said party considering itself offended, shall first

(Signed). have presented to the other a

W. TUDOR, statement of such injuries or dam- Miguel de Souza Mello e Alvim.

MARQUEZ de ARACATY ages, verified by competent proof, and demanded justice and satis The said Treaty or general faction, and the same shall have Convention was duly ratified on been either refused, or unreasona- both parts, and the respective ratibly delayed.

fications of the same were ex4thly. Nothing in this treaty changed, at Washington, by James contained shall however, be con- A. Hamilton, Acting Secretary of strued to operate contrary to for- State of the United States, and mer and existing public treaties the Chevalier Je. Silvestre Rewith other sovereigns or states. bello, Chargé d'Affaires of His

The present treaty of peace, Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, amity, commerce and navigation, on the part of their respective shall be approved and ratified by Governments, on the 18th of the President of the United States, March, 1829.

Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States of

America, and his Majesty the King of Prussia.

The United States of America, sire of maintaining the relations and bis Majesty the King of Prus- of good understanding, which sia, equally animated with the de- have hitherto so happily subsisted

between their respective States, ting to the laws and ordinances of extending, also, and consolida- there prevailing. ting the commercial intercourse ART. 2. Prussian vessels arrivbetween them; and convinced ing either laden or in ballast in the that this object cannot better be ports of the United States of Ameraccomplished, than by adopting ica; and, reciprocally, vessels of the system of an entire freedom the United States arriving either of navigation, and a perfect reci- laden, or in ballast, in the ports procity, based upon principles of of the kingdom of Prussia, shall equity equally beneficial to both be treated, on their entrance, countries, and applicable in time during their stay, and at their deof peace, as well as in time of parture, upon the same footing as war, have, in consequence, agreed national vessels, coming from the to enter into negotiations for the same place, with respect to the conclusion of a treaty of naviga- duties of tonnage, light-houses, pition and commerce, for which lotage, salvage, and port charges, purpose the President of the as well as to the fees and perquiUnited States has conferred full sites of public officers, and all powers on Henry Clay, their other duties and charges, of whatSecretary of State; and his Ma- ever kind or denomination, levied jesty the King of Prussia has in the name, or to the profit, of conferred like powers on the Sieur the government, the local authoriLudwig Niederstetter, Chargé ties, or of any private establishd'Affaires of his said Majesty near ment whatsoever. the United States; and the said ART. 3. All kind of merchanPlenipotentiaries having exchang- dise and articles of commerce, ed their said full powers, found in either the produce of the soil or good and due form, have concluded the industry of the United States of and signed the following articles: America, or of any other country,

Art. 1. There shall be be- which may be lawfully imported tween the territories of the high into the ports of the kingdom of contracting parties, a reciprocal Prussia, in Prussian vessels, may, liberty of commerce and naviga- also, be so imported in vessels of tion. The inhabitants of their the United States of America, respective States shall, mutually, without paying other or higher have liberty to enter the ports, duties or charges, of whatever places, and rivers of the territo- kind or denomination, levied in ries of each party, wherever for- the name, or to the profit of the eign commerce is permitted. government, the local authorities, They shall be at liberty to sojourn or of any private establishment and reside in all parts whatsoever whatsoever, than if the same merof said territories, in order to at- chandise or produce had been tend to their affairs, and they shall imported in Prussian vessels. And, enjoy, to that effect, the same reciprocally, all kinds of merchansecurity and protection as natives dise and articles of commerce, of the country wherein they re- either the produce of the soil or side, on condition of their submit- of the industry of the kingdom of

Prussia, or of any other country, or exportation of any article the
which may be lawfully imported produce or manufacture of the
into the ports of the United States, United States, or of Prussia, to
in vessels of the said States, may, or from the ports of the United
also, be so imported in Prussian States, or to or from the ports of
vessels, without paying other or Prussia, which shall not equally
higher duties or charges, of what- extend to all other nations.
ever kind or denomination, levied ART. 6. All kinds of merchan-
in the name, or to the profit of the dise and articles of commerce,
government, the local authorities, either the produce of the soil or
or of any private establishments of the industry of the United
whatsoever, than if the same mer- States of America, or of any other
chandise or produce had been im- country, which may be lawfully
ported in vessels of the United exported from the ports of the
States of America.

said United States, may, also, be
ART. 4. To prevent the pos- exported therefrom in Prussian
sibility of any misunderstanding, vessels, without paying other or
it is hereby declared that the sti- higher duties or charges, of what-
pulations contained in the two pre- ever kind or denomination, levied
ceding articles, are, to their full in the name, or to the profit of the
extent, applicable to Prussian ves- Government, the local authorities,
sels, and their cargoes, arriving or of any private establishments
in the ports of the United States whatsoever, than if the same mer-
of America ; and, reciprocally, to chandise or produce had been ex-
vessels of the said States and their ported in vessels of the United
cargoes, arriving in the ports of States of America.
the kingdom of Prussia, whether An exact reciprocity shall be
the said vessels clear directly from observed in the ports of the king-
che ports of the country to which dom of Prussia, so that all kind
they respectively belong, or from of merchandise and articles of
the ports of any other foreign commerce, either the produce of

the soil or the industry of the said ART. 5. No higher or other kingdom, or of any other country, duties shall be imposed on the which may be lawfully exported importation into the United States, from Prussian ports in national of any article, the produce or vessels, may also be exported manufacture of Prussia; and no therefrom in vessels of the United higher or other duties shall be States of America, without paying imposed on the importation into other or higher duties or charges the kingdom of Prussia, of any of whatever kind or denominaarticle, the produce or manufac- tion, levied in the name, or to the ture of the United States, than profit of the Government, the loare, or shall be, payable on the cal authorities, or of any private like article, being the produce or establishments whatsoever, than manufacture of any other foreign if the same merchandise or procountry. Nor shall any prohibi- duce had been exported in Pruss tjon be imposed on the importation sian vessels,

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