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* I observe in a Buenos Ayres paper, a long quotation from judge Marshall's Life of Washington, enumerating the difficulties we had to contend with in the establishment of our constitution.
† Two petitions signed by upwards of two hundred citizens of Buenos Ayres, were presented to the municipality, praying that the city might be stripped of the honor of being the capital, as a mode of quietting the discontents of the provinces.
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ing. Ferdinand, now restored to the throne, was preparing a powerful expedition, as was supposed for the purpose of crushing them at a single blow, at a moment when the success of his armies in Peru and Chili, and the internal dissentions completely seconded his views. It is in times like these, that nations turn their eyes upon their ablest men, and for a while lay aside their petty jealousies and distrusts. The resignation of Alvares had been followed by the election dr Balčárce, who soon resigned also. The general government possessed neither power, strength, nor influence. The belt of their union had been unbuckled,
“While bloody treason flourished over them." In the language of the manifesto of Pueyrredong “anarchy had lighted up an universal conflagration." The NATIONAL CONGRESS at last assembled, towards • the close of 1815. Pueyrredon, who had been called from his retirement, was soon after elected by an unanimous vote, SUPREME DIRECTOR; certainly no unequivocal testimony in his favor. He immediately : visited the armies of San Martin and Belgrano, and on his return to Tucuman, proposed the declaration: of independence, which was finally passed on the 9th of July, 1816. The incidents of the revolution since that period, are familiar to the generality of readers;. I shall, therefore, pursue them no farther, than to ob-.. serve, that it was in a short time proved by experi... ence, that the distance from the city of Buenos Ayres, occasioned great obstacles in the management of affairs; it was, therefore, determined to remove the congress to that place.
places. It was overloaded with emblematic figures, with inscriptions and devises; a silver river was represented winding through a field of gold, and towards its head a variety of figures, emblematic of the provinces of Peru.* I had not time to examine minutely a piece of workmanship, which required as much study, as the shield of Achilles. Belgrano had presented it to the city.
I shall take this opportunity to say something of the municipal regulations. The Spanish usages are still retained with but few alterations; for in the minor departments of the government, things pursue pretty much the old train, notwithstanding the revolution; with this difference, that a desire has universally manifested itself, to establish by fixed rules, what was before a matter of routine; and in doing this, some changes would of course be made.t The duties of the cabildo, and the various offices of the police, have been reduced to writing, and printed in a pamphlet. It is divided into nineteen chapters, each containing a number of articles. The cabildo is composed of thirteen persons, annually elected, according to the mode pointed out in the provisional statute. The governor intendant presides, and in his absence the alcalde de primer voto. The duty of the officer last named, as well as that of the other alcalde, is specified by the ordinance of 1812, regulating the administration of justice. He has jurisdiction in suits
* The Argentine republic is the name which they assume in their songs
and orations. † They have a naval code, a military code, and a judiciary code; but these are little better than a few printed rules.