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thought that the mere trading with a revolted colony, or province, was an offence; or that this would be good cause of capture; and if it be lawful to trade, is it not lawful to establish such understanding with the temporary, or local authorities, as may be necessary for the regulation of such tradet May we not have resident agents for this purpose? May we not receive theirs in turn, and may we not, if we think it adviseable, enter into verbal or written stipulations to regulate this intercourse? Whether such agents should be called consuls, or ministers, or commissioners; whether they enter into stipulations or treaties of amity and commerce or not, is of no inportance.

Are there any of the American republics with which we can with safety enter into official relations, or form treaties of amity and commerce The United Provinces of La Plata are undoubtedly such. For seven years they have had complete and undisturbed possession of their country~no attempt has been made, or is likely to be made, to subdue them; and after this lapse of time, if Spain were to attempt it, she could be considered in no other light than that of an invader. We look only to the government de facto; the maxim of Spain, once a colony always a colony, is one which she must settle with the colonies as well as she can; for us it is enough that there is in La Plata a complete expulsion of the Spanish authorities, and an existing government. It will not be pretended by the most extravagant advocates of Spain, that because she has revolted colonies elsewhere, which she is trying to subdue that those which she is too weak to attempt, ought to be regarded as connected with the rest. According to this reasoning, while Spain continues to hold a single inch of land in America, the colonies must still be considered in a state of revolt.

Consistently, therefore, with the strictest neutrality, we may acknowledge La Plata, at least, as an independent state. By this simple act we will ensure to ourselves the lasting friendship of all the patriots of South America, whose feelings must be in unison , with their brethren of La Plata. It will inspire confidence in all who are engaged in the contest, it will animate every patriot with a new zeal, it will bestow a respectability upon the cause, in their own eyes, which will cheerfully unite all hearts in support of their independence. Such was the feeling which the recognition of our independence produced. As the natural head of America, it will

instantly increase our importance in the eyes of the world. Spain
may be induced at last to put a stop to the horrid effusion of hu-
man blood, and renounce an undertaking in which she never can
prevail. An understanding with the patriot governments of South
America, will also enable us to make such arrangements, as may
put a stop to many practices and abuses, in which our character as
a nation is deeply interested.*

I have thus, sir, taken a rapid glance at a subject, highly impor-
tant to the present and future interests of this country. In com-
mon with my fellow-citizens, I give my warmest wishes for the
success of the patriot cause, but at the same time, value too high-
ly the real happiness of my country, to put it to hazard by rash
and inconsiderate measures. Scarcely any period of our history
ever called for a more wise and deliberate judgment and enlighten-
ed foresight, that the one now fast approaching. Happily for us
there prevails at this juncture, a degree of harmony among our citi-
zens on political subjects, much greater than at any period since
the establishment of our constitution, and we have a WISE AND

It was given to our immortal Washington to achieve the independence of one half of America, and I most sincerely hope, it may be yours to acknowledge the independence of the other.

UPRIGHT STATESMAN AT THE HELM.

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MANIFESTO,

DIRECTED TO ALL NATIONS,
By the General Constituent Congress of the United Provinces of

Rio de la Plata.
Honorable fame is the jewel which mortals prize above existence
itself, and which it is their duty to defend above every earthly good
however great and valuable. The government of Spain has charg-
ed the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, before the nations of
the world, with perfidy and rebellion, and has denounced as perfidi-
ous and rebellious, the memorable declaration of independence of
the 9th of July, 1816, by the national congress of Tucuman; imput-
ing to them ideas of anarchy, and intentions to introduce sedi.
tious principles into other nations, at the very moment of soliciting
their friendship, and the recognition of this memorable act, in order
to be ranked among them. The first among the most sacred duties

* The practice of fitting out vessels in our ports was here alluded to.

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