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The statement in explanation of the former troops of MacArthur's and Wain- One of the discriminatory features of this bill prepared by the American Legion is wright's army were as effectively prisoners whole sordid business is the fact that the as follows:

of the Japanese as if they had remained in Army selected a handful of high-ranking of prison camp."

ficers for full payment during the period of THE AMERICAN LEGION,

During the course of the past 3 years the parole. This may have occurred because of NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION,

American Legion has tried to use its in- the standing of these men, or because of the Washington, D. C., June 8, 1954.

fluence with the Department of Defense and fact that they were economically able to Hon. JOHN SHERMAN COOPER,

the Department of the Army in an effort to press their claims before the United States United States Senate,

bring about administrative relief to these Army. Some of them made personal apSenate Office Building,

four or five thousand remaining Philippine pearances in this country. You realize, of Washington, D. C.

Scouts. We have met with failure in every course, that the $9-a-month private could DEAR SENATOR COOPER: As you know, one of

instance, and we have not been told the rea- not do this. the American Legion's tenets is mutual help

son why such payment was refused ex- The Philippine Scouts bore their full share fulness among the discharged veterans of the

cept the fallacious statement that they of the fighting and suffering leading up to wars of this country. On the basis of the

were not in casualty status. We have the fall of the Philippines. Military history above, the American Legion has rendered

positive proof to refute such statement be- is replete with their splendid performance in service to the veterans throughout the land,

cause many of these parolees in the alleged tire face of the enemy. There was no quesnot only in presenting their claims before

noncasualty status were taken by the Jap- tion about their loyalty. the Veterans' Administration, but in assist

anese and executed summarily for minor Considering the situation in the Asiatic ing veterans to obtain proper recognition by

violations of parole; many were brutally and area today and the fact that the Filipinos the Defense Department in such matters as severely mistreated and their families were are our friends, it would not only be honest review of military status, questionable dismolested and maligned.

and decent to recognize the contractual charges, etc.

The Navy, on the other hand, chose to obligation the United States has toward Some years ago, we learned of a grave in

pay its military personnel as well as its civil- these Philippine Scouts but it would do justice perpetrated by the United States

ian employees who were in exactly the same much to further cement the relationship against our comrades-in-arms, the Philip- position.

The Navy paid them for the full with a new nation whose welfare is so vital pine Scouts. The Scouts were a component

period of time between the fall of the Phil- to the United States at this time. of the regular Army of the United States,

ippines and our recapture thereof, and the There have been several bills introduced authorized by act of Congress, February 2,

payments were made under the authority in Congress to eradicate this cause for shame 1901, and paid, trained, and utilized by our

of the very act we now seek to amend for by paying our Philippine Scout soldiers (enmilitary establishment.

the purpose of paying the United States Reg- listed men for the most part whose pay as The injustice arbitrarily imposed was the ular Army Philipppine Scouts.

private was 18 pesos or $9 a month). Nonfailure of the United States Army to pay A clear statement of the Navy's justifica- commissioned officers received proportionate these Philippine Scouts their regular pay

tion in doing so is set forth in the attached increases. Officers were on the same pay and allowances during the time they were

letter from Rear Adm. M. L. Royar, SC., USN., status as our Regular officers. on parole from Japanese prisoner-of-war

Chief of the Bureau of Supplies and Ac- The 1953 national convention of the Amercamps during World War II. Bear in mind

counts, United States Navy, to the Honor- ican Legion, fully cognizant of the injustices, that the Philippine Islands were circum

able CARL VINSON under date of April 11, and of the fruitless efforts we have made in scribed by force. 1952.

the past 3 years to correct same, restated its It is well established that parole of Fili

Pertinent extracts from the above letter, demand upon the Government of the United pinos by Japanese, both of the Philippine

which are quoted below fully reveal the in- States to exercise belated fair play. The Army and the United States Regular Army Philippine Scouts, was effected for two pur

equity of the Army's arbitrary decision resolution is No. 597, copy of which is atwith reference to the Philippine Scouts:

tached. poses: (1), for propaganda purposes, and (2),

“For assimilation purposes, the Comptrol

In view of the fact that you have expressed to relieve the Japanese of the responsibility of caring for and feeding the sick, disabled, ler General has recognized the Insular Force

an interest in the Philippine Scouts, and and other troops in their custody. The Filias the Navy counterpart of the Philippine

in view of your knowledge of the situation, pinos, Philippine Army and United States Scouts of the Army.

the American Legion would be very apprecia“Enlisted men of the insular force of the

tive of your assistance in bringing this matPhilippine Scouts alike, were paroled under

ter before the Senate of the United States. the most rigid terms where violations meant

Navy were not excluded by general or spedeath or brutal punishment to the violator cific language from benefits of the Missing

We would be very grateful to you if you

will introduce a bill to amend section 2 of and his family.

Persons Act. Consequently, those members
in active service who were officially deter-

the Missing Persons Act to direct that these The commanding general of the South

Philippine Scouts be paid their military pay west Pacific Theater, Gen. Douglas Macmined to be lawfully absent in a status of

and allowances in accordance with their enArthur, stated officially that the United missing, missing in action, interned in a

listment or commission contracts. States would not recognize the parole be

neutral country, captured by an enemy, because it was under duress, and he further

The law authorizes the Secretary of the leaguered or besieged, were for the period stated that it would have no effect upon oficially determined to be in such status

Army to make redeterminations which would the military status of the persons involved. paid the pay and allowances to which other

apply in the case of the Philippine Scouts as This, of course, is taken to mean that pay wise entitled from date of commercement of

well as other military personnel, and it is and allowances would continue just as if absence until date of return to the con

unfortunate that we have to resort to legis

lation to force them to take action which they were United States regular troops from

trollable jurisdiction of the Navy Departany place in our own country, had the latter ment. The mere fact that upon repatriation

is only honorable and just. It appears that it was ascertained that a member of the in

legislation is necessary, however, because of been captured and paroled under similar circumstances. We, to the best of our sular force had been paroled, but was unable

the continuing denials on the part of the

Defense Department over the years and the knowledge, did not fail to pay any of our

to return to naval jurisdiction or communi-
cate that fact to the authorities would not

opposition they have raised in Congress to own troops for the time they were held

such propositions. prisoners of war in any of the countries

be considered a basis for denying such memthroughout the world. ber the active-duty pay and allowances to

We hope you will use the influence of your

office to bring such a bill as you may introThe Defense Department itself recognizes

which otherwise entitled under the Missing that the parole meant nothing; that these Persons Act while so absent."

duce before the Senate Armed Services Com

mittee for early hearings, at which time the people were virtually prisoners of war, and

In opposing legislation to correct this com

American Legion will want to testify in supthey so state on page 587 of the book en- plete breach of contract by the Department

port of the measure, as will others who are titled “United States Army in World War of the Army, the Defense Department has

also interested in seeing that justice is II- The Fall of the Philippines—written said that if we paid the Philippine Scouts

brought to these men. under the direction of the Chief of Military we might also have to pay the soldiers of

As recently as May 12, 1954, in a communiHistory, Department of the Army." We the Philippine Army who were likewise pa

cation from the Secretary of the Army adquote: roled. This, you realize, is a most unfair

dressed to the Honorable WILLIAM LANGER, "With the capitulation of Corregidor and statement because if we were contractually

chairman of the Senate Committee on the the islands to the south, all communicaobligated to them we certainly should pay

Judiciary, in opposing legislation to extend tion with the Philippines came to an end. our obligations. But that is not the intent

the time for certain military-procurement The entire garrison, an army of 140,000 men, of our proposed legislation; neither is it

claims against the United States in the Phil. passed into captivity and except for a handnecessary because the Philippine Govern

ippine Islands, it was stated: ful who escaped, no word of their fate ment has recognized the rights of its own

"Almost immediately claims were asserted reached the United States. Though most of soldiers who were similarly paroled, and by

against the United States for pay and allowthe Filipinos were ultimately released from Republic Act No. 897, enacted in July 1953,

ances and for compensation for services and prison camp, there was no way by which the Philippine Government evolved a pro

supplies. These claims may be roughly dithey could communicate with the Allies ex- gram for the payment of those claims over a

vided into three categories: (1) Those concept through the clandestine intelligence period of time consistent with their eco- cerned with members of the United States organization kept alive by funds and equip- nomic ability to do so. Such argument, Armed Forces (including the Philippine ment from Australia. Nominally free, the therefore, carries no weight whatsoever. Scouts), (2) those dealing with members of

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the Philippine Army, and (3) those dealing with respect to any act or matter related to (c) The term "retired pay" means retired with nonmilitary guerrillas.

the performance of official duties as an officer pay or retirement pay payable under any “The Department of the Army does not or employee of the Government; or commit- law of the United States to members or forquestion the liability of the United States ted in falsely testifying before any con- mer members of the Armed Forces of the with respect to claims falling within the gressional committee in connection with any United States, the United States Coast first category where such claims are sub- matter under inquiry before such congres- Guard, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and stantiated.” sional committee;

the Public Health Service, retired or deterThis in itself shows the inconsistency of (d) Any felony involving false, fictitious, mined to be entitled to retirement pay. the arbitrary action taken by the Depart- or fraudulent statements or representations SEC. 5. Nothing in this act shall be deemed ment of the Army in denying pay to the made in connection with an application for

to limit or restrict the power to deny the Philippine Scouts whom they recognize as an office or position in or under the execu- payment of annuities, retired pay, or any being authorized military agents of the tive, judicial, or legislative branch of the other benefit, payable or extended by or purUnited States in the above quotation.

Government of the United States or in the suant to any other provision of law, for any Appreciating your interest in this matter,

government of the District of Columbia; or cause not specified herein. and expressing the hope of the American

(e) Any offense defined in chapter 7

SEC. 6. If any provision of this act, or the Legion that you will lend your leadership (Bribery-Obstructing Justice), section 22

application of such provision to any person and support to the correction of the injus

1201 (Embezzlement of property of District or circumstance, shall be held invalid, the tices involved, I am, of Columbia) of chapter 12, sections 22-1304

remainder of this act, or the application of Sincerely yours,

(Falsely impersonating public officer or min- such provision to persons or circumstances MILES D. KENNEDY, ister) or 22–1308 (False certificate of ac

other than those as to which it is held inDirector.

knowledgment) of chapter 13, or section 22– valid, shall not be affected thereby.

2602 (Misprisions by officers or employees of PROHIBITION OF PAYMENT OF AN- jail) of chapter 26, title 22, District of Co

AMENDMENT OF RENEGOTIATION lumbia Code. NUITIES, RETIRED PAY, AND SEC. 2. There shall not be paid or ex

ACT OF 1951—AMENDMENT OTHER BENEFITS TO CERTAIN tended to any person who heretofore or

Mr. FLANDERS submitted an amendPERSONS

hereafter is convicted under section 102 of
the Revised Statutes, as amended (2 U. S. C.,

ment intended to be proposed by him to Mr. FERGUSON. Mr. President, I insec. 192), for failure to appear or refusal to

the bill (H. R. 6287) to extend and amend troduce for appropriate reference a bill

testify or produce any book, paper, record, the Renegotiation Act of 1951, which was to prohibit the payment of annuities, re- or other document, in a proceeding before ordered to lie on the table and to be tired pay, and other benefits to persons any Federal grand jury, court of the United printed. convicted of certain offenses, and for States, or congressional committee, upon other purposes. I ask unanimous con- the ground of self-incrimination, or to his sent that the bill be printed in the survivor or beneficiary, for any period sub

CERTAIN CONSTRUCTION AT MILIsequent to the date of such refusal or the


date of the enactment of this act, whichever TIONS-AMENDMENT

is later, any annuity, retired pay, or benefit, be received and appropriately referred;

Mr. LONG submitted an amendment described in the first section of this act. and, without objection, will be printed

SEC. 3. In the case of any such person, any

intended to be proposed by him to the in the RECORD. amounts contributed by him toward the an

bill (H. R. 9242) to authorize certain The bill (S. 3720) to prohibit the pay- nuity the benefits of which are denied un

construction at military and naval inment of annuities, retired pay, and other der this act, less any sums previously re

stallations and for the Alaska combenefits to persons convicted of certain funded or paid as annuity benefits, shall be munications system, and for other puroffenses, and for other purposes, introreturned to such person, with interest to

poses, which was ordered to lie on the duced by Mr. FERGUSON, was received, date of conviction or the date of enactment

table and to be printed. of this act, whichever is later, at such rates read twice by its title, referred to the

as may be provided in the case of refunds Committee on Post Office and Civil Servunder the law, regulation, or agreement un

HOUSE BILL REFERRED ice, and ordered to be printed in the der which the annuity is payable, or if no RECORD, as follows: such rates are so provided at the rate of 4

The bill (H. R. 7486) to amend secBe it enacted, etc., That there shall not be

percent per annum to December 31, 1947, tion 1071 of title 18, United States Code, paid or extended to any person heretofore or

and 3 percent per annum thereafter, com- relating to the concealing of persons hereafter convicted of any of the following- pounded on December 31 of each year. In from arrest, so as to increase the penaldescribed offenses, or to his survivor or benethe event a person entitled to a refund under

ties therein provided, was read twice by ficiary, for any period subsequent to the date this section dies prior to the making of such

its title, and referred to the Committee of such conviction or the date of the enactrefund, the refund shall be made to such

on the Judiciary. ment of this act, whichever is later, (1) any person or persons as may be provided in the annuity or retired pay on the basis of the

case of refunds under the law, regulation, or service of such person as an officer or em

agreement under which the annuity the ployee of the Government, or (2) any bene

benefits of which are denied under this act HOUSE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION fit (other than those involving rights under is payable or, if no such provision is made,

REFERRED insurance contracts) payable or extended unin the order of preference prescribed in

The concurrent resolution (H. Con. der any law administered by the Veterans' section 12 (e) of the Civil Service Retire

Res. 250) authorizing the printing of Administration:

ment Act of 1930, as amended. (a) Any offense defined in chapter 11 (re

SEC. 4. As used in this act

additional copies of the slip law for the lating to bribery or graft), chapter 15 (re- (a) The term "officer or employee of the

Internal Revenue Code of 1954, was relating to claims and services in matters af- Government” includes an officer or employee

ferred to the Committee on Rules and fecting the Government), chapter 23 (re- under the legislative, executive, or judicial Administration, as follows: lating to contracts), chapter 37 (relating to branch of the Government of the United

Resolved by the House of Representatives espionage and censorship), chapter 105 (re- States, a Member or Delegate to Congress, a

(the Senate concurring), That there be lating to sabotage), chapter 115 (relating to Resident Commissioner, an officer or em

printed 12,590 additional copies of the slip treason, sedition, and subversive activities), ployee of the government of the District of

law for the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, and sections 1700, 1702, 1703, 1708, 1709, Columbia, or any officer or member of the

of which 2,475 copies shall be for the use of 1710, and 1711 of chapter 83 (relating to Armed Forces of the United States, the

the Senate, 500 copies for the use of the crimes involving the postal service), title United States Coast Guard, the Coast and

Committee on Finance, 6,615 copies for the 18, and in sections 1810 and 1816, title 42, Geodetic Survey, or the Public Health

use of the House of Representatives, and 3,000 United States Code; Service.

copies for the use of the Committee on Ways (b) Any offense declared to be a felony (b) The term "annuity" means any retire- and Means. by Federal law committed in the exercise of ment benefit payable by any department or authority, influence, power, or privileges as agency of the United States or the District an officer or employee of the Government, or of Columbia upon the basis of service as a

THE PRESIDENT'S STAND IN OPotherwise relating to service as such officer civilian officer or employee, except that such or employee; term does not include salary or compensa

POSITION TO ADMISSION OF RED (c) Perjury committed in falsely denying, tion which may not be diminished under CHINA TO UNITED NATIONS or subornation of perjury in the denial by section 1 of article III of the Constitution or, another of, the commission of an act con

Mr. SMITH of New Jersey. Mr. Presiin the case of a benefit payable under the stituting any offense described in paragraph Social Security Act as amended, any portion

dent, all of us are greatly concerned (a), (b), or (e) hereof; committed in false- of such benefit not based upon service as an

over the present discussion of possible ly testifying in a proceeding before a Fed- officer or employee of the United States or attempts on the part of the Red influeral grand jury or court of the United States the District of Columbia.

ence to bring Red China into the United Nations. I am trying to watch very justice and fairness and right, and to see There being no objection, the eulogy carefully the press items on this mat- whether we couldn't avoid resort to force.

was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, ter. I myself feel very strongly on the "Now today we have Red China going to

as follows: subject. Geneva, and instead of taking a concilia

FUNERAL SERMON FOR THE HONORABLE HUGH A. Therefore, I ask unanimous consent tory attitude toward anything, it excoriated the United Nations. As a matter of fact, in

BUTLER, UNITED STATES SENATOR to have printed at this point in the body Geneva, it demanded repudiation of the

I of the RECORD, in connection with these

United Nations position. On top of that One of the commonly accepted traditions few remarks of mine, an article entitled Red China is today at war with the United of America is that a man may be born in "Eisenhower Rallying World To Bar Nations. They were declared an aggressor a log cabin and yet ultimately live in the Peking From U. N.," written by David by the United Nations in the Assembly and White House. Although this was true of Lawrence, and published in the New that situation has never been changed.

one President of the United States, many of York Herald Tribune of this morning.

“They are occupying North Korea. They those who occupy the seat of the scornful, In the article, Mr. Lawrence highlights

have supported this great effort at further think this tradition is a myth which has

enslavement of the peoples of Indochina. little basis in reality. When we are tempted the splendid statement made yesterday

They have held certain of our prisoners un- to accept this cynical view of our society we by the President of the United States, in justifiably, and they have been guilty of the suddenly become aware of the fact that there taking a very strong, unconditional, and worst possible diplomatic deportment in the are many men in our time who are demonunequivocal stand against the admission international affairs of the world.

strating the truth of this tradition. Again of Red China into the United Nations.

"Now how can the United States, as a self- and again men and women who are born in There being no objection, the article respecting Nation, doing its best and in con- lowly circumstances rise to positions of great was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, formity with the moral standards as we un- influence and power in our free democratic

society. derstand them, how can we possibly say this as follows:

government should be admitted to the United We are gathered together from grain fields EISENHOWER RALLYING WORLD TO BAR PEIPING Nations?

and from the grain markets, from the plains FROM U. N.

and mountains of the West, and from the


teeming cities of the East, members of many Thus Mr. Eisenhower answers the critics

races and many faiths, to pay tribute to a WASHINGTON, July 7.-President Eisen

abroad who have brushed aside all moral man whose life was a demonstration of the hower has undertaken to mobilize the moral

considerations. The London Times, for in- fact that in America all caste systems are force of the world to make sure that the ag

stance, has said that it is a question of law destroyed, and every individual, regardless gressor government of Red China will not and not of morals.

of his place of birth, may rise to a position be admitted to the United Nations.

The issue, moreover, isn't one of plo- of high and respected leadership in his No longer is the issue one of domestic con

matic recognition. Many governments nation. troversy here, since both the Republican and

which are members of the United Nations Accompanying his pioneering parents as Democratic leaders in Congress have ex

have already extended diplomatic recogni- a lad of six when they crossed Nebraska in pressed themselves against the proposal.

tion to the Red Chinese Communist govern- a covered wagon and built a sod house on For the President now has wisely taken the case to the court of world opinion.

ment, but now oppose its admission to the a homestead near Cambridge, by his own Mr. Eisenhower does not say what AmerUnited Nations on the ground that the Pei

labor Hugh Butler earned his way through

college. He followed three careers during his ica's position will be if outvoted in the ping regime is an aggressor and has not

long life. purged itself of aggression. United Nations Assembly, but he does say

At first he was a construction that he hasn't reached a decision on it be. The President's forthright statement will

engineer on the Burlington Railroad, then

an outstanding grain dealer, and finally he cause he feels confident that the battle ring around the world and will place the

wes elected to three successive terms in the against admission of Red China can be issue on the high moral plane where Amer

highest legislative body of our Nation, the won. icans have placed it before, only to have

United States Senate. The President is right in exercising that Europeans, influenced by expediency, try to If you would inquire concerning the secret caution and leaving the matter open.


rationalize an acceptance of the Communist of such achievement you would have to this regard he differs from those who either

regime in Peiping despite the record of dead ascribe a great deal to the influence of hardwant to serve warning now that tl:e United

and wounded for which the aggressor gov- working parents and the kindly interest of States will withdraw or those who wish the

ernment of Red China is largely responsible. many friends. But most of all he found United States to stay in the U. N. if outvoted.

Certainly, the fathers and mothers of the inspiration in a book. As we gather in If the United States were merely to give 40,000 American dead and 100,000 American

tribute to our friend, I invite you to turn the impression that it would oppose Red wounded would never understand acceptance

to a famous passage from that book: China's entry and yet would accept the re

“He has showed you, O man, what is good; sult without affecting its own relationship of the aggressor government as worthy of

and what does the Lord require of you, but to the United Nations in the future, some admission to an international organization

to do justice, and to love kindness, and to governments abroad might think this is a designed to be the principal vehicle for the

walk humbly with your God?(Micah 6: 8). tipoff to them to go ahead and vote for the exercise of moral force in the world.

Hugh Butler was a man who believed in admission of Red China anyhow because

doing justice. they would not thereby risk incurring Amer

Impressed as a small boy with the diffiica's disfavor.


culties which his father faced in earning a The truth is that Senator KNOWLAND and

livelihood from the soil, and thrown through

NEBRASKA Senator LYNDON JOHNSON, the Republican

out his boyhood and years of mature busiand Democratic leaders, speak for American Mr. REYNOLDS. Mr. President, as ness life into association with people who public opinion when they not only oppose the junior Senator from Nebraska rises depended upon the prosperity of the farms Red China's admission, but when they say

and ranches of the State, he was unusufor the first time, standing at the desk Congress will then discuss, if the Peiping

ally sensitive to the disadvantageous pogovernment is admitted, whether or not to of the late senior Senator from Nebraska,

sition which the farmers and ranchers held continue financial support for the United Hugh Butler, a fine Christian gentleman, in the national economy. When the drought Nations by this country and continuance of whose great, noble, and kindly soul has years of the thirties came, searing the grazthe U. N. treaty. gone to its Maker, he knows of nothing ing lands until the cattle became barrels

of bones, and dust clouds darkened the PRESIDENT BARS COERCION more appropriate than to invite the at

skies, he was impressed with the need of But President Eisenhower has with charac- tention of the Senate to an eloquent strengthening our rural economy. teristic fairness and calmness taken the issue eulogy delivered by the Reverend Har- When in later years he was sent to the out of the realm of coercion as it affects old T. Janes, minister of the First Cen

United States Senate he continued to repreother governments by simply saying he doesn't know yet what American policy totral Congregational Church in Omaha,

sent the interests of the people of the farms

and ranches. As chairman of the imporward the U. N. would be if Red China gets on the occasion of the late Senator

tant Interior and Insular Affairs Committee, in. He prefers to argue at present the merits Butler's funeral.

he was able to do a great deal for the inof the admission issue itself. His words are

I ask unanimous consent that it be crease of irrigation and the reclamation of of historic importance. He says:

land. He was a kind of Nebraska Amos “There is a moral question first of all that printed in the Appendix of the RECORD.

who would remind the Nation of the existis involved. The United Nations was not

Mr. MARTIN. Mr. President, because

ence of the economic injustices and inestablished primarily as a supergovernment of the great importance of this eulogy equities saying: "You' trample upon the clothed with all the authority of supergov- in honor of one of the finest men who poor, and take from him exactions of wheat.” ernment and of great power to do things. have ever sat in the United States

As a poor boy who worked after school It was, among other things, an attempt to

and Saturdays in order that he might receive marshal the moral strength of the world to Senate, I aşk unanimous consent that the

an education, he was convinced that a free preserve peace, to make certain that quarrels eulogy be printed in the body of the people must be an educated people. He took were composed through a decent respect for RECORD at this point.

the lead in establishing an agricultural high

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school in western Nebraska so that boys and considers it one of her choicest possessions. printed in the body of the RECORD, as a girls from the far-separated ranches might “What does the Lord require of you, but part of my remarks, the addresses of have the advantages of an education. to do justice, and to love kindness."

Gen. George C. Marshall, Secretary of In later life he gave nearly all of his for

ПІ tune to Doane College so that succeeding

the Interior Douglas McKay, the Senator generations of poor boys and girls might

"What does the Lord require of you, but from Maryland, Mr. Beall, and myself. drink from the fountain of knowledge. He

to do justice, and to love kindness, and to There being no objection, the adwanted all boys and girls to possess the libwalk humbly with your God.”

dresses were ordered to be printed in the erty of which the Master spoke when He

Hugh Butler did justice, and loved kind

RECORD, as follows: said: “You shall know the truth, and the

ness, because he believed such was a retruth shall make you free." quirement of the Lord. Like Amos he had

ADDRESS OF GEN. GEORGE C. MARSHALL Because he knew as a boy how difficult it heard God saying: “Let justice roll down Sixty-seven years ago, on a Sunday afterwas to accumulate money, he proved to be

like waters, and righteousness like an ever- noon, my father took the family on a picnic. an excellent guardian of the Federal Treasury.

flowing stream.” He was kind to others be- We ate our supper on the bank of this He remembered as a boy that he had found cause he had experienced the kindness of stream, probably in this immediate vicinity. four silver dollars in the snow, and the lesson God, and knew as did the writer of the book He gave us a thrilling description of the his father impressed upon him. Much to of Jonah that He was a gracious God and battle Washington's small force fought Hugh's reluctance, his father insisted they merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in against the French and Indians in this not return home until they had found the steadfast love.

field-Great Meadows, as it was called. I person who had lost the money and returned From early boyhood he attended the Con

pictured painted redskins behind every tree it to him. During his Senate days Hugh gregational Church in Cambridge. When he

over there. I clearly recall his showing us Butler was a joint sponsor of the Govern- moved to Curtis he was superintendent of the shallow outline of the trench that had ment corporation control law, one of the the church school. Later he became an ac

been manned by the colonists. most important pieces of legislation in this tive member of the First Central Congrega- He told us how Washington passed near generation, and was active as a member of tional Church, of Omaha, serving at one this spot a year later, accompanying Bradthe Senate Finance Committee in scrutiniz- time as a moderator of the Nebraska Con- dock's famous Redcoats on their fatal march ing and working for the reduction of Fed- gregational Conference. He was aware of

toward Fort Duquesne; that is, the Pittseral expenditures. the fact that his achievements were not

burgh of today. He described the near masThe dominating passion of his life was to entirely of his own making; they were the

sacre of most of Braddock's command, the do justice. Like Amos, he could hear God result of the guidance and beneficence of

retreat, and Braddock's death and burial on saying: “Let justice roll down like waters, God. And so in later years when he was

the hillside trail a short 2 miles from here. and righteousness like an


honored by his fellow citizens he did not per- That afternoon became a lasting memory. stream.” mit the praise which he received to inflate

Young though I was, it aroused my deep II him with pride. He remembered that he

interest in the history of that period, as it “What does the Lord require of you, but to lived not only in the sight of his neighbors

was outlined by great events in this region. do justice, and to love kindness.” Some men and friends; he lived also under the gaze

Often I was to come in the evening to the of God. Because he was a truly religious in their desire to do justice become vitriolic

site of Braddock's grave in company with and embittered in nature, and engage in

man, he was always a humble man. continual denunciation

my young friends on parties to the nearby and vituperation. His philosophy could be summed up in

mountainhouse with its chicken and waffle Such was not true of Hugh Butler. He

these lines from Henry Van Dyke: wanted to do justice, but he also loved kind“Let me live my life from year to year

supper as the main event.

The bald knob in the mountain range 6 ness.

With forward face and unreluctant soul, Those who knew him in his younger days

miles northwest of here, Dunbar's Camp, Not hastening to nor turning from the goal;

where Colonel Dunbar buried the reserve remember the enduring and deep affection

Not mourning for the things that disappear

ammunition of Braddock's army and hastily which existed between him and his wife, In the dim past, nor holding back in fear

retreated eastward toward Williamsburg is a and his sorrow over her tragic death just

From what the future veils; but a whole

familiar sight to many of you. Near its before he was to take his seat in the United And happy heart, that pays its toll

foot is the deep ravine where Washington States Senate. The loss of their first child To youth and age, and travels on with cheer. shortly after birth, and the death of a second I shall grow old, but never lose life's zest surprised and almost wiped out Jumonville's

small reconnoitering party, firing the openson at 12 years of age from pneumonia, were Because the road's last turn will be the

ing shot in the war that was to rage in sorrows which they bore bravely during the


Europe for 7 long years. It became a familrest of their married life together.

And now he has found that the last turn

iar setting for my first troutfishing efforts. The affection which he might have given of the road is the best. For around that

Washington Springs, the site of Washingto his own children he bestowed upon others. turn of the road he has approached the gates “What Mrs. Butler and I wanted to do for of the Celestial City, and is now reunited

ton's meeting with the Half-King; the Washour boy,” he said, "we will do for other boys.” with the loved ones who have been waiting

ington farm in the fertile valley west of the And so he established scholarships at his for him. And if he wonders humbly if he

mountain-all those localities were steeped

in early American history, when this was beloved alma mater, Doane College, so that should enter therein, I am sure that the

the far frontier, and the struggle between annually 30 boys and girls might be able to guardian of the gates will say to him: "Well receive a college education. done, good and faithful servant, enter into

England and France for control of America His kindness carried over into his politi- the joy of your master."

was a bitter contest. cal career.

Hunting the mountain grouse, or pheasant, He had his convictions. He "What does the Lord require of you, but

as we called them, made me more and more voiced them freely, and defended them cou- to do justice, and to love kindness, and to rageously. But he never tried to achieve

familiar with these historic surroundings, walk humbly with your God." political advantage by attacking his oppo

especially as the birds favored the glades nents. When he was asked why he was run

along the old Braddock Trail.

But, very ning against one of his fellow church mem

strange to say, practically none of this was TWO HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY bers, Edward Burke, his reply was: “Ed

touched on in our local schooling. Had it Burke is a good friend of mine. Why don't

OF BATTLE OF FORT NECESSITY been, I am sure we would have acquired a you vote for him?"

taste for American history which would have

Mr. MARTIN. Mr. President, last Because in each election he faced and de

been of great benefit to our opinions as citiSaturday and Sunday the 200th aniverfeated a governor of the State of Nebraska,

zens in later years. It would certainly have sary of Washington's first combat comand was never defeated in any election when

promoted an early knowledge of the world he sought public office, you would hear occa

mand was celebrated at Fort Necessity. struggles which, for a time, were centered sional discussion of the “Butler machine." Dr. William B. Hindman was in charge hereabouts. If there was a machine, and there certainly of the celebration. He is an authority Great things had their beginnings here. was not in the traditional sense of the term, on the early campaigns in southwestern The man to lead the colonists in the revoluit was a machine built upon innumerable Pennsylvania to establish whether the

tionary struggle had his start here, an unkindnesses.

His English or French would dominate on the successful one it must have seemed. When I think of his kindness I think of a

preparation for the long struggle ahead, with North American Continent. little girl who with her parents was the guest

its many pitfalls and its awful discourageof Senator Butler in the Senate restaurant.

The program was very impressive. ments, was initiated here. He might well have talked only with the Troops representing both the Com- Few young Americans realize how many adults who were present and ignored her, monwealth of Virginia and the Com- powerful nations struggled for a place in but in the midst of the luncheon he took monwealth of Pennsylvania took part. this country. The Russians were established a menu, got up from the table and went The United States Military Band played as far south as San Francisco Bay. The word around to a number of the distinguished for the various ceremonies. The Brit

"struggled" is hardly applicable to them, beSenators eating lunch in the same room, and ish, French, and American flags were

cause they chose to sell out. New Orleans, asked them to autograph the menu for the

with its strategical domination of the entire little girl who was his guest. She took it raised with proper ceremony.

Mississippi Valley, and Florida, shuttled home with her, and had it framed along Owing to the importance of this occa- about between Spain and France, and New with Senator Butler's picture, and to this day sion, I ask unanimous consent to have England and New York State were in an almost constant state of threat by the British struggle to maintain a dependable army de- greatest battles, and the turning point in out of Canada.

spite short-term enlistments, along with the the Civil War. But there is quite another side to this failure to provide pay, food, and clothing, Fort Necessity marks another and earlier phase of the development of America. We then we find him persistent but patient, de- milestone in American history, linking us chose, ourselves, in the War of the Revolu- termined but respectful, seemingly humble with the past, bringing with it a deeper untion, to make a bid for the control of Canada. with respect to the governing political body, derstanding and appreciation of our history Much later on, we fought the Mexicans and whatever its action or lack of action may and the sacrifices that made possible our took from them much of the Southwest and have been. And in that attitude we find the achievements as a Nation. all of California, and we crowded the Indians basis for general acceptance of the title of And as in colonial days, Pennsylvania toback all along our frontiers, frequently in “Father of His Country,” bestowed on him day continues its important role in mainviolation of their treaty rights. But the by grateful countrymen.

taining the prosperity and security of our start, in effect, was here in the small en.

Nation. gagement in this field, with the prodigious

From the days of William Penn, this Com


monwealth has been in the forefront of our

DOUGLAS MCKAY So, when we assemble here to celebrate the

history, setting an example of tolerance an 200th anniversary of the Battle of Fort Ne

Those of us who have had the opportunity

wisdom for others to emulate. cessity, we are dealing with the early frontier to participate in the dedication of this hal

These hills of western Pennsylvania, of this country, the struggle between the lowed ground will leave with renewed faith

fought over in 1754, have yielded coal and French and British for control; actually the

in the greatness of our American heritage. other mineral resources that have had a birth of American military power and lead

I am sure that all of you who have gath

far-reaching effect on our national economy. ership, a preliminary to the Revolutionary

ered here have been inspired, as I have been, The Forks of the Ohio as the junction of

with an earnest determination that the War and our march to the westward.

the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers was ideals of our Founding Fathers will be perSince those days, there has been a tremen

known in 1754, a strategic point for both petuated. dous shift in power and place, and in tempo.

Washington and the French in that year, has

These brief hours at Fort Necessity on this Our most pressing interests today are far

grown to be the city of Pittsburgh, one of great national holiday, serve to remind us remote from the mountains of western Penn

the great industrial sinews of the United of the legacy of freedom which men such as States. sylvania. They concern the Far East, across the Pacific, Western Europe, northern Africa, Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, and Mar

In a very real sense, though no one could shall have passed on to us. and the Middle East. All of Latin America

have known it at the time, these great inis much to our interest. But keep in mind

This patriotic heritage which rests so close

dustrial resources were at stake in the issues to our hearts is the strong bastion in an age one' outstanding fact. Nowhere are we

that were drawn at Fort Necessity 200 years when bitter and partisan rescrimination is grasping for territory. We want peace and,

ago. the stock in trade of those who attack our inwhat is far more important, we want a sound

The rich coal of Fayette County, combined stitutions and our ideals of freedom and in- with iron ore from the Lake Superior ranges, basis for an enduring peace.

dependence. Turning back again to the historic events

have been a precious legacy to the American

Our Nation and our philosophy of governof this region and their relation to the fu

people. American inventive genius, busiment have their firm foundations in deture, I think possibly the most telling result

ness acumen, and good, hard work have done cency, justice, and moderation.

the rest. which followed the disaster of Braddock's These qualities and these patriotic atdefeat was the initiation of a feeling among

In our search for material things we often tributes were exemplified here yesterday by forget the sacrifices of our forefathers that the colonists that they were capable of one of the Nation's brilliant military lead

have made possible the opportunities we themselves to fight for independence; that ers, a man of unimpeachable honesty and the famous soldiers who then dominated the

have today for achieving security. decency-George Catlett Marshall. battlefields of Europe could possibly be dis- His service to the Nation and to humanity

Fort Necessity then will serve always as counted. Bunker Hill 22 years later con

a symbol, not of the dead past, but a glowexemplifies the highest idealism of patriotism firmed this point of view and awakened a

ing beacon which will light the path toward and love of country. strong determination to fight to a finish, We are gathered on a spot which marks a

greater days and greater national achieve

ments. with a Washington to lead them. Of course

turning point in the history of our Nation. there was much to learn, mostly of disciThe battle of Fort Necessity, seemingly a

A nation which forgets its heroes is a pline, of stability, of leadership and the defeat, brought into world prominence for

country without a soul. In our preoccupaoutrageous vagaries of the Continental Con- the first time the man who was to become

tion with the development of our economy gress at times hopelessly confused matters. the father of the United States-George

and with the necessity for keeping step with Only the firm, wise leadership and remarkWashington.

world competition in peace and war, we able personality of Washington saved the The National Park Service of the Depart- may have been inclined at various periods situation. ment which I have the honor of serving, is

of history to forget the importance of the Referring to Washington's leadership in dedicated to the work of preserving for the

preservation and protection of our historic the revolutionary struggle and his later title American people such historic places, mile

spots. as the "Father of His Country,” it is very

posts in the history of our national develop- Fortunately, there has always been a cata. interesting to trace the course of his dement.

lytic force at work which has not permitted velopment to his Revolutionary War status.

They are preserved so that we may pause,

the National Government to lag unduly in Here at Fort Necessity, at the ambuscade reflect deeply upon their meaning, and de

recalling its debt to history. of Jumonville, he was young, aggressive, and

rive guidance to chart our course for the Such a force has been at work here at Fort fearless—very young as a matter of fact.

future. From them we receive a renewed Necessity, and through the intelligent enterHe goes back to Will's Creek-Cumberland, sense of patriotism, spiritual satisfaction and prise of local patriots this battleground will as we know it-and is given command of a confidence.

be preserved for posterity, not in a haphazard small body of troops to guard the settlers Fort Necessity is one of the four great his

manner, but as a recognized and appreciated against Indian forays. His forts marked the

torical areas in the National Park System in responsibility. course of the Shenandoah Valley.

He was

this Commonwealth. Each of them portrays Here, too, we find the State joining with refused reinforcements for his small com

a dramatic step in the development of the local citizens and the Federal Government mand, despite frequent massacres of the famRepublic.

in sharing in the task of preserving this hisilies of the pioneers; he was denied many

Independence National Historical Park in toric shrine. As an important unit in the necessities to enable him to protect those

Philadelphia, where the Declaration of In- State system, Fort Necessity State Park adds pioneers. His letters addressed to the co

dependence was signed on July 4, 1776, and to the beauty and historic significance of lonial government at Williamsburg are bit

where the Liberty Bell is sheltered is a sym- the restored fort. ter in recrimination. He was completely out

bol of freedom for all men wherever human This, in my opinion, is an ideal arrangeraged by the failure of that government to

rights have not been crushed by cruel dic- ment. It demonstrates a clear understandsupport him sufficiently to protect the frontatorships.

ing of the necessity for the States and local tier people against the Indian savagery.

During the Revolution, the Congresses communities to share with the Federal GoyFinally, he resigned and took up his life

continued to meet in Independence Hall in ernment in the development of our national at Mount Vernon. For years he was not

Philadelphia except during brief interrup- resources, whether the responsibility involves only a leading citizen, the head of a large

tions occasioned by the military activities of the construction of a giant power dam or the and valuable plantation, but for 15 years he the British.

restoration and preservation of a historic was a member of the House of Burgesses at

Thus Philadelphia was the focal point in area. the colonial capitol of Williamsburg. There,

the winning of our independence and the Too long-far too long-have the people for the first time, he learned something of formation of the Republic.

looked to Washington for solutions to all the difficulties surrounding action by a

At Birdsboro, Pa., the National Park Sery- their problems. democratic assembly; he learned the diffi

ice administers the Hopewell Village Na- This attitude of letting Uncle Sam do it culty of obtaining appropriations that in

tional Historic Site in which is depicted the is often reflected in the demands that come volve expenditures for troops. So, when he story of the American iron-making industry. to us from all sections of the country for finds himself at Valley Forge lacking virtu- A third great historical area administered financial assistance in the establishment of ally everything for his men-food, clothing, by the Park Service is Gettysburg National new national parks, new national monublankets, shoes—when he is beset with the Military Park, the scene of one of the world's —

ments, and new historical areas.

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