« ПретходнаНастави »
Without deprecating the sincerity of the ADDRESS OF SENATOR J. GLENN BEALL system which had developed almost countsponsors of these projects, nor in any way
Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen, this
less evils. It was to show that France was discounting the value of the projects them200th anniversary of the Battle of Fort Ne
ruled by an absolute, divine right monarch; selves, practical business reasoning compels cessity is an inspiring occasion, and it is a
that monarch, Louis XV, was morally too us to point out to most of these petitioners fitting one to rekindle in our hearts the
slack to lead, and that whatever central conthe irrefutable fact that the Federal Treasury patriotism which ennobled George Washing- trol there was in France was exercised by is not inexhaustible. ton and to rededicate ourselves to the basic
the King's official mistress, Madame de The national park system each year draws beliefs and ideals on which this Nation was
Pompadour. increasing millions of visitors. Travel to the founded.
These events in France were leading inhistorical areas alone in the system has in- On July 4, 1754, when the youthful com
escapably to the Revolution of 1789, which creased from around 5 million in 1945 to mander marched away from this fort, no one
changed the course of French history. 16 million in 1953. This means that 1 per- could possibly have imagined the momen
In England conditions were hardly better son out of every 10 in the United States tous events which would follow.
than in France, and the British effort was visited a historic area last year.
Let us, then, endeavor to put this en
uncoordinated; but the English did proMore than a million persons viewed Inde- gagement in its proper historic perspective. duce-as the English seem to possess a rare pendence Hall last year; more than a half In 1754 the vastness of America was not ability to do-a capable leader by the name million walked through the portals of Fort even remotely appreciated. The colonists of William Pitt. We named what was to McHenry, the siege of which inspired the had partly penetrated the wilderness of become one of the great industrial cities of writing of The Star-Spangled Banner; and America, and both England and France were the world here in western Pennsylvania after more than 200,000 schoolchildren visited the rivaling for control of the seas, and the new
the Prime Minister who led his country's Lincoln Memorial in Washington. land in America and India.
successful effort to end any French empire To provide proper safeguards for the safety The French, moving in through Quebec, in America and started England off on its and convenience of these millions of visitors were building a defense line which reached empire program. The British were oblirequires great sums of money. to New Orleans. The English, acting pri- gated to organize that expanding empire
and the resulting problems were to be the Another heavy financial burden is placed marily through their east-coast Colonies, on the Federal Government in the discharge
were anxious to limit the advances of the primary concern of Great Britain from that
French. of its responsibility to handle the millions
day to this. who visit the national parks.
In Europe, the nations of Germany, Aus- The Peace of Paris, ending the Seven Years
tria, Spain, and Russia, were gradually being War, was signed in 1763, and exactly 20 In fact, there has always been difficulty
drawn into the progressing conflict between years later the British were to sign another in securing adequate appropriations to maintain properly the facilities already a part of
France and England. The crowned heads of Peace of Paris, this time relinquishing the
Europe were forming uneasy alliances, American Colonies the system.
and recognizing the doomed not to succeed and which would United States of America, which had been I am reluctant, therefore, to support any
bring to an end the reign of many an un- led to victory by Gen. George Washington. request for additions to the system until happy, incompetent, king and queen.
The battle established Washington's reputhe present facilities can be brought up to
Here in America the colonists were looking tation as a competent military commander, standard. This can only be done by bigger
with increasing concern over the string of and brought him the prominence which appropriations, and in view of the adminis
small French forts established just beyond was to influence his selection as General of tration's determined effort to balance the
the Alleghenies. Small contingents were the Continental Armies, and make him the budget, any expansions in the park system
armed and sent out on scouting expeditions. unanimous choice as the first President of in the immediate future appear to be fore
When the colonists were sufficiently alarmed, the United States. closed.
troops were dispatched to warn the French Thus, we see that as a result of a small In the meantime, however, the park sys- out of the area.
battle at an isolated outpost named "Fort tem is prepared to make available its scien
On March 24, 1754, Governor James Glen, Necessity,” the history of the world was detific and technical skills to local groups, to of South Carolina, in a message to the State cisively changed. States, and cities to assist any worthwhile Assembly made a significant statement. “Up In these tedious and perilous times we local effort to develop historic areas or to to this time,” he declared, “the Colonies have do not know just where a modern battle of aid in the proper planning and operation of acted as entirely separate and independent Fort Necessity may occur. History may prove local park systems.
States." Benjamin Franklin was impelled to that it was in Korea, Indochina, or perhaps Frankly, that is the best way to encourage utter his famous declaration “Unite or die.”
some other far-off, unknown spot where a and to develop this movement. Local con- In April 1754, a small force from Virginia single rifle shot may explode world war III. trol, authority at home instead of from and South Carolina, led by Col. Joshua Fry
We, and the nations of the free world, Washington, will insure the continued sup- and assisted by the 22-year-old George desire peace, frown on appeasement, and port and cooperation of local people. Washington, was at Wills Creek. Near the
fear war. We are treading the dangerous, end of May, Fry died, and Washington was sinister path which can lead to a long period
left in command. He was soon commissioned INTRODUCTION OF SENATOR BEALL, OF MARY
of uneasy peace or to the cataclysm of a colonel.
modern war. LAND, BY SENATOR MARTIN, OF PENNSYLVANIA
By July 1 Washington was at Great Mead
On the National Archives Building in My fellow Americans, it now becomes my ows, and shortly before noon on July 3, 1754,
Washington there is inscribed “What Is Past, pleasant duty to present as our next speaker a force of about 600 French and Indians ap- Is Prologue,” and if there is any point in a distinguished colleague in the United peared against Washington, who had a troop
studying history it is to learn how to conStates Senate. half that number.
duct our affairs in the future. He represents our neighboring State of On July 4 a truce was negotiated and History quite often seems to repeat itsell; Maryland with honor and distinction-and Was! ngton withdrew, unaware of the great the words of great men at times seem more with complete loyalty to the highest ideals damage his men had inflicted on an enemy descriptive of a particular situation than of patriotic Americanism. with superior forces. The Battle of Fort
anything which might be said today. We When he took his scat in the United States Necessity had been a brief, small skirmish in
can learn from the past, and a circular to Senate, he brought to that body the valuthe wilderness of an unexplored land.
the States which George Washington wrote able experience gained in many years of
However, with the hindsight of history in 1783 seems to me most applicable today. public service and devotion to the public
that event can now be fully appreciated, Washington wrote as follows:
and what is even more rare there was one welfare.
"The foundation of our empire was not man who recognized its significance even He served in the ranks as a soldier in
laid in the gloomy age of ignorance and then. That was the prince of literary men, superstition, but at an epoch when the World War I.
Voltaire, who was moved to write, “A cannon rights of mankind were better understood He served as a Senator in the legislature shot fired in the woods of America was the and more clearly defined, than at any former of his native State. signal that sent all Europe in a blaze.”
period, the researches of the human mind, In recognition of his outstanding ability Let us review what followed.
after social happiness, have been carried to and his constructive statesmanship the peo- George Washington here at Fort Necessity a great extent, the treasures of knowledge, ple of his congressional district elected him was taking the first concerted action by the
acquired by the labors of philosophers, sages, for five successive terms in the House of Rep
Colonies, which would ultimately culminate and legislatures, through a long succession resentatives.
in the Revolutionary War for Independence. of years, are laid open for our use, and their He is now serving his first term in the
The battle marked the beginning of the collected wisdom may be happily applied
French and Indian War in America, des- in the establishment of our forms of govUnited States Senate-and it is one of my
tined to forever remove France as a power ernment; the free cultivation of letters, the great privileges to be associated with him in the New World.
unbounded extension of commerce, the as fellow members of the Senate Committee
The 2-day conflict between English and progressive refinement of manners, the growon Public Works.
French forces provoke their national rivalry ing liberalty of sentiment, and above all, My fellow Americans, with extreme pleas- so that they engaged in the Seven Years War, the pure and benign light of revelation, ure and sincere pride, I present a great which brought chaos and disaster in Europe have had a meliorating influence on' manAmerican, my good friend and colleague, the and changed the maps of three continents. kind and increased the blessings of society. distinguished Senator from Maryland, the The Seven Years War was to reveal to the At this auspicious period, the United States Honorable J. GLENN BEALL.
French people that they were victims of a came into existence as a nation, and if their citizens should not be completely free and and Austrian descent, as well as from other Ohio, recognized the strategic importance of happy, the fault will be entirely their own. small European nations. Today those coun- the present site of the city of Pittsburgh.
“Such is our situation, and such are our tries are under Soviet oppression, and many He noted his observations in his journal in prospects; but notwithstanding the cup of of you have friends and relatives living be- these words and I quote: blessing is thus reached out to us, notwith- hind the Communist Iron Curtain. You “I spent some time viewing the rivers and standing happiness is ours, if we have a dis- know better than I can tell you that com- the land in the fork, which I think extremely position to seize the occasion and make it munism means the revocation of all per- well situated for a fort as it has absolute our own; yet, it appears to me there is an sonal liberties and security.
control of both rivers.” option still left to the United States of I ask that you today join with me in Washington's suggestion was approved. America, that it is in their choice, and de- rededicating ourselves to the honored tradi- The first attempt to build a fort at the point pends upon their conduct whether they will tions of the United States. A knowledge of was defeated by the French. They strongly be respectable and prosperous, or contempt- our history car lead to a better understand- fortified the place, calling it Fort Duquesne. able and miserable as a nation; this is the ing of world problems.
The story of General Braddock's disastrous time of their political probation, this is the George Washington is reported to have expedition against Fort Duquesne need not moment when the eyes of the whole world once said, “With our fate will the destiny be repeated here, nor the march of General are turned upon them, this is the moment of unborn millions be involved.” Our fate Forbes that raised the British flag over the to establish or ruin their national character seems to be hanging suspended between war ruins of Fort Duquesne after the French forever.”
and peace and how we conduct ourselves in had set it afire and retreated. There is much wisdom in these words by the immediate future will determine the The Forbes campaign of 1758 brought to a Washington, especially in his description of destiny of all who follow us.
close one chapter of Washington's military the intellectual atmosphere which prevailed Our responsibility is great, let us pray career. The next chapter opened when the and made possible the establishment of a that our conduct as a people and a nation Second Continental Congress on June 15, government dedicated to securing the rights is in the tradition of Washington, and that 1775, unanimously elected him as commander of man.
our descendants will respect and honor us in chief of its armies. That those citizens who have preceded us as we do those great men who founded this Earlier in the year he had been chosen by fufilled the desires and aspirations of WashNation.
the Virginia Legislature as a delegate to the ington by securing and continuing the
Continental Congress which was to meet in blessings of society can be evidenced by the ADDRESS OF SENATOR MARTIN, OF PENNSYLVANIA
Philadelphia high standard of living which this Nation
One biographer pictures Washington riding
On this sacred soil, sanctified by the blood has enjoyed, and the freedoms which are the
through the gateway of Mount Vernon on of patriots, we meet in humble and reverent rights of every person in the United States.
May 4, 1775, and states that when he turned acknowledgment of our everlasting debt to · Washington, however, warned that there
his horse's head northward his career as a the sublime character and majestic greatness Virginian ended and his career as an Ameriis another option, and I believe it is an of George Washington. option facing us today; that it is within the
We meet in commemoration of an event choice of the people of this country and de
It is not necessary to relate to this diswhich had outstanding importance in the pends upon their conduct, whether they will vast drama of human progress.
tinguished audience the trials and tribulabe respectable and prosperous, or contempt
tions, the hardships and heartbreaks, of
Here was enacted the first stirring scene ible and miserable as a nation.
those dark days of gloom and discouragement in the glorious pageant of American liberty More than at any other time in our his- which culminated in the War for Independ
that followed. tory, I believe, that alternative exists today.
Truly they were times that tried men's ence and the birth of a new Nation, destined The people of every other nation are watch
souls. We can only marvel at the patience, under God, to lead the world in material, ing the conduct of the United States. Some cultural, and spiritual power.
perseverance, and self-control of the great are watching our conduct in the hope that
military leader who never lost faith in the For here, at Fort Necessity, George Wash
final outcome. we can lead the nations of the world in
ington was in command of Colonial troops establishing peace, however uneasy that
Washington did not despair. Defeats were engaged in the first united action on the peace might be. Others are watching us with
merely temporary setbacks. Every new part of the Colonies in defense of the western
disaster was met with new and firmer conthe hope that we will fail in that goal. frontier against the hostile French and There are yet others, in nations maintaining Indians.
viction that freemen, fighting for liberty, a posture of neutrality, who are watching
could not be defeated.
For the youthful Colonel Washington, us suspiciously, unsure whether our leader
Surely Washington's faith in God susthen at the age of 22, it was his first military
tained him in those difficult times. In vicship can succeed. combat and he emerged with the honors
tory and defeat his orders called upon his How we conduct our affairs in our con- of war if not with victory. tacts and relations with other nations, and
troops to attend divine services whenever
In the language of this atomic age it might even how we conduct our internal affairs
it was possible to do so. be said that it started a chain reaction which
In one such order, issued when the here in the United States, can very well de- altered the course of world history and termine whether our future is to be blessed
Declaration of Independence was read to his changed the map of three continents. with an era of peace or the holocaust of Historians have delved deeply into every
troops, General Washington revealed his beatomic war.
lief that liberty and religious faith are phase of George Washington's illustrious
interwoven. There is no pat formula or slogan, there is career and his monumental achievements.
He stated, and I quote: no rigid inflexible policy, which, if accepted, His writings and his speeches have been
“The blessing and protection of Heaven can lead to the peace and prosperity which studied with extreme care. The facts of his
are at all times necessary but especially so we seek. life as a planter, soldier, and statesman
in times of public distress and danger. The I personally do not accept the appease- have been given the most exacting exami
general hopes and trusts that every officer ment, and nonaggression pact suggestions nation. Innumerable biographies of Wash
and man will endeavor so to live and act, as which have been made by some of the out- ington have been published in almost every
becomes a Christian soldier defending the standing world statesmen. Neither do I ac- language of the globe.
dearest rights and liberties of his country.” cept the idea that we must meet our enemy But as we look back 200 years to his first
The same spirit, linking religion and in mortal conflict and hand over the spoils combat engagement, we see a boy of 22, whose patriotism, was shown in a similar order to the victor. courage and character had been shaped by
issued at Valley Forge when General WashThere must be found a middleway; there self-discipline, tireless energy, exposure to
ington received the welcome news that is surely some alternative to world war and hardship and danger, devotion to duty, rever
France had signed a treaty of alliance with complete appeasement of the Communists. ence for honor and truth, and a firm and
the United States. I believe that under the leadership of Presi- abiding trust in God.
Washington's order directed the divine dent Eisenhower that this Nation can find There can be no doubt that his contacts
services be held each Sunday at 11 o'clock respectable and honorable alternatives, with the trappers, traders, and homesteaders
and then continued: thereby avoiding a recurrence of such events of the western wilderness strengthened
“While we are zealously performing the as those of 200 years ago which led to so Washington's faith in his country and his
duties of good citizens and soldiers we ought m.any wars and social upheavals. fellowmen, his self-reliance, and his patri
not to be inattentive to the higher duties However, I believe that the United States otism.
of religion. To the distinguished character of America cannot offer successful world As a citizen, surveyor, and young soldier
of patriot it should be our highest glory to leadership merely by defending the status he saw the land he was to lead in battle
add the more distinguished character of quo. The rise of nationalism in many parts against the mightiest military and naval Christian.” of the world, similar to that which occurred power of his time.
Two more references by George Washinghere in the United States 200 years ago, Think of his dauntless courage as he set ton to religion and morality are worth recalldemands that we offer leadership which will out on his first important mission-a journey ing on this occasion. permit these people and particularly those of 1,000 miles through the snow-covered One was uttered when he was presiding in Asia-to gain the respectability of self- wilderness to deliver Governor Dinwiddie's over the Constitutional Convention in Indegovernment and the blessings which modern ultimatum demanding that the French pendence Hall. It was suggested that some society has to give.
evacuate all the territory claimed by Virginia. popular provisions be placed in the ConstiHere in Fayette County there are a good It was on this perilous journey that the tution to please the people and to facilitate many people of Polish, Czechoslovakian youthful soldier, reaching the forks of the its adoption.
Washington rose. His voice was choked tion are the major distributing agencies some 135,000 to 175,000 kilowatts for new with emotion as he said:
of TVA power. They have investments load at Oak Ridge. This is in spite of the "If to please the people we offer what we of some $400 million in this partnership
fact that your budget message said that "in ourselves disapprove how can we afterwards with the Federal Government through
the event * * new defense loads develop, defend our work?"
the question of starting additional generatThen he added: its agency, the TVA. They have demon
ing units by the Tennessee Valley Authority “Let us raise a standard to which the wise strated most successfully how Federal, will be reconsidered." and honest can repair. The event is in the State, and local agencies can cooperate Second, we are concerned about the proshands of God.”
in the development of the Nation's power pects of unnecessary increased power costs. The other came when he prepared to put resources for the benefit of all the Amer
We had understood from your budget mesaside the cares and problems of the Presiican people.
cage that any arrangements for AEC to buy dential office.
As the partner of the Government,
power from other sources would be a matter In his famous Farewell Address Washing
between AEC and the other supplier. Howton admonished his fellow citizens that reli- they have a vital interest in the contract
ever, the letters of Budget Director Hughes gion and morality are the indispensable sup
which AEC now is negotiating with the state that the pover would not be bought by ports of political prosperity-the great pillars Dixon-Yates group and they are, in my AEC for its own use, with a reduction in of human happiness. In that great Amer- opinion; quite properly protesting the TVA's commitment to AEC. Instead the ican document Washington said:
signing of such a contract with a private power would be bought by AEC for TVA's use, "Let us with caution indulge the supposi- utility combine.
and the testimony before the joint committion that morality can be maintained with
tee indicates that AEC expects TVA to pay
So far the power distribution in the out religion. * * Reason and experience
the bulk of the extra costs to the Governboth forbid us to expect that national morTennessee Valley have been completely
ment of the Dixon-Yates power-extra costs ality can prevail in exclusion of religious ignored in these negotiations. My col
estimated at $90 million to $150 million over principle."
leagues and I are determined that their the life of the proposed contract. The only The career of George Washington places interests shall not be ignored.
part of these costs that AEC expects to pay before us a never to be forgotten lesson in There being no objection, the letter
is the taxes which the Dixon-Yates group loyalty, patriotism, devotion to our country, was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
would pay in Arkansas and which would be and faith in its sacred ideals. as follows:
a duplication of the payments in lieu of Washington lived those ideals.
taxes that TVA will bear in Tennessee and
JULY 6, 1954.
other States upon its sale of this power. We his spirit of justice, and his conception of
The White House, Washington, D. C.
know from experience that TVA can be dea greater United States all combined to fash
pended upon to obtain its power at the low
MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: Please allow us ion his fame.
est possible cost. We do not have the same to say in the very beginning that our organiHis statesmanship reached the highest
confidence that our needs will be met by zation is not concerned solely with a theory level because he had the courage to direct
AEC and Dixon-Yates with power of the lowa government based on the concept that freeof government, but is very vitally concerned
est possible cost. dom of the individual is God's greatest gift with what is going to happen to an invest
Third, we are apprehensive about the conment of over $400 million that we have made to mankind.
tinued operation at maximum efficiency of in the distribution end of the Tennessee ValUnder that plan, in less than 200 years,
an integrated regional power system designed free Americans have built the richest, the ley power system. We became partners with
to meet the power needs of an integrated the Federal Government a good many years soundest, and the strongest Nation of all
We see in the Dixon-Yates proposal ago. The Federal Government now has an history. It was built on the solid foundation
the introduction of divided management and investment of roughly $800 million in the of equal justice, equal opportunity, and
divided responsibility, with a portion of this equal right to live, work, and succeed. power end of TVA and we, the people of the
power system having no franchise in the • We have learned in peace and war that Tennessee Valley, have an investment of
area and coming in under terms negotiated about $400 million. We believe this will exeach generation must buy its freedom with
with an agency which also has no responsisacrifice, sweat, tears, and blood. plain to you our very keen interest in this
bility for the region's power supply. We subject. The principles for which we must work
cannot believe that you are knowingly and and fight are the same today as in Wash
In your recent press conference you stated intentionally requiring us, without local deington's time.
that you wished to examine the Tennessee termination, to place our power supply probThe same freedoms, the same independ- Valley power supply situation from every lems again in the hands of these power sysence, the same way of life; the pursuit of angle. At the same time you stated that tems who have fought us so bitterly ever the same happiness, the same rights of prop
you had instructed the Atomic Energy Com- since we made the choice by popular vote in erty, the same freedom of speech, of press,
mission to enter into an arrangement that favor of service from TVA. It took a genera
would make such a study pointless. of religion, and of assembly-yes; the same
tion of effort to free this region from the freedom of action and enterprise.
arrangement, to buy power from the Mid- holding companies of which the Dixon-Yates Washington hated tyranny. If he were
South-Southern Co. combine at Memphis, companies are the successors. The Dixonalive today he would fight communism with
would be for a 25-year period and would Yates proposal is an effort to sell this area all the strength and vigor at his command.
cost the Federal Government a minimum of back to the power trust. It would be by He hated disloyalty. He hated dishonesty.
$90 million to $150 million in excess of other Federal dictation, without the sort of local Let us be inspired by his example to insist
ways of securing the same block of power. initiative and responsibility which we unthat everyone holding public office must be
The effect of the arrangement would be to derstand that you and the other leaders in thoroughly honest-a true servant of the weaken and ultimately to destroy the most your administration are anxious to encourpeople, appreciating public office as a public
efficient power supply system in the coun- age. Furthermore, the transfer of load would trust.
try. The Dixon-Yates arrangement would be made without a corresponding transfer Let us demand absolute loyalty from
not facilitate a study; it would be choosing of public utility responsibility to adjust the everyone in the Government service. Divided
an answer before the study has been made. supply at all times to the growing power allegiance has no place in the American way
We respectfully urge that the Dixon-Yates needs. For these reasons and those stated of life. proposal be rejected.
in the preceding paragraphs, we do not beLet us, like Washington, have the courage
We have followed closely the developments lieve Dixon-Yates syndicate and AEC should to be real Americans. We can pay no greater
in connection with the Dixon-Yates proposal, determine the arrangements under which tribute to his immortal memory.
including the letters from the Director of TVA is to furnish power for distribution by the Bureau of the Budget which were read us to the 5 million people of this region.
in the hearings of the Joint Committee on In connection with our apprehension DISTRIBUTION OF TENNESSEE VAL
Atomic Energy on June 17, and the testi- about the continued operation of a regional
mony of the AEC at that hearing. These power system designed to serve the region, LEY AUTHORITY POWER trouble us greatly.
we also find it impossible to believe that you Mr. HILL. Mr. President, I ask First, we are concerned, because it seems have been correctly informed about the powunanimous consent to have printed in
clear that the proposed arrangements will er supply activities of TVA, in light of your the RECORD the text of a letter which has
not provide an adequate supply of power for press comments construing as a possible
the region's growing needs. We know from threat of TVA expansion into adjoining been sent to President Eisenhower by
experience that these requirements are grow- areas, the recommendation by TVA of a the Tennessee Valley Public Power Asso
ing at a normal rate of about 750,000 kilo- steam plant near the periphery of the area ciation with reference to the proposed watts a year.
Therefore we were troubled it serves. For practically a decade the area contract whereby the Atomic Energy when your budget message spoke in terms supplied by TVA power has not changed by Commission, under a directive of the of 500,000 to 600,000 kilowatts as the amount as much as 1 percent. Memphis was one of President, would serve as a broker in the
by which TVA's supply for this area's loads TVA's first customers. It has been buying purchase of power for the Tennessee Val
might be increased by reducing its deliv- large amounts of power from TVA since 1938.
eries to AEC. Now we find that out of 600,000 The plant that TVA proposed to build at the ley Authority.
kilowatts proposed to be obtained from Fulton site north of Memphis, like the ShawThe municipally and cooperatively Dixon-Yates, TVA is expected to find not only nee plant at Paducah, is smaller-not owned members of the power associa- enough power for normal-load growth but larger-than the known TVA loads in the
vicinity. TVA has a record of cooperative food supplies to Mexican communities February 16, 1953, which overwhelmingly
. operating relationships with neighboring hit by the floods.
passed the Senate on May 11 last, and systems. In the light of all these facts, to
The work of the American Red Cross which I am most anxious be not now interpret such TVA plants as a threat to ex
has been magnificent. pand into adjoining areas is to adopt a point
lost in these closing days of the 83d of view heretofore suggested only in the
According to information furnished Congress. wildest charges of spokesmen for the private me by R. T. Schaeffer, National Director Mr. Davis so completely answered the power lobby.
of Red Cross Disaster Services, approxi- two principal objections made to the Fourth, interested as we are in the welfare mately 2,000 families on the Texas side joint resolution during the course of the of the entire Nation, as well as our own re- of the river have applied for assistance. debate that I asked him if he would send gion, we object to the wastefulness of an un
They are being provided it. The cost a letter to the President of the United economic investment. This scheme would will be in excess of $500,000.
States and to the Democratic leadership place a plant at an uneconomical location; it would require an extra investment in
The president of the American Red of the House setting forth his views on transmission, extra cost of transportation of
Cross, after conference with the Mexican the subject. coal, and extra consumption of fuel, labor, Ambassador to the United States, offered Senators will recall that during the deand materials to offset the energy lost in the assistance of the American Red Cross bate the two principal objections made unnecessary longer transmission. This to Mexico people affected. The Ameri- to the joint resolution were, first, that scheme would require unnecessary duplica
can Ambassador to Mexico passed on to it had not been given sufficient study tion of State and local tax payments in two
the Mexican Red Cross the information prior to passage by the Senate, and areas. It would involve unnecessarily high
that the American Red Cross was pre- secondly, that it served no real purpose, interest costs for money borrowed on the strength of the Government's credit. It was
pared to assist to the extent of $50,000, and hence constituted but another clear from the testimony before the joint
either in cash or relief supplies. This "tinker" with the Constitution. committee that there is no doubt in the offer of assistance was accepted. The I asked Mr. Davis if I might deliver minds of anyone that these extra costs exist; relief is being extended in the form of his letter to the President to which he the only question is whether they amount to food, clothing, and medical supplies. agreed and which I did. Upon that ocas little es $3,685,000 a year (a large amount
The Fourth Army, which has head- casion I asked the President if I might in itself) or to more than $51/2 million a year.
quarters in San Antonio, Tex., provided make the letter public, because I felt For all these reasons, we are compelled to
field kitchens and personnel to prepare that it was of such great interest genprotest against the proposed Dixon-Yates contract.
food for flood victims on both sides of erally, and particularly to Members of In urging rejection of the Dixon-Yates pro- the river. Both the Army and the Air Congress, that it should be made public. posal, we are only too well aware that the Force are to be commended in the high- The President willingly agreed, subject delays to date make it very late in this ses
est terms for the outstanding service to approval by Mr. Davis. sion of Congress to be expecting appropria- they rendered in this emergency.
I then communicated with Mr. Davis, tion of funds for major expansion of TVA's
A pontoon bridge went into operation and he agreed that the letter might be generating capacity. We are also painfully aware of the grave effects on this region of
between Laredo and Nuevo Laredo at made public. I also communicated with further postponement of new power generat- 4:15 Tuesday afternoon, replacing the Mr. RAYBURN, the minority leader of ing capacity. Instead of the capacity being permanent structure swept away by the the House of Representatives, and he provided in advance of load growth, as should flood. A temporary bridge also has been agreed to permit the letter to him from always be done, the construction of new ca- established across the Rio Grande at Mr. Davis to be made public. pacity in this area is already being allowed Eagle Pass.
I therefore ask unanimous consent for a second year to lag behind demands.
I am informed that, thanks to the that there be printed in the body of the Nevertheless, even though in 1957 this entire
RECORD at this point as a part of my region must stop its forward economic march prompt receipt of medical supplies, there for a period corresponding to any further de. appears to be no danger of an outbreak remarks the letter from Mr. Davis to the lays in action now, we would rather bear that of either typhoid or malaria.
President of the United States and the burden than to start down a road which, in I have received a communication from letter from Mr. Davis to Hon. SAM RAYour judgment, can only lead to mounting His Excellency, Manuel Tello, Mexican
BURN. economic waste and multiplying obstacles to Ambassador to the United States, ex- There being no objection, the letters sound regional development.
pressing his personal appreciation and were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, In view of the many agencies of the Gov
the gratitude of the Mexican Governernment that are concerned in this matter,
as follows: ment for the passage last Thursday by as well as the great public interest in it, we
NEW YORK, N. Y., June 29, 1954. are sending copies of this letter to the Direc- the Senate of the concurrent resolution The PRESIDENT, tor of the Bureau of the Budget, the AEC and for the emergency aid given Mexican
White House, Commissioners, and TVA Directors, members people by agencies of our Government.
Washington, D. C. of the Appropriations Committees, and the On behalf of the people of Texas, I MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: A resolution propress. express similar appreciation.
posing an amendment to the Constitution, Respectfully yours, The cooperative effort between the
known as Senate Joint Resolution 44, having TENNESSEE VALLEY PUBLIC POWER United States and the Republic of Mex
passed the Senate is now pending in the ASSOCIATION,
House. I venture to commend this proposal By R. V. TAYLOR, President. ico has been most effective. It is my
to your favorable consideration should any hope and belief that similar cooperation occasion offer for your attention to it.
will mark accomplishment of the task In summary, the amendment proposes to RELIEF FOR FLOOD VICTIMS ALONG which lies ahead--the permanent re- fix at nine the number of Justices of the THE RIO GRANDE habilitation of the flood victims on both Supreme Court, to remove from Congress
in constitutional cases the power to impair Mr. JOHNSON of Texas. Mr. Presiwades of the Rio Grande.
the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme dent, on Thursday of last week I intro
Court, and to require all Federal judges havduced for myself and my colleague, the
PROPOSAL TO FIX NUMBER OF ing appointments during good behavior to junior Senator from Texas [Mr. DANIEL),
retire upon reaching the age of 75. JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT a resolution expressing the desire of
In general, I do not profess to be a friend Congress that the United States offer Mr. BUTLER. Mr. President, during of repeated amendments to the Federal any aid possible to victims in Texas and the latter part of June I attended a Constitution. Especially do I deplore those Mexico of the devastating floods along luncheon at the Association of the Bar
amendments which are predicated on imagithe Rio Grande. This resolution was of the City of New York. It was my great attempts to improve on the fundamental
nary or hypothetical dangers or represent promptly agreed to by the Senate. privilege and pleasure on that occasion
structure of our Government. Of these it I wish today to advise the Senators to sit next to Mr. John W. Davis, for
can only be said that "Striving to better, oft that much has been done. The Army merly Democratic nominee for President
we mar what's well.” and Air Force have been most coopera- of the United States, and certainly one This particular amendment, however, is tive in meeting Red Cross requests for of the most outstanding constitutional designed to prevent the repetition of unformedical supplies, transportation, per- lawyers of our time. During the course
tunate incidents such as have already ocsonnel, and cooking equipment. The of the luncheon I had the opportunity
curred. There have been attempts to conCivil Defense Administration, through to talk with Mr. Davis concerning con
trol the decisions of the Supreme Court by
increasing its membership. There is at least its régional office, went promptly to work. stitutional questions in which we have a
one historic case where Congress, to prevent The State Department acted with speed common interest, including Senate Joint decision on a constitutional question, withto help make possible the sending of Resolution 44, which I introduced on drew the case from the Court's jurisdiction. And there have been unhappy instances The PRESIDING OFFICER. The steps relative to the United Nations if where judges failing to recognize their own
Chair is inquiring whether there is any certain circumstances prevail. infirmities due to age have outstayed their
further morning business. If not, the usefulness. The only safeguard against such
It has been further suggested that the Chair lays before the Senate the unfin- American people would reject the United occurrences in the future is by the amendment now proposed. ished business.
Nations and our continued participation I trust it may be possible for Congress to The Senate resumed the consideration therein if the General Assembly should pass the resolution during the present of the bill (S. 3589) to provide for the approve the admission of Communist session.
independent management of the Export China by the necessary two-thirds vote. I am,
Import Bank of Washington under a From these above statements it is posRespectfully yours, JOHN W. DAVIS,
Board of Directors, to provide for the sible to draw the conclusion that a con
representation of the bank on the Na- certed and organized drive is underway NEW YORK, N. Y., June 29, 1954.
tional Advisory Council on International to wreck the United Nations if that world Hon. SAMUEL RAYBURN,
Monetary and Financial Problems and body votes in opposition to a given policy House Office Building,
to increase the bank's lending authority. of our Government. Should this drive Washington, D.C. Mr. MANSFIELD obtained the floor.
succeed, the United States would be the MY DEAR MR. RAYBURN: I venture to ex
Mr. CAPEHART. Mr. President, will
first member of the United Nations ever press the hope that despite the pressure of the Senator from Montana yield?
to threaten to quit because the game is legislative business the House will find time
not being played to our liking on a parbefore adjournment to give its approval to
Mr. MANSFIELD. I yield for a ques
ticular matter. Many other memberSenate Joint Resolution 44, the proposed con- tion.
nations have repeatedly suffered politistitutional amendment fixing at 9 the num- Mr. CAPEHART. I do not believe
cal defeats in the United Nations on ber of Justices of the Supreme Court, re- there is any opposition to the pending moving from Congress in constitutional cases
matters of great importance to themmeasure. It was reported unanimously the power to impair the appellate jurisdic
selves; to date not one of them has tion of the Supreme Court, and requiring all by the Committee on Banking and Cur
handed in its resignation. Federal judges with lifetime appointments rency, and was discussed at some length
Mr. President, I stand second to no to retire upon reaching 75.
the other day. Unless Senators have Member of the Senate in my opposition In its editorial of May 19 the New York questions about the measure I should like
to the admission of Red China into the Times said: “This is a good time, when no to suggest that we could pass the bill. such issue is before the country, to reinforce
United Nations. I joined as one of the It has been reported without amendment. the inviolability and integrity of the Supreme
initial signers of the petition circulated
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the Court."
by the "Committee for 1 Million Against The matter of forestalling future cyclical Senator from Montana yield for that
the Admission of Communist China to attacks upon the independence of the judi- purpose?
the United Nations, which was formed ciary has been given intensive study for Mr. MANSFIELD. I shall be glad to
last autumn under the honorary chairmany years. As long ago as 1946 the Asso
yield for that purpose for 2 or 3 minutes, manship of our former colleague, Amciation of the Bar of the City of New York provided I do not lose the floor.
bassador Warren E. Austin, with a steerappointed a special committee to study the
Mr. CAPEHART. I ask unanimous
I ask unanimous ing committee composed of such emiproblem. In the following year it recommended a constitutional amendment includ- consent that the Senator from Montana nent men as the Hon. Joseph C. Grew, ing substantially the provisions that even- may yield for the purpose of passing the Representative Walter Judd, Representtually became the proposed amendment now bill, without his losing the floor.
ative John McCormack, the Senator before the House. Thereafter similar ap- Mr. JOHNSON of Texas. Mr. Presi- from Alabama, Mr. Sparkman, and the proval was given by a committee of the New
dent, I am forced to object. Several Senator from New Jersey, Mr. Smith. York State Bar Association, of which I was
Members who are interested in the pro- This committee, of which I am proud to a member. The American Bar Association in 1950 added its endorsement after thor
posed legislation are not present. be a sponsor, has circulated this petiough study by distinguished committees and Therefore I object.
tion throughout the Nation, attracting debates in its house of delegates at several The PRESIDING OFFICER. Objec- hundreds of thousands of signatures. It annual meetings. tion is heard.
clearly represents a formidable public When the Senate voted it had before it the
opinion in this country, one which no report of its Judiciary Committee, at whose
foreign government should underestihearing Justice Owen J. Roberts; Harrison Tweed, president of the American Law Insti- COMMUNIST CHINA AND THE
mate. At this very moment, while I am
speaking on the floor of the Senate the tute; and several spokesmen of the American
UNITED NATIONS Bar Association from various parts of the
news ticker carries the information that country gave oral testimony.
Mr. GILLETTE. Mr. President, I ask 1 million signatures have been obtained. In my opinion, Senate Joint Resolution 44 unanimous consent that the Senator I have always opposed admitting Comwould plug up two dangerous loopholes in from Montana, who I understand will munist China to the United Nations. I the judicial article of the Constitution, there- speak at some length, may yield to me am opposed to it now. I shall be opby safeguarding the separation of our Goy
so that I may address the Senate for posed to it for as long as that regime ernment into its legislative, executive, and judicial parts and as the Constitution con
approximately 10 minutes, without the fails to live up to the standards of intemplated.
Senator from Montana losing the floor. ternational behavior laid down by the Believe me, with warmest personal regards,
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there charter as qualifications for admission to Sincerely yours,
objection? The Chair hears none, and membership. JOHN W. DAVIS.
the Senator from Iowa may proceed. I am opposed to admitting Red China
Mr. GILLETTE. Mr. President, re- not only because it is a government that
cently it has been urged by several im- has sent its troops into aggressive war MANAGEMENT OF THE EXPORT- portant officials that if the Communist against American soldiers and caused IMPORT BANK OF WASHINGTON
regime now controlling China should be tragic losses of life and limb among our
admitted into the United Nations Gen- troops and those of other U. N. members Mr. CAPEHART. Mr. President, has
eral Assembly, the United States should associated with us in stopping Red agthe morning hour been concluded?
promptly withdraw entirely from the gression in Korea. If I were opposed to The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. United Nations.
admitting Red China on the ground CARLSON in the chair). Is there any fur
A resolution has been introduced alone of waging aggressive war, I would ther morning business?
which would bring about the automatic have opposed a considerable number of Mr. CAPEHART. I shall be glad to
withdrawal of the United States from other present members of the United yield to the Senator from Montana [Mr.
the United Nations, should the Chinese Nations which, through our Nation's hisMANSFIELD], who I understand desires to Communist regime be admitted.
tory, have made war on us. I would speak.
Other legislative devices, including also, in all consistency, be opposed, which Mr. KNOWLAND. Mr. President, a amendment of the foreign aid bill, are I am not, to admitting Germany, Japan, parliamentary inquiry.
under discussion. There has been talk Italy, Spain, and other countries now The PRESIDING OFFICER. The of forming a “bloc" in the Senate to de- seeking membership in the United NaSenator from California will state it. mand adoption of some kind of restric- tions.
Mr. KNOWLAND. Has the unfinished tive legislation or resolution binding the To oppose Red China's admission to business been laid before the Senate? United States in advance to take certain the United Nations on the sole ground