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prevent his screening from punishment officers of the government with whom he may have combined, and to prevent favoritism.
Why was the power of making treaties with the concurrence of two thirds of the senate given to the president? Ans. The exercise of such a power requires secrecy and despatch, things which do not reside in any other department of the government. It is evident to common sense that the business of negotiation or bargaining cannot be well conducted by many persons. The legislative department would be very unfit for such a purpose. To the judiciary it is a business entire. ly foreign. After the treaty is made, the concurrence of two thirds of the senate, in order to give it effect, was required as a restriction upon a power too important to be trusted in the hands of a single individual. What was the propriety of vesting the power of appointing the officers of the government in the pres. ident? Ans. The president, being made responsible for the execution of the laws, should plainly have all powers necessary for dis. charging this responsibility. Such a power, is that of appointing those who are to aid him in his duties. Why was a restriction upon this
power given to the senate ? Ans. It was a power too important to be entrusted to any single individual. The restriction was given to the senate, since from its smaller number, its greater independence, and its supposed wis. dom, it is better suited to the exercise of such a power, than the house of representatives, or the two houses united.
The president has power to fill up all va. cancies which may happen during the recess of the senate; is the expression “ ali vacancies,” to be taken in an unqualified sense? Ans. No; it refers to those officers alone, whose appointment requires a concurrence of the senate.
A vacancy in the offices of the government happening when the senate are not in session, might occasion serious injury to the public service, were there no provision made for its temporary supply.
Sec. 4. What officers of the United States are liable to impeachment ? In what cases are they liable to impeachment ?
Sec. 1. What is meant by the judicial power? Ans. The power which interprets the law, and applies it in disputed cases. In
whom is the judicial power of the United States vested? How many judges compose the supreme court? Ans. A chief justice and six. associate justices, any four of whom make a quorum. From whom did the supreme court receive its present organization? Ans. From congress. The constitution only declares that there shall be such a court, and leaves the establishment of it to congress. How many terms in a year does the supreme court hold? Ans. One. Where and when does it sit? Ans. It sits at the seat of government; its session commences the second Monday in January. What inferior courts have been established by congress? Ans. Circuit courts and district courts. How many circuit courts: are there ? Ans. Seyen ; the United States are divided into seven circuits. How many district courts? Ans. Thirty-three; the United States are divided into this number of districts. Who compose the district courts ? Ans. One judge in each district, appointedi expressly to that office. Who compose the circuit courts ? Ans. A judge of the supreme court and the judge of the district in which the court is held. How often are the circuit courts held ? Ans. Twice a year in
every district. How often are the district courts held ? Ans.
Four times a year sta. tedly, and as many more times as the district judge thinks proper. How long do the judges of the United States courts hold their offices ? What is the object of this rule? Ans. To render the judges independent in the discharge of their high duties, it is necessary that they should not be influenced by any fear of remo. -val. Why may not the compensation of the judges be diminished during their continuance in office ? Ans. For a reason similar to the one given in reply to the last question. control over a man's living is a control over his actions."
Remark. It is provided in the constitution that the salary of the president of the United States shall neither be increased nor diminish. ed, during the time of his continuance in office. The compensation of the judges cannot be di. minished. The reason of the difference be. tween the two cases, is to be found in the dif. ferent duration of the offices. The president's office continues only four years. No great change in the value of the compensation could take place in that time. The judges hold their offices during good behavior. This peri.
od might be thirty forty or more years. With in that time money might greatly depreciate in value, that is, the same nominal sum might command a much less amount of the necessaries and conveniences of life.
Sec. 2. To what cases does the judicial power of the United States extend ? What is meant by cases in equity ? Ans. They are cases arising from fraud, accident, trust, and hardship which the law on account of its ina. bility to regard all the particular circumstances of every case, is unable to reach.
Remark. Equity is not in its nature something essentially different from law; its object is to supply the deficiencies of the law, and to carry it out in its true spirit.
What is meant by cases arising under this constitution ? Ans. Cases which depend on the interpretation of any of the rules of the constitution. What are cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction? Ans. As a general definition, they are cases arising on the high seas. Is there any difference between cases of admiralty and cases of maritime ju. risdiction ? Ans. The words “ of maritime jurisdiction," seem to have been added as more extensive in their signification, including, per