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EIGHTL. SERIES } No. 3826 November 3, 1917 {FROM BEGINNING





I. Counting the Cost. By Dr. E. J. Dillon FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 259 II. The Three European Settlements. By

Sir John Macdonell . . CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 272 III. Christina's Son. Book V. Chapters IV

and V. By W. M. Letts (To be

continued) . . . . . . . . . . 280 IV. In the Salient . . . . CHAMBERS's JOURNAL 288

V. Mr. Wells as a Bishop. By G. K. Chesterton. New WITNESS 294 VI. If You Can ... Lose. By E. L. White Cornhill Magazine 297 VII. Of Political Parties . . . . . SATURDAY REVIEW 305 VIII. According to Their Lights . . . . . SPECTATOR 307 IX. The Bibliophile Moves On. By J. E. G.

de Montmorency . . . . CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 310 X. The Allies and Sweden . . . . New STATESMAN 314 XI. A Levy on Capital? . . . . . Economist 316

A PAGE OF VERSE. XII. Back to London: A Poem of Leave. By

Sergeant Joseph Lee . . . . . SPECTATOR 258 BOOKS AND AUTHORS . . . . . . . 319



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Like the son of Kish, who, going out to seek his father's asses, found a crown, the belligerent peoples who sallied forth three years ago to wage war on each other for the heritage of their forbears—principle, sway, trade, or land—are slowly awakening to the fact that all this time they have been compassing ends of quite another order and of varied worth. Doubtless some of these are potential gains and arouse dilating emotions, but, one and all, they lie far beyond the bounds of what was intended. And the general outcome is that instead of crushing the enemy and winning the stakes, each of the warwaging peoples has been pulling down the pillars of the established politicosocial fabric and rendering life on the old lines henceforth impossible. Already they are starting in new directions and they have to push forward over untrodden ways to their appointed destinies. A measure of the distance traversed in the ethical direction may be had by taking stock of how human life is being simplified and spiritualized, manhood constrained by will and circumstance towards its ideal type and linked the while more closely with its kind throughout the globe. Something, too, is being missed and yearned for, rather than actually created, to which one might aptly give the name of international conscience.

Some of the many tentative improvisations rigged out under stress of transient necessity will, I believe, in time grow into gigantic institutions, the grain of mustard-seed becoming a majestic tree, in the branches whereof the birds of the air may come and lodge. For instance, effective organization for the adequate supply and distribution of foodstuffs and raw ma

terials among a population of seventy millions would have seemed impossible to create had it been mooted before the war. Yet it was improvised in a twinkling. Now that and kindred contrivances may one day be extended over the globe as race-ennobling instruments for the lopping off of dry branches, the whetting of the deeper instincts, the raising of man to the highest reaches of moral attainment —in a word, for the sifting and selection of the fittest. Odd though it may sound, the improvement of the race, the welding of its fragments into a compacted, rhythmically-working organism is, to my thinking, the remote but accessible goal towards which the world is being carried by an irresistible undercurrent of tendency. The immediate goals of the struggling peoples and the relative position of each group to the other, after three years of heroic effort, are not yet sharply defined nor even wholly disengaged from the reeking fog of war. A superficial observer might well fancy that each side is firmly convinced that, come what may, it cannot be utterly beaten by the adversary. Nay, each one seems to harbor a hope that, circumstance favoring, it will force the other to sue for peace, the Teutons relying on their submarines and the break-up of the Coalition, and the Entente putting its trust in the effects of slow attrition. But a closer examination reveals a general shifting of the standpoints among other noteworthy changes. As the respective timetables have been withdrawn by the Governments, and no date fixed for the decision, faith in many quarters has become weak and wavering, while in some it has wholly ebbed away. And after three years of Titanic destructiveness no seer can foretell

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