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sum of 68. 192d. in respect of the jour- letter for the use of season-ticket ney in question.

holders who have mislaid their tickets. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, We'll pack it full of sarcasm and irony.

H. W. Hutchinson. We will make an appeal to the nobler “This,” I said, as I finished reading sentiments of the Board of Directors. the letter, "comes from the Great We will remind them that they too North-Southern Railway, and is ad- are subject to human frailty, and " dressed to me. What do you think of " we will not send the letter,

but will put it away until we've finished “The miserable man,” said Fran- our boiling-over and have simmered cesca, “has split an infinitive, but he down.” probably did it under the orders of the “Francesca,” I said, "am I not Railway Executive."

going to be allowed to communicate "I don't mind,” I said, “about his to this so-called railway company my treatment of infinitives. He may opinion of its conduct? Are all the split them all to smithereens if he likes. pearls of sarcasm with which my mind It's the monstrous nature of his demand is teeming to be thrown away?. that vexes me.”

“Well," she said, "it would be useless "What can you expect of a Railway to cast them before the Railway Company?" said Francesca. "Surely Executive." you didn't suppose a company would “Mayn't I hint a hope that the display any of the finer feelings?” penny-halfpenny will come in useful

“Francesca,” I said, "this is a serious in a time of financial stress?” matter. If you are not going to sym- "No," she said decisively, "you are pathize with me, say so at once, and I to do none of these things. Of course shall know what to do."

they've behaved in a mean and shabby "Well, what will you do?”

way, but they've got you fixed, and "I shall plough my lonely furrow the best thing you can do is to get a I mean, I shall write my lonely letter postal order and send it off to Mr. all by myself, and you shan't help me Hutchinson.” to make up any of the stingers that "Mayn't 1-4” I'm going to put into it.”

“No, certainly not. Write a short "Oh, my dear,” she said, "what is and formal note and enclose the P.O.; the use of writing stingers to a railway? and next time don't forget your You might as well smack the engine ticket.” because the guard trod on your foot." "If you'll tell me how to make sure

“Well, but, Francesca, I'm boiling of that," I said, “I'll vote for having a over with indignation.”

statue of you put up." "So am I,” she said, "but--"

"Does everybody," she said, "ior“But me no buts,” I said. “Let's get his season ticket?” boil over together and trounce Mr. “Yes," I said, “everybody, at least Hutchinson. Let us write a model once a year." Punch.

R. C. Lehmann.


Revolution is rarely national; and, as with the revolution of a wheel, it is the small cranks that set the mechan

ism in motion. First of all comes the theft of power by a local and unrepresentative group of semi-intellectuals, who play upon discontents often mongrel pro-German, but pro-Germanism is and usually sporadic. Unable to sup- not the cause, for Russia has been port that power—for they are weak riddled with pro-Germans during allings of words—they are soon ousted most two centuries, and the present by rabid anarchists intent on plunder, propagandists are largely cosmopoliand rife with experiments against tans who are playing the German game. nature. For a time these simulate Once more, the gross corruptions of union by combining all the demolish- officialism are not the true cause, since ers of the Decalogue, and bribing the nothing can exceed the corruption of rest with promises of partition. Deep, the Revolutionists themselves. For too, calls to deep, and perhaps ex- what then is this hybrid Revolution tremists yet madder, revolts more retributive? Mainly for the ruthless revolting, add the brotherhood of persecution of the Jews in a semiCain to the degradation of "equality" oriental and still mediæval country and “Liberty's" despotisms. But which has persisted in "pogroms” inevitably a stern dictator arises and repugnant to civilized Europe. Men puts an end to the Witches' Sabbath. of Jewish and often of German-Jewish

It is difficult to define the real origin have been in the forefront of the causes of revolutions, which are fre- ferment, and are still convulsing all quently due quite as much to Rous- orders and every kind of order. The seauism or Marxism-to sentimental Soviet is largely thus leavened. Kerenor economical theories—as to past ski and the so-called Lenin, if we miswrongs that offer them opportunities take not, are partially so derived. when they come home to roost. More- This is a very remarkable fact, over, the men who contrive upheavals for the Jews are not revolutionary by are in a very true sense their imme- instinct, and only become so through diate cause. Without them Revolu- systematic oppression. Nor is intertion would rest satisfied with reform, nationalism their affinity, for where and with them the shape that Revolu- true statesmanship welcomes them tion assumes is constantly the shape of they are always among the most publicthese pioneers and not that which spirited of patriots. “Every nation fits the maladies of the body politic. gets the Jews it deserves" is a trite Indeed, the remedies of the nostrum- but true saying, and Russia has got mongers generally aggravate the symp- hers with a vengeance. Yet it would toms. Revolutions are retributions, be as unjust as untrue to suggest that it is true, but they tend to be retribu- the Jews have undone Russia. It is tions for what their leaders have missed international Socialism that has berather than for what the people has trayed her, the cabals of Geneva and suffered. Hysteria is no salve for Stockholm. We might as well say that inflammation.

Russia has been betrayed by Mr. The root of the Russian trouble is Ramsay Macdonald. A nation is a exceptional, and it has escaped the union of races, in ideal association. wiseacres and idealogues who prattle The Jews are a race not a nation, as of “democracy” and predict the golden Napoleon well recognized, and when age. The cause of the Russian unrest they are well treated they grow to the cannot be said to be Czarism, for the soil. When they are not, they are nation at large-above all its peasants driven into revolutions which they

-all are monarchical to the core. The head, through their ability. nation may have been fooled into “The Jews," wrote Disraeli, in that believing that the Court was especially fine twenty-fourth chapter of his biography of Bentinck, “... are societies in February, 1848, surprised the trustees of tradition and the con- Europe, they were themselves surservators of the religious element. prised by the unexpected opportunity, They are a living and most striking and so little capable were they of evidence of the falsity of that per- seizing the occasion that, had it not nicious doctrine ... the natural equal- been for the Jews, who of late years ity of man. The political equality of a unfortunately have been connecting particular race is a matter of munici- themselves with these unhallowed pal arrangement, and depends entirely associations, imbecile as were the on political considerations and cir- Governments, the uncalled-for outcumstances; but the natural equality break would not have ravaged Europe." of man ... taking the form of cos. And then Disraeli proceeds to prove mopolitan fraternity, is a principle, his statements in detail. which, were it possible to act on it, We make no apology for so long a would deteriorate the great races and citation from a passage so profound destroy the genius of the world. ... and prophetic. “Whoso is wise will The native tendency of the Jewish ponder these things.” If our Premier, race ... is against the doctrine of who too often takes the color of the the equality of man. They have also last acquaintance peripatetically enanother characteristic, the faculty of countered, had only pondered the acquisition. ... Thus it will be seen problem and been conversant with that all the tendencies of the Jewish its mainspring, he would never have race are conservative. Their bias is to indulged in cheap chapel oratory about religion, property, and natural aris- Kerenski's “able and powerful Governtocracy. ... But existing society has ment,” about the sun shining in the chosen to persecute this race which sky over the "dark glen," or about should furnish its choice allies, and “Russia, dazed with the light." He what have been the consequences? has neither seen nor foreseen, and it is

They may be traced in the last out- a great misfortune that he invited the break of the destructive principle in Delegates, congratulated internationEurope. An insurrection takes place alism, and connived at the stifled against tradition and aristocracy, Stockholm Conference. Did our Amagainst religion and property. Destruc- bassador, did Lord Milner inform him tion of the scientific principle ... the how and why these manoeuvres arose? natural equality of man, and the And if not, why not? For to every abrogation of property, are proclaimed student not misled by the post-imby the secret societies who form the pressionists of politics the causes provisional governments, and men of were as clear as day. But this is not Jewish race are found at the head of a time for reproaches if only we take everyone of them. The people of God the lesson to heart. The Socialists co-operate with atheists; the most bid fair to ruin every country that they skilful accumulators of property ally are allowed to mishandle. The Italian themselves with Communists; the debacle is largely of their making, the peculiar and chosen race touch the Russian is wholly so. But Socialists hand of all the scum and low castes of can, in their turn, prove the most Europe! And all this because they repressive of tyrants, and the New wish to destroy that ungrateful Chris- Democracy by no means implies our tendom which owes to them even its ancient freedom. The "pacifisms” name, and whose tyranny they can in the life-and-death struggle for no longer endure. When the secret honor and existence. are a very real

danger, which Germany is not slow to exploit by every machination. One day Russia will revive consolidated, and, maybe, a predominant power. But we do not expect to witness that renaissance while the war lasts. In going to peace she will go to pieces. She cries out (as Ireland and India cry out) for a firm hand and an understanding brain. Explanations never decide things, they only confuse them. Yet on we go "explaining” that it is for this new-fangled Democracy, heaven save the mark—that we are fighting. Emphatically we are not. We are battling for our country and to keep our word—very plain and pressing causes, that we wish Russia would remember. Let her warn us against politicizing issues so vast and vital. And let us learn that repression, even under Democracy's banner, is certain to entail menacing reactions. As we sow, we reap.

A long course of Socialistic prop-
The Saturday Review,

aganda preceded the Revolution. Russia, locked in medievalism, panted for escape-from herself. Morbid and neurotic, confronted by the contrasts of extreme luxury and poverty, she brooded as in some madhouse, on the visions of violence and the dreams of brotherhood. In vain did the Duma offer her constitutional medicines. The war rendered her melancholy impatient and consigned it to the fury of quacks or fanatics, who prescribed the forbidden vodka. It will take her long to recover, though only some five per cent of the population approve of insanity. “More haste, less speed." Here let us be lessoned also, and never be led away by the demagoguedoctors who are poisoning Europe. Muscovy remains an iceberg drifting to be warm. Formerly it was Constantinople, now it is the worldleague that will meet her. But warmth is only to be found by the fireside. Like Charity, it begins at home.


A great many people are saying that our naval policy is recumbently defensive and that fleets so supreme as those of the Allies ought to be in the posture of attack. We fear that our constant succession of small wars in which the British fleet has been able to do what it liked has given many of us false ideas of the real nature of sea-power. It never meant anything more than control of the communications oversea. This control enables the Power exercising it to bring about certain results of military importance. The first and most important is the interruption of the communications oversea of the enemy. This interruption was complicated in this war by the fact that Germany has several neutral neighbors, but it is now quite

complete. The second result is the isolation and conquest of all foreign possessions of the enemy which could not be reached except by sea. This result, too, except for the resistance which the Germans are maintaining in a corner of East Africa, is completely accomplished, and it is now true to say that Germany has no oversea colonies. Her writers are fond of pointing to their conquests on land, but measured in square mileage our own conquests, thanks to sea-power, are more extensive, and if we count in the effective use of the sea, which after all occupies three-fourths of the world's surface, even the territorial acquisitions of the Allies are enormously greater than those of Germany. The third use of sea-power is as an adjunct of the

army. Sea-power never put itself for many has been able to concentrate an ward as the equal of military power on overwhelming force against Russia in its own element. Throughout the the Baltic in spite of the even more greater part of the Napoleonic wars overwhelming superiority of our naval France was in possession of Belgium, forces outside. All these things have but except for the disastrous Wal- tended against the effectual exercise of cheren Expedition no attempt was sea-power as compared with the Napomade by our supreme navy to re- leonic wars. Yet the modern navy cover it. No naval victory in the need not fear comparison with those history of the world ever made such times. Our blockade of Germany is noise as the Battle of the Nile, but it as strict as ever it was of France; did not prevent Napoleon from invad- our denial of the seas to the enemy's ing Palestine afterwards. Trafalgar naval craft is even stricter, for though would never have been fought if the Germany, thanks to the employment French fleet in Cadiz had not been of submarines, has done our merchant forced by starvation to come out. marine more injury than the French The bombardment of Copenhagen was privateers did in the wars with Nathe one operation of the navy in Nel- poleon, she has done it at the price of son's days to which there is no parallel bringing in the United States against in this war. When we expect the navy her, whereas then it was our tyranny to be supreme, not only on its own at sea that was resented by neutrals. element but to meet modern shore In 1812 the United States went to war fortifications on equal terms, we are with us owing to our exercise of naval asking for something for which there power; now that boot is on the enemy's is no warrant in the whole of our naval foot. Nor should we be too exercised history. Let us be reasonable.

in mind over raids like that in the Let us remember, too, that the North Sea. So far as surface craft is changes in the world since the last concerned, our sea-power is more absogreat war have all been against the lute than anything ever dreamed of effective exercise of sea-power. In in Napoleon's wars. This is one of the first place, science has brought the respects in which science has about a great shrinkage in the earth's favored us. In the old days, when the surface. A hundred miles now corre- blockade was conducted by sailing sponds to ten miles then, and to get ships, a wind offshore often broke up the same immunity from the "silver the blockade. Now, thanks to steam, streak” that we once did we should our blockade, though more distant, is need to be moored a thousand miles more constant, and far fewer surface out in the Atlantic. Secondly, the sub- craft attain the open sea than in the marine has made close blockade im- old days. The exceptions of today possible. In the old days our navy were nearly the rule in the old was nearer the enemy and our coasts wars. farther away; now our coasts are We are not deprecating criticism of nearer and our ships farther away. the navy, but merely anxious that it Lastly, mines, especially in narrow should be fair and relevant. Fair and waters, have tended to neutralize large relevant criticism of the present action areas of the sea. For example, the of our navy would fall under one or Baltic, owing to the mining of the other of the following heads. First, narrow entrances, is now apparently are the existing arrangements for a closed sea, at any rate to our sur- patrol in the North Sea the best that face craft, with the result that Ger- could be devised? In particular, is

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