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CHAPTER XLVII

Page IMPEACHMENT .

467 Constitutional provisions—Who are civil officers-For

what offenses impeachment will lie Punishment-
Effect of dissolution of Congress.

CHAPTER XLVIII

THE ELECTION OF THE PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT . 470
The Executive Department-Appointment of presidential

electors; Plenary powers of the States-Original pro-
vision of the Constitution as to election of President
and Vice-President; Inadequacy of—Twelfth Amend-
ment-Counting the votes—Laws of 1887—Presi-
dential succession-Act of 1792.

CHAPTER XLIX

477

THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE PRESIDENT
The president as administrative chief-Administrative

decentralization in the States-Increasing integration
of Federal administration Information to Congress
-The President's control of foreign relations—The
veto power of the President—The President's par-
doning power.

CHAPTER L

485

THE APPOINTMENT AND REMOVAL OF OFFICERS
Constitutional provisions—"Officer” of the United States

defined—Inferior officers—Nominations-Creation of
offices—Civil Service requirements—The power of
removal Congress may regulate the removal of in-
ferior officers-Injunctions to prevent removal -
Mandamus to reinstate in office.

CHAPTER LI

491

MILITARY LAW
Military powers of the General Government–Military

law-Reference to members of the army and navy, Articles of war-Obligations assumed by enlistment --Courts-martial-Jurisdiction of courts-martial over

Page offenses which are also violations of the local civil law—The power of Congress to vest in military tribunals exclusive jurisdiction over all offenses committed by military persons, including offenses which are also crimes against the civil law-Powers of the Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy-Declaration of war-The prosecution of war— The organization and disciplining of the militia-The militia as an arm of the Federal Government–The uses of the militia and Federal troops to suppress domestic disorder—Military government-Military government of foreign territory-Military government of domestic territory in times of peace.

CHAPTER LII

508

MARTIAL LAW
Martial law defined-Martial law a form of the police

power—Martial power limited—Martial law does
not abrogate civil law and civil guarantees—Martial
law and military government distinguished—Martial
law in time of war—Exercise of military authority
outside the immediate theatre of war: Ex parte Milli-
gan-Habeas corpus-Suspension of the writ-Power
of the President to suspend the writ.

CHAPTER LIII

521

THE SEPARATION OF POWERS
The separation of powers-Separation of powers in the

States not compelled by the Federal Constitution-
Powers separated in the Federal Government-Sepa-
ration of powers not complete—The general principle
stated-Declaratory and retroactive legislation-
Legislative control of judicial procedure and powers

- Jurisdiction and judicial power distinguished
Contempts—Pardoning powers of the President and
contempts-Power of Congress to punish for con-
tempt—The performance of administrative acts by
the courts Judicial review of administrative deter-
minations-Judicial powers of administrative agents.

CHAPTER LIV

Page CONCLUSIVENESS OF ADMINISTRATIVE DETERMINATIONS 532 Due process of law does not demand determination of

rights in courts of law-Fraud orders—Chinese Ex-
clusion cases--Ju Toy caseConstitutional require-
ments of administrative determinations-Arbitrary
administrative discretion-Mandamus—The amena-
bility of the President to compulsory judicial process
-Obligation of the President to enforce laws be-
lieved by him to be unconstitutional Liability of the
State for the acts of its officers—Legal liability of
public officials to private individuals injured by their
acts—Ultra vires acts—Responsibility of officers for
improper exercise of authority-Malice, etc.—Respon-
sibility of judges of courts of superior or general ju-
risdiction.

CHAPTER LV

547

THE DELEGATION OF LEGISLATIVE POWER
Delegated power may not be delegated—Local governing

powers may be delegated-Power to issue administra-
tive ordinances may be delegated—Delegation of
rate-making powers—The referendum as a delegation
of legislative power-Administrative ordinances.

TABLE OF CASES

A

Page Ableman v. Booth, 21 How. 506; 16 L. ed. 169.

24, 420 Adair v. United States, 208 U. S. 161; 28 Sup. Ct. Rep. 277; 52 L. ed. 436...

277 Adams v. New York, 192 U. S. 585; 24 Sup. Ct. Rep. 372; 48 L. ed. 575...

335 Adams Express Co. v. Iowa, 196 U. S. 147; 25 Sup. Ct. Rep. 185; 49 L. ed. 424. ...

.250, 256 v. Kentucky, 206 U. S. 129; 27 Sup. Ct. Rep. 606; 51 L. ed. 987...

250 v. Ohio State Auditor, 165 U. S. 194; 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 305; 41 L. ed. 683..

..260, 389 v. Ohio State Auditor, 166 U. S. 185; 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 604; 41 L. ed. 965. .

394 Addyston Pipe & Steel Co. v. United States, 175 U. S. 211; 20 Sup. Ct. Rep. 96; 44 L. ed. 136..

282 Ah Chong, In ra, 6 Sawyer, 451

172 Alabama v. Burr, 115 U. S. 413; 6 Sup. Ct. Rep. 81; 29 L. ed.

452 Allen v. Riley, 203 U. S. 347; 27 Sup. Ct. Rep. 95; 51 L. ed. 216

304, 372 Allgeyer v. Louisiana, 165 U. S. 578; 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 427; 41 L. ed. 832..

339 Almy v. California, 24 How. 169; 16 L. ed. 644..

221 Ambrosini v. United States, 187 U. S. 1; 23 Sup. Ct. Rep. 1; 47

379 American Banana Co. v. United Fruit Co., 213 U.S. 347; 29 Sup. Ct. Rep. 511; 53 L. ed. 826. ..

285 American Insurance Co. v. Canter, 1 Pet. 511; 7 L. ed. 242. . 102,

123, 127, 129, 144, 150 American Publishing Co. v. Fisher, 166 U. S. 464; 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 618; 41 L. ed. 1079...

144 American Refrigerator Transit Co..v. Hall, 174 U. S. 70; 19 Sup. Ct. Rep. 599; 43 L. ed. 899.

259

435...

L. ed. 49....

Page American School of Magnetic Healing v. McAnnulty, 187 U. S. 94; 23 Sup. Ct. Rep. 33; 47 L. ed. 90.....

.534, 540. American Smelting Co. v. Colorado, 204 U. S. 103; 27 Sup. Ct. Rep. 198; 51 L. ed. 393.

359 American Steel & Wire Co. v. Speed, 192 U. S. 500; 24 Sup. Ct. Rep. 365; 48 L. ed. 538.

258 American Sugar Refining Co. v. Louisiana, 179 U. S. 89; 21 Sup. Ct. Rep. 43; 45 L. ed. 102..

217 Ames v. Kansas, 111 U. S. 449; 4 Sup. Ct. Rep. 437; 28 L. ed. 482

400 Anderson v. Dunn, 6 Wh. 204; 5 L. ed. 242.

183, 529 Anderson v. United States, 171 U. S. 604; 19 Sup. Ct. Rep. 50; 43 L. ed. 300. ...

282 Andrews v. Andrews, 188 U. S. 14; 23 Sup. Ct. Rep. 237; 47 L. ed. 366...

81 Anglo-American Provision Co. v. Davis Provision Co., 191 U. S. 373; 24 Sup. Ct. Rep. 92; 48 L. ed. 225..

80 Antoni v. Greenhow, 107 U. S. 769; 2 Sup. Ct. Rep. 91; 27 L. ed. 468...

458 Appleyard v. Massachusetts, 203 U. S. 222; 27 Sup. Ct. Rep. 122; 51 L. ed. 161.

91 Arkansas Rate Cases, 187 Fed. 290.

265 Arthur v. Oakes, 63 Fed. Rep. 310..

332 Asbell v. Kansas, 209 U. S. 251; 28 Sup. Ct. Rep. 485; 52 L. ed. 778.

247 Ashley v. Ryan, 153 U. S. 436; 14 Sup. Ct. Rep. 865; 38 L. ed. 773...

263 Atchison, etc., R. Co. v. Sowers, 213 U. S. 55; 29 Sup. Ct. Rep. 397; 53 L. ed. 695.

79 Atherton v. Atherton, 181 U. S. 155; 21 Sup. Ct. Rep. 544; 45 L. ed. 794..

80 Atlantic C. L. R. Co. v. North Carolina Corp. Com., 206 U. S. 1; 27 Sup. Ct. Rep. 585; 51 L. ed. 933. ...

549 Atlantic C. L. R. Co. v. Riverside Mills, 219 U. S. 186; 31 Sup. Ct. Rep. 164; 55 L. ed. 167...

285 Atlantic Coast Line Ry. Co. v. Wharton, 207 U. S. 328; 28 Sup. Ct. Rep. 121; 52 L. ed. 230 .

246 Atlantic & Pacific Tel. Co. v. Philadelphia, 190 U. S. 160; 23 Sup. Ct. Rep. 817; 47 L. ed. 995...

363 Auffmordt v. Hedden, 137 U. S. 310; 11 Sup. Ct. Rep. 103; 34 L. ed. 674.

227

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