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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by
D. APPLETON & COMPANY,
New York, .
TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS.-SECOND SESSION.
PROCEEDINGS IN THE SENATE.
Monday, December 3, 1832.
On motion it was ordered that messages Election of President pro tem.
communicating the election of Mr. WHITE as
President pro tempore, be sent to the House of At 12 o'clock, the Senate was called to order Representatives, and to the President of the by the Secretary, Mr. LOWRIE, (the VICE PRESI- United States. DENT being absent, and the President pro
tem- Messrs. GRUNDY and FRELINGHUYSEN were pore, Mr. TazewELL, having resigned his seat in appointed on the Joint Committee, to wait on the Senate,) and thirty-two members appearing the President of the United States, and inform in their seats, and there being a quorum, him of the readiness of the two Houses to reMr. SMITII
, of Maryland, moved to proceed to ceive from him any communication. the election of President pro tempore, which was agreed to.
The Hon. Hugh L. WHITE, of Tennessee, having received a majority of all the votes, was
TUESDAY, December 4. declared duly elected President of the Senate, The sitting to-day was occupied in receiving pro tempore, and being conducted to the chair and reading the President's Message as follows: by Mr. Tyler, of Virginia, returned his ac- Fellow Citizens of the Senate knowledgments to the Senate, as follows:
and House of Representatives : To the members of the Senate I tender my sin- It gives me pleasure to congratulate you upon cere acknowledgments for the distinguished honor your return to the seat of Government, for the purconferred by their vote.
pose of discharging your duties to the people of the No person who has been so long a member of this United States. Although the pestilence which had body could have been selected who has made the traversed the Old World has entered our limits, and rules of its proceedings less an object of his study. extended its ravages over much of our land, it has This circumstance will make my errors more numer- pleased Almighty God to mitigate its severity, and ous than might be anticipated, and will throw me lessen the number of its victims, compared with oftener on the kind indulgence of the Senate.
those who have fallen in most other countries over Whatever my errors may be, I have the consola- which it has spread its terrors. Notwithstanding tion of knowing that they can be revised and cor- this visitation, our country presents, on every side, rected at the instance of any member; and I beg marks of prosperity and happiness, unequalled, perefery one to believe that so far from feeling hurt at haps, in any other portion of the world. If we the correctness of my decisions being questioned, it fully appreciate our comparative condition, existing will be matter of gratification that the sense of the causes of discontent will appear unworthy of attenSenate may be taken in every instance when it may tion, and, with hearts of thankfulness to that Divine be supposed I am mistaken.
Being who has filled our cup of prosperity, we shall Whatever industry and attention can do towards feel our resolution strengthened to preserve and removing defects in qualifications I promise shall band down to posterity that liberty and that union be done, and I shall take the chair, determined that which we have received from our fathers, and which in anxious desire to do that which is just towards constitute the sources and the shield of all our every member, and that which will most promote blessings. the correct discharge of the important business we The relations of our country continue to present may have to perform, I will not be exceeded by any the same picture of amicable intercourse that I had who have preceded me.
the satisfaction to hold up to your view at the open
The President's Message.
ing of your last session. The same friendly profes- | ties to preserve inviolate, cemented, as it is, by a sions, the same desire to participate in our flourish- community of language, manners, and social habits, ing commerce, the same disposition to refrain from and by the high obligations we owe to our British injuries unintentionally offered, are, with few ex- ancestors for many of our most valuable instituccptions, evinced by all nations with whom we have tions, and for that system of representative Governany intercourse. This desirable state of things may ment which has enabled us to preserve and impree be mainly ascribed to our undeviating practice of them. the rule which has long guided our national policy, The question of our North-eastern boundary still to require no exclusive privileges in commerce, and remains unsettled. In my last annual Message I to grant none. It is daily producing its beneficial explained to you the situation in which I found that effect, in the respect shown to our flag, the protec-business on my coming into office, and the measures tion of our citizens and their property abroad, and I thought it my duty to pursue for asserting the in the increase of our navigation, and the extension rights of the United States before the Sovereign of our mercantile operations. The returns which who had been chosen by my predecessor to deterhave been made out since we last met will show an mine the question; and, also, the manner in which increase during the last preceding year of more than he had disposed of it. A special message to the 80,000 tons in our shipping, and of near forty mil. Senate in their executive capacity, afterwards lions of dollars in the aggregate of our imports and brought before them the question, whether they exports.
would advise a submission to the opinion of the Nor have we less reason to felicitate ourselves on sovereign arbiter. That body having considered the position of our political than of our commercial the award as not obligatory, and advised me to concerns. They remain in the state in which they open a further negotiation, the proposition was imwere when I last addressed you—a state of prosper- mediately made to the British Government: but ity and peace, the effect of a wise attention to the the circumstances to which I have alluded, have parting advice of the revered father of his country hitherto prevented any answer being given to the on this subject condensed into a maxim for the use overture. Early attention, however, has been of posterity by one of his most distinguished suc- promised to the subject, and every effort, on my cessors, to cultivate free commerce and honest part, will be made for a satisfactory settlement of friendship with all nations, but to make entangling this question, interesting to the Union generally, alliances with none. A strict adherence to this and particularly so to one of its members. policy has kept us aloof from the perplexing ques- The claims of our citizens on Spain are not yet tions that now agitate the European world, and acknowledged. On a closer investigation of them have more than once deluged those countries with than appears to have heretofore taken place, it was blood. Should those scenes unfortunately recur, discovered that some of these demands, however the parties to the contest may count on a faithful strong they might be upon the equity of that Gov. performance of the duties incumbent on us as a ernment, were not such as could be made the subneutral nation, and our citizens may equally rely on ject of national interference. And, faithful to the the firm assertion of their neutral rights.
principle of asking nothing but what was clearly With the nation that was our earliest friend and right, additional instructions have been sent to ally in the infancy of our political existence, the modify our demands, so as to embrace those only most friendly relations have subsisted through the on which, according to the laws of nations, we had late revolutions of its Government, and, from the a strict right to insist. An inevitable delay in proevents of the last, promise a permanent duration. curing the documents necessary for this review of It has made an approximation in some of its politi- the merits of these claims, retarded this operation, cal institutions to our own, and raised a monarch to until an unfortunate malady which has afflicted his the throne, who preserves, it is said, a friendly Catholic Majesty, prevented an examination of recollection of the period during which he acquired them. Being now, for the first time, presented in among our citizens the high consideration that could an unexceptionable form, it is confidently hoped then have been produced by his personal qualifica- the application will be successful. tions alone.
I have the satisfaction to inform you that the apOur commerce with that nation is gradually as- plication I directed to be made for the delivery of a suming a mutually beneficial character, and the ad part of the archives of Florida, which had been carjustment of the claims of our citizens has removed ried to the Havana, has produced a royal order for the only obstacle there was to an intercourse not their delivery, and that measures have been taken only lucrative, but productive of literary and sci- to procure its execution. entific improvement.
By the report of the Secretary of State, commuFrom Great Britain I have the satisfaction to in- nicated to you on the 25th of June last, you were form you that I continue to receive assurances of informed of the conditional reduction obtained by the most amicable disposition, which have, on my the Minister of the United States at Madrid, of the part, on all proper occasions, been promptly and duties on tonnage levied on American shipping in sincerely reciprocated. The attention of that Gov- the ports of Spain. The condition of that reducernment has latterly been so much engrossed by tion having been complied with on our part, by the matters of a deeply interesting domestic character act passed the 13th of July last, I have the satisfacthat we could not press upon it the renewal of ne- tion to inform you that our ships now pay no highgotiations which had been unfortunately broken off er nor other duties in the continental ports of Spain by the unexpected recall of our Minister, who had than are levied on their national vessels. commenced them with some hopes of success. My The demands against Portugal for illegal captures great object was the settlement of questions which, in the blockade of Terceira, have been allowed to though now dormant, might hereafter be revived the full amount of the accounts presented by the under circumstances that would endanger the good claimants, and payment was promised to be made understanding which it is the interest of both par- l in three instalments. The first of these has been
(SENATE. paid; the second, although due, had not, at the occasion been evinced by this interesting country, date of our last advices, been received, owing, it I made a second attempt in this year to establişha was alleged, to embarrassments in the finances, con- diplomatic intercourse with them, but the death of sequent on the civil war in which that nation is en- the distinguished citizen whom I had appointed for gaged.
that purpose, has retarded the execution of measures The payments stipulated by the Convention with from which I hoped much advantage to our comDenmark have been punctually made, and the merce. The union of the three States which formamount is ready for distribution among the claimed the Republic of Colombia has been dissolved; ants, as soon as the Board now sitting shall have but they all, it is believed, consider themselves as performed their functions.
separately bound by the Treaty which was made in I regret that, by the last advices from our Chargé their federal capacity. The Minister accredited to d'Affaires at Naples, that Government had still de- the Federation continues in that character near the layed the satisfaction due to our citizens; but at Government of New Granada, and hopes were enthat date the effect of the last instructions was not tertained that a new Union would be formed beknown. Despatches from thence are hourly ex- tween the separate States, at least for the purposes pected, and the result will be communicated to you of foreign intercourse. Our Minister has been inwithout delay.
structed to use his good offices, whenever they shall With the rest of Europe our relations, political be desired, to produce the re-union so much to be and commercial, remain unchanged. Negotiations wished, for the domestic tranquillity of the parties, are going on, to put on a permanent basis the lib. and the security and facility of foreign commerce. eral system of commerce now carried on between Some agitations, naturally attendant on an infant us and the Empire of Russia. The treaty concluded reign, have prevailed in the empire of Brazil, which with Austria is executed by His Imperial Majesty have had the usual effect upon commercial operawith the most perfect good faith ; and, as we have tions; and while they suspended the consideration Do diplomatic agent at his court, he personally in- of claims created on similar occasions, they have quired into, and corrected, a proceeding of some of given rise to new complaints on the part of our cithis subaltern officers, to the injury of our Consul in izens. A proper consideration for calamities and one of his ports.
difficulties of this nature has made us less urgent Our treaty with the Sublime Porte is producing and peremptory in our demands for justice than its expected effects on our commerce. New mar- duty to our fellow-citizens would, under other cirkets are opening for our commodities, and a more cumstances, have required. But their claims are extensive range for the employment of our ships. not neglected, and will on all proper occasions be A slight augmentation of the duties on our com- urged, and, it is hoped, with effect. merce, inconsistent with the spirit of the treaty, had I refrain from making any communication on the been imposed; but, on the representation of our subject of our affairs with Buenos Ayres, because Chargé d'Affaires, it has been promptly withdrawn, the negotiation communicated to you in my last anand we now enjoy the trade and navigation of the nual Message was, at the date of our last advices, Black Sea, and of all the ports belonging to the still pending, and in a state that would render a Turkish Empire and Asia, on the most perfect publication of the details inexpedient. equality with all foreign nations.
A Treaty of Amity and Commerce has been formI wish earnestly that, in announcing to you the ed with the Republic of Chili, which, if approved by continuance of friendship and the increase of a the Senate, will be laid before you. That Governprofitable commercial intercourse with Mexico, ment seems to be established, and at peace with its with Central America, and the States of the South, neighbors; and its ports being the resorts of our I could accompany it with the assurance that they ships which are employed in the highly important all are blessed with that internal tranquillity and trade of fisheries, this commercial convention canforeign peace which their heroic devotion to the not but be of great advantage to our fellow-citizens cause of their independence merits. In Mexico, a engaged in that perilous but profitable business. sanguinary struggle is now carried on, which has Our commerce with the neighboring State of caused some embarrassment to our commerce; but Peru, owing to the onerous duties levied on our both parties profess the most friendly disposition principal articles of export, has been on the decline, towards us. To the termination of this contest we and all endeavors to procure an alteration have look for the establishment of that secure intercourse hitherto proved fruitless. With Bolivia we have 30 Decessary to nations whose territories are con- yet no diplomatic intercourse, and the continued tiguous. How important it will be to us we may contests carried on between it and Peru have made calculate from the fact, that, even in this unfavora- me defer, until a more favorable period, the apble state of things, our maritime commerce has in- pointment of any agent for that purpose. creased, and an internal trade by caravans, from An act of atrocious piracy having been commitSt. Louis to Santa Fe, under the protection of es- ted on one of our trading ships by the inhabitants corts furnished by the Government, is carried on to of a settlement on the west coast of Sumatra, a great advantage, and is daily increasing. The frigate was despatched with orders to demand satagents provided for, by the treaty with this power, isfaction for the injury, if those who committed it to designate the boundaries which it established, should be found members of a regular government, have been named on our part; but one of the evils capable of maintaining the usual relations with forof the civil war now raging there has been that the eign nations; but if, as it was supposed, and as appointment of those with whom they were to co- they proved to be, they were a band of lawless pioperate has not yet been announced to us.
rates, to inflict such a chastisement as would deter The Government of Central America has expelled them and others from like aggressions. This last from its territory the party which some time since was done, and the effect has been an increased redisturbed its peace. Desirous of fostering a favorable spect for our flag in those distant seas, and addidisposition towards us, which has on more than one I tional security for our commerce.
(DECEMBER, 1832. In the view I have given of our connection with | have confided the Executive power to my charge, foreign powers, allusions have been made to their fifty-eight millions of dollars will have been applied domestic disturbances or foreign wars, to their rer- to the payment of the public debt. That this has olutions or dissensions. It may be proper to ob- been accomplished without stinting the expendserve that this is done solely in cases where those itures for all other proper objects, will be seen by events affect our political relations with them, or to referring to the liberal provision made during the show their operation on our commerce. Further same period for the support and increase of our than this it is neither our policy nor our right to means of maritime and military defence, for interinterfere. Our best wishes on all occasions, ournal improvements of a national character, for the good offices when required, will be afforded to pro- removal and preservation of the Indians, and lastly, mote the domestic tranquillity and foreign peace of for the gallant veterans of the Revolution. all nations with whom we have any intercourse. The final removal of this great burden from our Any intervention in their affairs further than this, resources, affords the means of further provision even by the expression of an official opinion, is con- for all the objects of general welfare and public detrary to our principles of international policy, and fence which the constitution authorizes, and prewill always be avoided.
sents the occasion for such further reduction in the The report which the Secretary of the Treasury revenue as may not be required for them. From will, in due time, lay before you, will exhibit the na- the report of the Secretary of the Treasury it will tional finances in a highly prosperous state. Owing be seen that after the present year such a reduction to the continued success of our commercial enter- may be made to a considerable extent; and the prise, which has enabled the merchants to fulfil subject is earnestly recommended to the consideratheir engagements with the Government, the re- tion of Congress, in the hope that the combined ceipts from customs during the year will exceed the wisdom of the Representatives of the people will estimate presented at the last session; and, with devise such means of effecting that salutary object the other means of the Treasury, will prove fully as may remove those burdens which shall be found adequate, not only to meet the increased expendi- to fall unequally upon any, and as may promote all tures resulting from the large appropriations made the great interests of the community. by Congress, but to provide for the payment of all Long and patient reflection has strengthened the the public debt which is at present redeemable. It opinions I have heretofore expressed to Congress is now estimated that the customs will yield to the on this subject, and I deem it my duty, on the presTreasury, during the present year, upwards of ent occasion, again to urge them upon the attention twenty-eight millions of dollars. The public lands, of the Legislature. The soundest maxims of public however, have proved less productive than was an- policy, and the principles upon which our Republiticipated, and, according to present information, can institutions are founded, recommend a proper will not much exceed two millions. The expendi- adaptation of the revenue to the expenditure, and tures for all objects other than the public debt are they also require that the expenditure shall be limestimated to amount, during the year, to about six-ited to what, by an economical administration, shall teen millions and a balf, while a still larger sum, be consistent with the simplicity of the Governviz., eighteen millions of dollars, will have been ment, and necessary to an efficient public service. applied to the principal and interest of the public In effecting this adjustment it is due, in justice to debt.
the interests of the different States, and even to the It is expected, however, that, in consequence of preservation of the Union itself, that the protection the reduced rates of duty which will take effect after afforded by existing laws to any branches of the the 3d of March next, there will be a considerable national industry should not exceed what may be falling off in the revenue from customs in the year necessary to counteract the regulations of foreign 1833. It will, nevertheless, be amply sufficient to nations, and to secure a supply of those articles of provide for all the wants of the public service, esti- manufacture essential to the national independence inated even upon a liberal scale, and for the re- and safety in time of war. If, upon investigation, demption and purchase of the remainder of the it shall be found, as it is believed it will be, that the public debt. On the first of January next the en- legislative protection granted to any particular intire public debt of the United States, funded and terest is greater than is indispensably requisite for unfunded, will be reduced to within a fraction of these objects, I recommend that it be gradually diseven millions of dollars, of which $2,227,363 are minished, and that, as far as may be consistent with not of right redeemable until the 1st of January, these objects, the whole scheme of duties be re1834, and $4,735,296 not until the 2d of Jan- duced to the revenue standard as soon as a just reuary, 1835. The Commissioners of the Sinking gard to the faith of the Government, and to the Fund, however, being invested with full authority preservation of the large capital invested in estabto purchase the debt at the market price, and the lishments of domestic industry, will permit. means of the Treasury being ample, it may be hoped That manufactures adequate to the supply of our that the whole will be extinguished within the year domestic consumption would, in the abstract, be 1833.
beneficial to our country, there is no reason to I cannot too cordially congratulate Congress and doubt; and to effect their establishment, there is my fellow-citizens on the near approach of that perhaps, no American citizen who would not, for a memorable and happy event, the extinction of the while, be willing to pay a higher price for them. public debt of this great and free nation. Faithful But, for this purpose, it is presumed that a tarifi' of to the wise and patriotic policy marked out by the high duties, designed for perpetual protection, has Legislature of the country for this object, the pres- entered into the minds of but few of our statesmen. ent Administration bas devoted to it all the means The most they have anticipated is a temporary which a flourishing commerce has supplied, and a and generally incidental protection, which they prudent economy preserved, for the public Treas- maintain has the effect to reduce the price, by doury. Within the four years for which the people | mestic competition, below that of the foreign arti