Слике страница
PDF
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]
[graphic]

MM. MONTAGt;-Kdwln Samuel Montagu was appointed Under Hccretary for India In 1(110, and his first budget speech a few months later marked him out for political promotion, and there was no surprise when ho entered the Cabinet as Chancellor of the Imcliy early In 1010. In the first Coalition Government he was Minister at Munitions, but retired with other friend* of Mr. Asuulth George came Into power. 1HI7 Austen Chamberlain resigned the Indian Hoeretnryshlp and Mr. Montagu was selected fur the vacancy. He It was, therefore, who wn« spokesman of the famous "Pronouncement" of Aug. 20, nnd a. few months later he proceeded to India to Investigate the political situation In association with the Viceroy. Their famous Joint report on Indian constitutional reforms was issued in

July, i''i and further Investigations are In progress In pursunni") of Its recommendations, with n. view to the gradual development of self-governing Institutions.

MAJOH IIKNKKAI, II. II. MAHARAJAH MIH OANOA MINtJII iniiu.ii; OF IIIKANKH, A. li. ('. to the King, belongs to the warrior clan of Kntltorc Hajputs, nnd Is descended from the ancient Kings of KnnnuJ. lte has exceptional qualifications, both personal and hereditary, to represent his order. Ills long record of war service began with the expedition for the relief of the legations nt Telling, In which he commanded his famous Camel Corps. During the war he served both In France nnd Egypt, and In the latter country and In Palestine the Camel Corps won fresh laurels In many a battle.

When the Maharajah went to London In 1PI7 as the first Indian Prince to bo delegated to the Imperial War Conference and

when Mr. Lloyd In the Hummer of

[graphic]

Cabinet, his speeches on Indian progress and reform made a great impression. He could not be spared from recrr.iring and other *?ar work in India for the second War Conference and Cabinet, but hfa selection for the present historic gatherings in Paris was most heartily approved by Indian opinion.

BIB 8. P. 8IXHA—Sir Satyecdra Prassano Sinha, K. C, will go down to history as representing in his own person more fully than any contemporary Indian the progress of his country toward the ultimate goal of self-government within the empire. The romance of his advancement from the obscurity of an Indian village home is scarcely less remarkable than that of Mr. Lloyd George. He went to England to study for the Bar at Lincoln's Inn thirty-eight years ago after secret preparation, owing to the strong prejudice then prevailing in Bengal against foreign travel.

He was the first Indian to be appointed permanent Advocate General of Bengal, and to become, Just under ten years ago, a member of the Viceroy's Executive Council. He Is the first Indian to " take silk" (an honor hitherto Jealously confined to the Bar practicing in England) to be a member (in association with the Maharajah of Bikaner) of the Imperial War Conference and Imperial War Cabinet in 1917, and now to participate In the Peace Conference, to be made a member of the Ministry in Whitehall, and, finally, to be raised to the peerage, for he Is to represent the India Office as Under Secretary In the House of Lords. He is the second Indian (Ameer AH being the first) to be named of the Privy Council.

NIK ALFRED HAMILTON GRANT, K. C. I. E., C. S. I., Indian Civil Service, who has been placed on special duty by the Government of India in association with the deputation, is the second surviving son of the late Sir Alexander Grant, 10th Bt. After serving for many years in the Punjab and tlie Northwest Frontier Province, he was appointed Foreign Secretary to the Government of India in March. 191.r>. On his return to India he Is to succeed Colonel Sir George' Roos-Keppel as Chief Commissioner of the Northwest Frontier Province.

UNITED STATES

PRESIDENT WILSON—Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States and Chief of the American delegation. Mr. Wilson, a considerable part of whose career has been spent as President of the great American University of Princeton, was elected to the, Presidency of the United States in 1912, and entered the White House in the Spring of 1913. His only previous public office had been that of Governor of New Jersey, where he made a fine record as a reformer in a State the politics of which had not been particularly savory. Mr. Wilson is a statesman essentially of tlv liberal school. Before the war he wrought in the United States a number of useful reforms. His policy of neutrality during the

first phases of the war was prompted partly by a desire to be true to the old American tradition of aloofness from extra-American affairs, partly by a sincere belief that by remaining out of the war he could best bring to the work of reconstruction the moral and material resources of his country. In the Autumn of 1916 Mr. Wilson was re-elected on a platform in which the maintenance of neutrality was the chief plank. His desire and that of a majority of the American voters to avoid war did not, however, prevent a declaration of hostility against Germany in April, 1917, after Germany, by a recrudescence of submarine savagtry. had enabled him conclusively to prove to his people that half-measures were useless, and that it was the clear duty of their country to Join the posse comitatus of civilization.

Mr. Wilson's war administration was effective in the extreme. By a fine flight of bold and imaginative democratic statesmanship he prevailed upon Congress to pass offhand a law for universal military service, backed by a measure of war finance generous enough to finance by loans allied purchases in the United States, as well as the vast American war machine. Having organized man power on a national basis, the President attacked industrial mobilization on the same scale. There was, it is true, during the Autumn and Winter of 1917 and 1918 considerable difficulty in starting the vast machine of American war effort. There were disappointment and delays over the air program and other things. But during the Summer of 1918 the United States was, at the supreme crisis, able to produce in France the men needed, and. had the war continued, her output of men and material would by next year have become irresistible.

President Wilson has in a special sense made the cause of the new democracy his own. Without his championship It Is doubtful whether the -League of Nations would have attained the h'gh place that it has now got In the program of the conference, while the high ideals of his fourteen points serve as a useful antidote to more selfish national

ambitions. The President is, in fact, though

[graphic]

enjoying only the qualified support of the powerful opposition party in the United States, regarded by liberalism the world over as one of its chief leaders and spokesmen.

MB. 1AN8ING—Robert Lansing is Secretary of State and chief member of Mr. Wilson's Cabinet. Though In the old days of the American Commonwealth the Secretary of State dealt with many domestic matters, h i s functions now correspond essentially to those of a Foreign Minister. Mr. Lansing Iz by training well qualified as a delegate. A lawyer by profession, he early specialized in the international field, and has frequently represented his Government in international cases. In 1893 he was junior counsel in the Bering Sea Arbitration at Paris. He was later counsel in the Bering Sea Claims Commission. In 1905 he went to The Hague to help in presenting the American case in the famous North Atlantic Fisheries Arbitration. From 1912 to 1914 he was United States agent in the Anglo-American Claims Arbitration.

Mr. Lansing succeeded Mr. Bryan as Secretary of State in the Spring of 1915. So far as matters of policy go, the President has been his own Foreign Minister; but in the tangled negotiations of the last phase of American neutrality he had in Mr. Lansing an able and level-headed lieutenant. Quiet and courtl;' in manner, well versed In the protocol of international conferences, with an intimate knowledge of American diplomacy and policy during the war, Mr. Lansing's value in shaping conclusions on many Important questions has been very great.

COLONIC I, HOUSE—Colonel E. M. House has never held any official position in the United States. He has, however, in the last few years been the most influential and the most discussed figure, next to the Presi d e n t, In American public life. Bom in Texas and possessed of a private fortune sufficient for his modest needs, Colonel House early interested himself in the politics of his State. Never seeking anything for himself, endowed with great political sagacity, with a keen judgment of human nature, and with that extraordinary memory of facts and faces that is so great an asset In public affairs, he reached a position, smoothly and silently, of almost dictatorial power in the councils of the Democratic Party in his State.

[graphic]

Colonel House's debut in national affairs synchronized with that of Mr. Wilson. Convinced that Mr. Wilson was the predestined leader of the Democratic Party, he became his friend and begun to become his counselor during the days of the future President's candidature.

During the days of American neutrality Colonel House made frequent trips abroad to get into contact with the leading men on both sides and glean first-hand facts *>out the war. While in the United States he saw In his flat in New York countless people, and received countless letters in regard to every phase of international aflairs.

Some months after the United States entered the war Colonel House was sent abroad by the President as his personal representative, and there can be little doubt that during his stay in Paris and London in the closing weeks of 1917 he did a good deal to prepare the way for Marshal Foch's appointment as Generalissimo. On the present occasion he preceded the President to Europe by several weeks, and since his arrival has been his chief lieutenant in Paris.

His office at the Hotel de Crillon is the clearing house of virtually all the important matters that come to the American delegation.

HENRY WHITE—Henry White is a diplomatist de carrlere. His first-hand knowledge of Europe dates back to the Second Empire. He entered the American Diplomatic Service in 1883, and served as Secretary of Embassy in Vienna, and then in London, where later, from 1807 to loon, he acted a» First Secretary and frequently as Charge d'Affaires. In 1903 he was appointed

Ambassador in Rome and was promoted to be Ambassador in Paris in 1907. In 1009 he retired.

Mr. White was a very close friend of the late Mr. Roosevelt, who appointed him to both embassies. Partly for this success ho was selected to represent the Republican Tarty at the Peace Conference. The Republicans, though they would have preferred some more active member of the party for Paris, acquiesced in the choice on account both of Mr. White's personal popularity and of his obvious qualifications as a diplomatist. Besides his embassy experience, he was the American representative in 1906 at the Conference of Algeclras upon Morocco, 'le he knows probably more European pubn than any other American.

[graphic]

GENERAL BLISS—General Tasker H. Bliss, as America's representative at the Supreme War Council, has become a familiar figure to the statesmen and soldiers of the Allies during the last year. Before he came to Europe General Bliss had been successively Assistant Chief and Chief of the American General Staff in Washington. He is, of course, a professional soldier. But, as his colleagues at Versailles have discovered, he is an experienced diplomatist and administrator as well. After the Spanish war he took a leading part in the reconstruction of Cuba under the American military authorities. More recently he was military adviser to the American Commissioners at a conference with representatives of Mexico, called to consider the relations between the United States and that unfortunate republic.

[graphic]

JAPAN

MARQUIS KINMOCHI SAIONJI, head of the Japanese delegation, who was born in 1849, is a member of the proudest nobility of Kioto, but one of the strongest advocates of reform in Japan. He studied law in Paris as a young man, and then became acquainted with M. Ciemenceau and the younger Radicals of the Third Republic. The Marquis was the closest friend of the late Prince Ito, whom he succeeded as leader of his party. He has been Minister Plenipotentiary to Austria-Hungary and Germany, President of the House of Peers and of the Privy Council, Minister of Education, and twice Prime Minister (1906-08 and 1911-12). He is one of the three oldest statesmen of Japan, the other two being Prince Yamagata and Marquis Matsukata.

VISCOUNT CHINDA-Viscount Chinda, the Japanese Ambassador in London, was born in 1856. He first became prominent as Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs under Marquis Komura In the period covering the RussoJapanese war. During a long diplomatic career he has been Minister to Brazil, to the Netherlands. at St. Petersburg, and Ambassador at Berlin (1908-11), Washington (1911-16), and London (since 1916).

BARON MAKINO, son of the famous Okubo Toshimichi. was born in 1861. He was appointed Minister to the Quirinal in 1899, and made his mark as Minister in Vienna during the Russo-Japanese war. He has since held the portfolios of Education (1906-08), Agriculture and Commerce (1911-12), and Foreign Affairs (1913-14). In 1916 he became a member of the Diplomatic Advisory Council.

[graphic]

MR. MAT8UI, Japanese Ambassador In Paris since 1915, was born in 1868, and entered the Diplomatic Service in 1890. He served in the AVashington. London, and Peking Legations, and was Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs (1912).

MB. ill l\, who was born In 1864, entered the Diplomatic Service in 1890 and served at London, Vienna, and Peking. He was appointed Minister to China in 1908 and Ambassador in Rome In 1916.

ITALY

[graphic]
[graphic]

SIGNOR ORLANDO—Born In 1860, Vlttorio Emanuele Orlando, Italian Prime Minister, a Sicilian, former Professor of Constitutional Law at Palermo University, was for many years a lieutenant of the former Prime Minister, Slgnor Giolitti. He became Minister of the Interior in the late Boselll Cabinet and was much criticised on account of the latitude he allowed

the neutralist and pacifist agitators. On perceiving the danger of their movement, he governed with a firm hand, and, having succeeded Slgnor Boselll as Prime Minister in 1917, he gained prestige by the moral courage he showed at the moment of the Caporetto disaster. He organized national resistance to the Austro-German invasion, and In a series of patriotic speeches sustained the spirit of the country. He is personally in favor of a liberal foreign policy and is understood to favor a direct understanding with the Southern Slavs.

SALVATORE BARZILAI is a native of Trieste, of Jewish blood. He was early identified with Italian Irredentist agitation and left Trieste for Italy, where he Joined the Republican Party. One of the most eloquent speakers in the Italian Chamber, he took office as Minister without portfolio in the Boselll Cabinet and contributed by his speeches to maintain public spirit. He was a member of tlie Italian Parliamentary Committee that organized the Rome Congress of Oppressed Austro-Hungarian Nationalities.

GENERAL COrNT MARIO DI ROBILANT, nephew of the former Italian Ambassador at Vienna and former Minister, Is an accomplished soldier and represented Italy at the Supreme War Council of Versailles. He spent some years as Military Attache at

clal, financial,

Berlin and subsequently commanded the Florence Army Corps. In 1906 he succeeded the late General De Giorgis Pasha as Inspector General of Macedonian reforms under the Miirzsteg program and remained in the Turkish service until the outbreak of the Italo-Turklsh war of 1911. He commanded with great ability an Italian army during the first two and a half years of the war, and was transferred to Versailles in the Summer of 1918.

BARON SONNINO-^Baron Sidney Sonnino was born in 1847, the son of an Italian Jewish father and a British mother. As a young man he was attached to the Italian Legations at Madrid, Paris, and Vienna. Wealthy and well educated, of a serious turn of mind, he entered Parliament at the age of 30 as a Liberal Conservative, and showed considerable competence in soand economic questions, studied the condition of the peasantry In Sicily, and advocated the gradual breaking up of big estates. In the Crispi Cabinets of 1887-1890 and 1893-1896 he made his mark as Under Secretary for Finance, and subsequently as Minister of the Treasury, and in the latter capacity he saved Italian credit by drastic financial and fiscal reforms, but shared with Crispi the discredit of the disaster of Adowa in 1896. He was alternately leader of the Opposition and leader of the Majority for ten years, but was Prime Minister only for two short periods of three months each in 1906 and 1910, being overthrown on each occasion by Giolittian hostility. Stern and uncompromising, he was regarded as an embodiment of his mottoes, Nitor in adver:um, and Alils si licet, tibl non licet.

Sonnino took office as Foreign Minister in November, 1914, on the death of the Marquis di San Gluliano and conducted the negotiations with Austria and Germany for recognition of the claims of Italy. He negotiated simultaneously the Ixmdon Treaty with England, France, and Russia, and concluded it after the failure of the negotiations with Austria.

MARQUIS SALVAGO-RAGGI, the only trained diplomatist among the Italian delegates, served as Secretary In various Italian Embassies, but first acquired prominence as Italian Minister to China during the Boxer troubles. He was subsequentl appointed diplomatic agent at Cairo, and afterward Ambassador in Paris upon the resignation of Slgnor TIttonl. This post he held for a comparatively short period, but he has now returned as the diplomatic adviser to the delegation. He Is a personal friend of Baron Sonnino.

[graphic]

8IGNOR 8ALANDRA—Antonio Salandra, Prime Minister o f Italy at the outbreak of war, is a native of Apulia. Entering Parliament at an early age, he acquired influence as an authority on jurisprudence and finance, and in the Crispi administration of 1803-98 became Under Secretary for Finance. In the second Pelloux Cabinet of 1809-1900 he was Minister of Agriculture, and succeeded Glolittl as Prime Minister in 1013. He retained office during the first eighteen months of the war, and was responsible both for Italy's declaration of neutrality at the beginning of August, 1914. and for her declaration of war on Austria in May, 1015.

BRAZIL

OLYNTHO DE MAGHALAES, Brazilian Minister in Paris, has during a diplomatic career of over twenty years established a reputation as an unusually progressive and far-sighted statesman, and he Is particularly well fitted to collaborate In the scheme for a League of Nations. His first great success was in the negotiations with Bolivia over the "Bolivian Syndicate," to which Bolivia had granted concessions in territory claimed by Brazil. He succeeded In establishing the justice of his country's demands, and thanks to his efforts Brazil subsequently obtained adequate compensation. He followed up this achievement by promoting, as Minister for Foreign Affairs, a rapprochement between Brazil and Argentina, and brought about an exchange of visits between the Presidents of the two republics, an event without precedent. He further strengthened Brazil's position by obtaining the signature of a treaty of general arbitration with Chile. Thanks to Senhor de Maghalaes's farsighted and conciliatory policy a foundation has been laid In South America for the establishment of an international entente.

EPITACIO PESSOA Is the head of the delegation which has been sent from Brazil for the Peace Conference. He is a member of the Senate and a prominent figure in politics, but he is perhaps most distinguished as an expert in jurisprudence. He is a member of the Supreme Court of Justice.

PANDIA CALOGERAS Is one of the greatest authorities on economic questions In Brazil. He has held portfolios of Agriculture and Finance, and In both offices has given proof of high technical accomplishment and first-class intellectual powers. He was one of the ablest coadjutors of Baron de Rio Branco when the latter was Minister for Foreign Affairs, and was chosen by him to

represent Brazil at the third Pan-American Congress. He is a man of very strong and Independent character.

BELGIUM

PACL HYMANS, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, was previously Belgian Minister In London. Before the war he was a leader of the Belgian Liberal Party and the Belgian bar. He is a man of great intellectual vigor and of wide political experience.

M. VAN DEN HEUVEL, one of the most distinguished members of the Belgian Diplomatic Service, was until recently Minister to the Vatican. He has constantly defended the Belgian cause at the Holy See ajainst the intrigues of Germany and the pressure of the German Catholic hierarchy.

[ocr errors]
[graphic]

VANDERVELDE—Emile Vandervelde, Minister of Justice, is a leader of the Belgian Socialist Party, who, like other prominent Belgian Socialists, supported the Government in August, 1914, and went Into exile with It when the Germans overran the country. He took office in the De Broqueville Cabinet as Minister of State without portfolio, but accepted the portfolio of Justice in the present administration.

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

KAKEI KRAMARCZ, Prime Minister of the Czechoslovak Government, was long leader of the Young Czech Party In the Austrian Reichsrat. He was prominent in assuring the return of the Czech Deputies to active participation In Austrian politics after their long abstention as a protest against the late Emperor Francis Joseph's failure to fulfill his promise to be crowned King of Bohemia at Prague In 1870. He opposed the Austro-German Alliance and the Triple Alliance as fatal to the interests of the Hapsburgs, and was regarded by Austrian Germans as their most redoubtable political antagonist. A strong Russophile, he was one of the Imitators of the Neo-Slav movement. He was arrested early in the war and condemned to death by an Austrian court, but was subsequently reprieved and liberated. His whole public life has been devoted to the cause of Bohemian liberty.

EDWARD DENES is Foreign Minister of the Czechslovak Republic. A student of sociology and pupil of Professor Masaryk, now President of the Republic, he was tutor at the Czech University of Prague, but escaped from Bohemia early in the war. He joined Masaryk, founded with him and General Stefanlk the Czechoslovak National

« ПретходнаНастави »