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Navy; Major Gen. James H. Barry, commanding the Department of the East; Major Gen. David C. Shanks, who as commanding officer of the Port of Debarkation in Hoboken started the country's legions overseas and in the same capacity is now supervising their return; and Vice Admiral Albert Gleaves, U. S. N., the officer who directed the convoys that transported more than 2,000,000 soldiers overseas without the loss of a single man. Governor Robert Cooper of South Carolina, United States Senators J. W. Wadsworth, Jr., and W. M. Calder, and Mayor John F. Hylan were also among the reviewing officers.
TRIBUTE TO THE DEAD The first demonstration occurred when the Corps of Cadets from West Point swung into Fifth Avenue and headed north for the reviewing stand, in front of which they were to serve as the honor guard of the returned soldiers. The 27th Division was preceded by a platoon of mounted police. After the mounted police there came an artillery caisson drawn by six bay horses. On this caisson draped in the American flag was a coffin, symbolical of the supreme sacrifice that nearly 2,000 of General O'Ryan's men had made in France. The flag that covered the coffin was buried in flowers, great clusters and beautiful wreaths representing every city and town in New York State that had given men to the Twenty-seventh. A wreath of orchids and ferns was the tribute of the officers and men of the division to their fallen comrades.
There was impressive silence as the caisson passed on its way. To most of the throng the memorial was unexpected. The caisson was flanked by an honor guard of veterans, every one of whom wore the gold chevron that indicates the man who has been wounded.
Following the caisson came another guard of honor, made up of veterans, who bore a great white silken banner on which appeared in gold 1,972 stars— one for every man of the division who gave his life for his country. The crowds everywhere remained standing in silence until the caisson and the gold
starred emblem of supreme sacrifice had passed. As the caisson approached the official reviewing stand the buglers of the Pelham Bay Naval Station sounded "taps," the West Point cadets stood at attention, and in the stand officers of the American, British, French, Italian, and Belgian armies and navies saluted. Next came the wounded men, those still incapacitated. There were more than 400 automobiles, and in each were from three to five men, a great majority of them 27th veterans. Here and there in the automobiles were soldiers whose sleeve insignia indicated that they had fought with units from other States. . With one or two exceptions, every automobile was driven by a woman, with a wounded soldier at her side and two or three more in the rear seat. Some of the men were still in hospital garb, having been permitted, because of perfect weather conditions, to leave their cots and take part in the demonstration. These wounded men wore various insignia; they received the most enthusiastic welcome, amid a rain of cigarettes and candy; most of them wore a rose or a carnation in the top of their overseas khaki caps.
AT THE REVIEWING STAND
The marching columns came abreast of the reviewing stand at 12:30. The Police Department Band headed the procession. At the head of his men and acclaimed by enthusiastic cheers rode Major Gen. John F. O'Ryan, the division commander, the only Guard officer who exercised such command in Europe. Behind him rode his division staff, which included the liaison officers of the allied services, British, Italian, French, and Belgian.
The place of honor behind the division commander and his staff was given to Australia. This honorary position was a tribute to the battlefield comradeship between the two armies which had fought the Germans together, shoulder to shoulder; and the acclamations which the Australian veterans received were ample evidence of the good-feeling of the people toward them.
The steel-helmeted men of the division Headquarters Troop followed, and after them came the 54th Brigade, the first of the infantry, the men who bore the brunt of the fight at Le Catelet and other battles of the decisive weeks of the war. The 108th Infantry, particularly, composed of many up-State troops, received a hearty reception; but the climax of ovation was accorded the 107th, many of whom wore the emblems of valor, usually the American Distinguished Cross, but in some instances also the British decoration, and in a few cases the French Cross as well. The 53d Brigade, the 106th Infantry, the 104th Machine Gun Battalion, the 105th Machine Gun Battalion, the 102d Engineers, the 102d Field Signal Battalion, the 52d Brigade of Field Artillery, the 104th Regiment, the 105th Regiment, the 106th of Buffalo, and the trench mortar men followed. The last units in the line were the Headquarters, Sanitary, Hospital, Ammunition, Supply, Mobile Ordnance Repair and Engineer Trains, with the division Military Police Company.
There was one war relic in the line, closing the procession, a huge German army motor truck. The sign painted on its sides said that it was captured at the battle of La Salle River on Oct. 17, 1918.
Before the parade and while it was under way army and navy airmen circled above Fifth Avenue. At one time there were five machines, four of the army and one naval hydroaeroplane, in the air at the same time. Twice during the parade one of the airmen swept up Fifth Avenue at an altitude of less than 500 feet above the crowd. Another thrilled the crowds with daring evolutions several thousand feet up.
COURT OF HEROIC DEAD
The most solemn feature of the pageant was the tribute paid the division's dead, when a guard of civil and Spanish war veterans laid a great wreath of purple orchids at the foot of the roll of honor in the Court of Heroic Dead before the Public Library. The roll of honor was a purple curtain fringed with gold, and bearing in three columns of golden letters the names of the battles in which the American soldiers were engaged.
Above this list of battles, which included Ypres, St. Mihiel, Mont Kemmel, MeuseArgonne, and the others, was the famous letter written by Abraham Lincoln to the mother of six boys who gave their lives for their country. The curtain was suspended from two high pylons upon which gleamed golden eagles with spread wings, and below them were golden spears and shields bearing che division's insignia. The approach of the flowerbedecked and flag-draped caisson drawn by eight horses silenced all tumult. The guard of honor, consisting of seven veterans of the civil war and two of the Spanish-American war, deposited the wreath at the foot of the curtain, while a band played a funeral march and the witnesses stood with bared heads. The exhibition of a large flag of gold stars consecrated to the dead and the singing by a community chorus of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" concluded the ceremony.
In the evening a large throng visited the Madison Square Arch, at Twentyseventh Street, and the Arch of Jewels, at Fifty-ninth Street. The new Arch of Triumph was barely completed in time for the marching soldiers of the 27th to pass beneath it. The Arch of Jewels attracted many visitors. Blazing intensely, it shone down on a dense and surging crowd, which, for a time, made all vehicular traffic impossible.
RETURN OF ATLANTIC FLEET The Atlantic Fleet, which had guarded the seas under Admiral Sims and Rear Admiral Mayo for two years, returned home on April 14, and steamed in stately column into New York Harbor and up the Hudson, the new superdreadnought Mississippi leading the way. Its unexpected arrival, twenty hours before the time that had been announced, added to the thrill of popular welcome that greeted the sea fighters. By night many thousands of sailors and marines had shore leave and were enjoying the sights of New York.
Three flagships entered the harbor in the centre of the dreadnought column, the Pennsylvania being between the New York and the Wyoming. The fourstarred blue pennant of the Commander in Chief fluttered from the main truck of the Pennsylvania, while the twostarred red pennant of Rear Admiral Hugh Rodman stretched to the breeze from the New York, and that of Rear Admiral Robert E. Coontz, also a red pennant, from the Wyoming. The Utah, the eighth ship in column, displayed the pennant of Rear Admiral Edward Eberle, recently relieved as Superintendent of Annapolis in order to assume a division command under Mayo.
MAYOR WELCOMES THE SHIPS
Notwithstanding its early arrival, the city authorities were able to welcome the fleet as it came into port. Down the bay the police boat Patrol, with Mayor Hylan and members of the Mayor's Committee of Welcome, saluted the. flag of Admiral Mayo, after which, with the aid of megaphones, wigwag flags, and wireless, the Mayor extended the city's official welcome to the officers and men of the fleet, representing a personnel of approximately 30,000.
The ships of the fleet were thrown open to the public, and 20,000 sailors received shore leave on April 16 to enjoy the free entertainments provided for them in New York City. The first day was cold and rainy, but free theatre tickets, luncheon parties, circus tickets, afternoon teas, evening dances, and other entertainments galore were provided for the visitors. Programs for them were arranged by the Red Cross, Salvation Army, American Library Association, Jewish Welfare Board, Young Women's Christian Association, Young Men's Christian Association, Knights of Columbus, and War Camp Community Service. Four special performances of the circus were arranged for the men of the fleet on four successive days. Special information booths for the 30,000 sea fighters were established by the New
York War Camp Community Service near the five landing stations of the fleet, where the men could get detailed information about all the varieties of hospitality planned for them.
WORK OF THE FLEET
Admiral Mayo stated that there were in all 104 ships in the Hudson River, classified as follows: Twelve superdreadnoughts, seventy destroyers, ten submarines, and twelve auxiliary craft. This number, however, did not comprise the whole fleet, as some of the ships were in the Gulf and others were busy transporting American soldiers home from France. The fleet, he said, had had a very successful season at Guantanamo. He described the fleet manoeuvres and the naval air service as follows:
At the Guantanamo base the fleet engaged in fleet manoeuvres, battle exercises, and target practice. The exercises were the most interesting of the kind in which the fleet has ever engaged. We learned a lot of new things in the war, and all this had to be taken into consideration. For instance, we have a new system of handling the ships now. In the old days we handled them as units, but now they are handled by divisions, and instead of manoeuvring from the ends, as was formerly the case, we now work from the centre.
Again, the air arm is now one of first importance in all navies, and the planes played a very important part in our exercises during our stay at the Winter base. The machines were launched from platforms erected forward on the Texas and Nevada, the airmen reporting back by wireless, sometimes from the air and sometimes from land stations. When operating at considerable distances from the main fleet the aviators often land and use shore stations.
The value of the service rendered by the airmen cannot be overestimated. I should also point out that we used many balloons in our work this Winter, and in one instance that I recall wo kept the balloon in the air for more than two weeks. The balloons were, of course, used for observation purposes.
Enormous Task of Restoring the Mines and Factories in the Area of German Devastation
A T the beginning of 1915 the Union
/\ of German Metallurgists, one of 1 \ the main representatives of economic Pan-Germanism, made the invaded French territories the subject of an expert report by an engineer named Schrodter of Dtisseldorf. This report was published in the German review Stahl und Eisen, (Iron and Steel.) The author announced that he was entirely satisfied with the results of his investigation. Most of the factories which he had visited, he reported, were provided with machinery of the greatest completeness, some of it of German manufacture.
A table appended gave in full detail the metal products of the ten occupied departments. The mines of the North and of Pas-de-Calais furnished about 28,000,000 tons of pit coal of the 40,000,000 total French production; their furnaces almost 3,000,000 tons of coke, representing 80 per cent, of the whole output. This predominance was even more pronounced in the case of Thomas steel, 95 per cent, of which came from the factories of the North and East. In the territory occupied by the German armies there were operated 2,600 breweries, 206 sugar factories, and hundreds of prosperous textile works, weaving and spinning factories, dyeing plants, &c. New steel works had just been constructed in the Department of the North when Germany invaded France; at Pont-a-Vendin, near Lens, at Douai, at Denin. The Society of Senelle-Maubeuge began on July 15, 1914, to exploit the forges of Montherme on the Meuse, (Ardennes,) which were equipped with powerful and modern machinery. At Blanc-Misseron (North) the German expert had visited the vast workshops of the Society for the Construction of Locomotives, which, he reported, possessed the most modern types of machinery furnished by the United States, France, Germany, and Belgium.
Eugene Bargemont in La Science et la
Vie describes in considerable detail both the destruction wrought by the Germans and the beginnings of the enormous labor of reconstruction, which may take years to complete.
At first, he points out, the economic war program of the Germans anticipated, by annexation, the ultimate possession of all industrial establishments situated behind the battle line. While victory still seemed certain, they levied on the factories of these invaded districts only in the case of metals other than iron, such as copper, zinc, lead, &c. But little by little, as the Rhenish industries became exhausted and a great part of their output unusable, and as the German hopes of victory waned, the fury of rapine and destruction found a vast scope in France. Deliberately the Germans set to work to destroy everything that they could not annex; and this activity went on for months, in an orderly, methodical manner, with the object of paralyzing for several years the industrial life of the invaded districts.
TWO YEARS OF DESTRUCTION
The ironmongers from beyond the Rhine loaded upon thousands of wagons the metal obtained by wrecking all the French industrial equipment and by blowing up the metal frameworks of the buildings. After the Directors of the German war factories had chosen and carried away all the machinery they needed, they dynamited the rest, in order to prevent for a long period any resumption of industrial activity. They stole the rolling mills and the great furnaces, with their blasting and heating apparatus; thousands of textile looms took the road to Germany.
The results of two years of such deliberate destruction are now visible. The mines are drowned by the deliberate destruction of the metal wells that had retained the seepage water, or by the diversion of surface streams into the ore beds. This was not simply destruction for destruction's sake, says M. Bargemont; the Germans were looking ahead into the future, when commerce should be resumed. They had accumulated enormous stocks in Germany, and had provided all necessary means of transport; new ships representing a commercial fleet of a million tons awaited loading in Baltic ports and in the North Sea, while thousands of locomotives and railway cars, stolen from the French, the Belgians, and the Rumanians, were reserved for overland transport.
This heritage of economic desolation the French have already begun to overcome. Some of the labor of reconstruction they had already foreseen, and prepared for; some of it could not be foreseen. On Oct. 29, 1918, for instance, only a few days before the signing of the armistice, the Germans wrecked the coal mines of Crespin, near Valenciennes, and to the last minute they continued their work of destruction. In January of 1919 there were 145 sugar factories, 1,600 breweries, and hundreds of textile works demolished or robbed of all equipment. The coal mines of the North and of the Pas-de-Calais, as well as the iron mines of the East, were made unproductive for long months to come.
MEASURES OF RECONSTRUCTION
Measures were taken, as soon as it was at all possible, to provide for the future rehabilitation of the demolished industries. Commissions were appointed by the various Ministries to study methods and ways. The Ministries of Public Works, Commerce and Industry, Railways, War, and Armaments, and even the Navy, were interested in the question. Each of these, therefore, created Bureaus of Social and Industrial Studies to prepare programs of activity for the hour of final deliverance.
But the situation would have been extremely difficult had it not been for the active co-operation of the manufacturers themselves. No one could better appreciate the innumerable details, or suggest better methods of repair, than they. Powerful committees were organized by
each of the large industries affected, which undertook the double task of determining the methods required and of putting them into vigorous application.
The flooding of the coal and iron mines in the basins of the north, the Pas-deCalais and Briey, was the first evil to be remedied. All motor apparatus having been destroyed by the enemy, new electric pumps were installed to empty the flooded mines, propelled by a powerful current in the vicinity of Courrieres, in the centre of the basins of the North and the Pas-de-Calais. After pumping out the water, the enormous task of restoring the wrecked machinery and equipment was begun, a labor which it was estimated might take years. Before the fine steel factories of Denain and Anzin, and so many others now a mass of raina, could be reconstructed millions of francs must be expended. Weaving and spinning mills and other textile factories were in ruins. The close co-operation of English and American industry was required.
SUGAR FACTORIES The sugar industry was one of those most stricken by the enemy, both by prolonged bombardment and by deliberate wrecking. Two-thirds of the sugar factories of the Aisne, the Somme, the Oise, and the North were sacked and destroyed; in actual figures, 145 out of 206. The seriousness of the problem was very great, as this is an industry closely connected with beetroot cultivation. In a large number of districts the ravages caused by large projectiles and by mines and torpedoes were so great that the cultivable soil completely disappeared; chalk was thrown upon the surface, and the rich black earth was buried under several meters of debris. These ruined beetroot farms must be replaced by others. The question of transportation, also, is a serious one; the horses and oxen which in the pre-war period drew the carts filled with beets to the sugar factories had completely disappeared.
The brewing industry was practically ruined. Of the 2,600 breweries, 1,800 were put out of business. All these, it was estimated, could not be reconstructed