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bombing planes for the United States Navy.
Some $64,614,000 was spent by the Imperial Munitions Board in the various shipbuilding activities carried on during the war. Forty-five steel vessels were built to the order of the Imperial Munitions Board, the Department of Marine, and other private contracts during the year 1918. These vessels had an approximate deadweight carrying capacity of 208,167 tons; 58 wooden vessels with an approximate deadweight carrying capacity of 159,200 tons were also provided. Under the present Government shipbuilding program contracts have been authorized for 39 ships of 3,400 to 10,500 tons with a total deadweight tonnage of 233,350. These ships have been or will be built at ten different Canadian shipyards. During the war the Department of Naval Service arranged for the building of the following vessels: For the Imperial Government, 12 submarines, 60 armed trawlers, 100 armed drifters, 550 coastal patrol motor boats, and 24 steel lighters for use in Mesopotamia; for the French Government, 6 armed trawlers and 36 coastal motor patrol boats; for the Italian Government, 6 submarines; for the Russian, 1 large armed icebreaker.
VOLUNTARY WAR EFFORT
The result of the campaigns for voluntary contribution during the war all over the Dominion always exceeded expectations. • An approximate total of voluntary contributions from the citizens of Canada for various war purposes would amount to something over $95,000,000. Of this total nearly $43,000,000 was subscribed to the Canadian Patriotic Fund, about $4,000,000 to the Manitoba Patriotic Fund, $7,771,000 in cash to the Canadian Red Cross Society up to Dec. 7,1918, while gifts in supplies reached an estimated value of $13,500,000.
The sum of $6,000,000 was subscribed to the British Red Cross Society up to Dec. 31, 1917, and over $3,000,000 in cash and supplies was contributed to the Belgian Relief Fund. Contributions from
all parts of Canada to the Y. M. C. A. for military work amounted to $4,574,821. Gifts from the Dominion and Provincial Governments to the British Government total $5,469,319. To this should be added miscellaneous gifts from various sources and for many objects, the value of which is conservatively estimated to be in the neighborhood of $8,000,000.
PRESENT FISCAL PROBLEM
But while Canada has given lavishly of men and money to the allied cause, the war has created serious problems which will have to be solved by the Government during the life of the present Parliament. [Spring of 1919.] Hon. F. B. Carvell in a recent statement estimated that the Dominion's debt would total $2,000,000,000 before the end of the year. This, he said would entail an annual expense to Canada of $110,000,000 as long as the present generation of Canadians lives.
The cost of pensions in 1919 will amount to $30,000,000 and eventually to $50,000,000. The work in connection with the new Department of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment will come to $25,000,000. These, in addition to war gratuities, pay and allowances, upkeep of military hospitals, &c, will create a total of $185,000,000, which will have to be met this year as a result of war activities, in addition to $125,000,000 which will be required to run the affairs of the country.
The income to meet this large amount totals $195,000,000, which is made up of $140,000,000 from customs receipts, $25,000,000 from excise, and $30,000,000 from income and business profits taxation. The problem for the Acting Premier, Sir Thomas White, during the present session of Parliament will be to find the extra $115,000,000.
The citizens of the Dominion are about to shoulder additional heavy burdens of taxation, but the fact that Canada has never failed to meet the demands made upon her during the trying years of war may be sufficient inspiration to help her meet and successfully solve the tremendous problems of peaceful reconstruction.
Scientific Methods Adopted by the United States Government to Make Crippled Men Self-Supporting
AMERICAN soldiers variously dis/\ abled in the European war have 1 \ been pouring back into this country, and others are constantly arriving. Men on crutches, with only one leg, men with sleeveless arms, men whose burned-out eyes are hidden by black glasses are encountered on our streets. In some, as they pass, they arouse mere curiosity and interest; in others commiseration. But pity, certainly, is the last thing they desire.
Under the authority and direction of Congress complete arrangements for rehabilitation and vocational training of disabled men have been made by the Federal Board of Vocational Education. President Wilson, in a letter to this board, made it plain that the Government and the hundred million people whom it represents stand squarely back of our disabled fighting men. He wrote:
mils nation has no more solemn obligation than healing the hurts of our wounded and restoring our disabled men to civil life and opportunity. The Government recognizes this, and the fulfillment of the obligation is going forward fully and generously. The medical divisions of the War and Navy Departments are rendering all aid that skill and science make possible; the Federal Board for Vocational Education Is commanded by law to develop and adapt the remaining capabilities of each man so that he may again take his place In the ranks of our great civilian army. The co-operation and interest of our citizens are essential to this program of duty, Justice, and humanity. It is not a charity. It Is merely the payment of a draft of honor which the United States of America accepted when It selected these men and took them in their health and strength to fight the battles of the nation. They have fought the good fight; they have kept the faith, and they have won. Now we keep faith with them, and every citizen Is indorser on the general obligation.
THE NUMBER DISABLED
The number of cases of total blindness among all the allied forces has been
calculated as 7,000, with probably a considerable addition to that number from the 30,000 patients undergoing special treatment. Lieut Col. Strong of the Army Medical Corps informed the House Military Affairs Committee on Jan. 23, 1919, that 3,000 of the total American combat force of 1,500,000 had lost either an arm or a leg. Figures given by Dr. James Munroe before the American Institute of Mining Engineers on Feb. 18 estimated the number of disabled soldiers then in the United States at 50,000. Of these, he said, between 5 and 10 per cent, had lost limbs and 41 per cent, had contracted tuberculosis. These estimates, he stated, were given on the authority of the Surgeon General, and were made public in an address on the " Use of Cripples in Industry." Subsequent official advices gave the total of major amputation cases in the United States to the end of March as 3,034, a figure which harmonizes approximately with the estimate of Dr. Munroe. Of these 3,034 there were 600 arm amputations and 1,708 leg amputations. The remaining 726 were of hands, feet, and two or more fingers. A conservative deduction from all the figures given above would indicate that there have been about 100,000 cases of disablement, including both those returned from overseas and those still in hospitals abroad; that 20,000 were victims of tuberculosis, and approximately 3,000 had lost limbs, in whole or in part; that some 25,000 are now [April, 1910] in the United States suffering from various kinds of disablement, including blindness; and another 50,000 still abroad.
Several thousand disabled men are now about to receive training under jurisdiction of the Federal Board and at the expense of the Government. It is not merely the men who have lost arms or legs that the Government is offering to retrain and restore to self-supporting activity; the Federal Board and the various hospitals offer aid to every man regardless of his disability who is entitled to Government compensation. It is realized that of the many thousands of men suffering from the effects of shell shock, gassing, shrapnel, gunshot wounds, tuberculosis, bronchitis, heart and nervous diseases, some may not be able to reenter their former occupations.
At the International Conference on Rehabilitation recently held in New York City, it was shown that, with the exception of Canada, the United States was the only Government that had officially organized to fit disabled soldiers for further industrial usefulness. In France, England, Belgium, and Italy this work, though recognized as one of the first of the national construction problems, has been carried on by private philanthropical enterprise. The scope of America's plans for rehabilitation is of wide extent. The Government's promise to the young soldiers sent abroad to risk life and limb for an ideal was threefold: physical care; compensation for injury, and re-training and re-educating to assume again a place in the economic life of the country. To fulfill the first promise, the best surgeons were obtained and sent to France, or installed in this country in modern hospitals, equipped with the latest scientific appliances to cure the sick and wounded. The Bureau of Compensation and the Bureau of War Risk Compensation, which provided a pension and insurance payment, covered the second promise. The third pledge of occupational rehabilitation is now in process of being made good.
The main agency through which this work is being accomplished is the Federal Board of Vocational Education. In June, 1918, by the Vocational Rehabilitation act, Congress turned over to this board the entire task of re-educating and placing in employment the discharged soldiers, sailors, and marines physically incapacitated from carrying on the pursuits of civilian life. On March 2, it was announced that 12,000 men were registered with this board; a few days later, 13,000. The board, by the terms of the
original bill, had been provided with a fund of $2,000,000 to carry on its work; of this sum, $250,000 was allotted for renting, remodeling, repairing, and equipping buildings needed, and $545,000 for tuition. But it was found that the States and colleges were ready and willing to give tuition free, and this left a surplus from both portions of the fund which might be otherwise utilized. The Bankhead bill introduced in Congress provided that $700,000 of this money be transferred, with the object of applying it to sending out agents to the various hospitals in the country, of which the army and navy now have 120, to talk fully with the men in the hospitals about their future plans, and help them in their choice of new work. That some such method of getting in touch with hospital cases was needed was indicated by the fact that many disabled soldiers and sailors had been discharged from the hospitals without learning of the opportunities the Government offered them. The new fund would afford the disabled financial assistance for travel, lodging, subsistence, and other expenses of these men while under investigation of the board to determine their eligibility for training.
WOUNDED MEN ON PAY
Under the system administered by the Federal Board wounded men may take courses which range from six months' shop training to a full four years' college course. Compensation allowed during the period of training equals the monthly sum determined by the war risk insurance law, or the sum of the last month's salary fnr activo service, if that be greater. No less tnan $65 is paid to single men, or men living alone while in training, exclusive of dependents' aid, or $75 to those who live with dependents. Arrangement:! have been made with colleges, technical schools, business houses, and manufacturing concerns, with adequate provision tor instruction under proper guarantees and supervision. The progress of those who enter college is made known to the board through reports from the Faculty. Both in college and business houses the men under training are on the same footing as all others.
To the families and friends of the disabled the Government has issued an appeal for encouragement; to the employers of America it has issued a call for co-operation, which reads in part:
Charity Is not needed. For the first time in the history of this or any other nation. Uncle Sam has put his war pensions on a proper basis as an insurance obligafon. Extensive preparations have been made for taking care of the disabled boys, not as beggars but as self-respecting men. This is a substantial return in gratitude. However, the best return the country can make for the service these injured men have rendered is to give them their opportunity to perform, in the years after the war, the same quality of national service they have rendered during the war. In this work the help of the employer is indispensable. The Federal Board calls upon every emp'oyer to aid In the intelligent discharge of this task.
A similar appeal for co-operation has been circulated by the Government among the workers of the country.
An analysis of the first 1,200 cases registered with the Federal Board made by Dr. Charles A. Prosser, Director of the Federal Board, showed that 245 of those who had appealed for assistance selected as their future vocations agriculture, 274 commercial pursuits, 372 industry and trade, 257 professions, 45 courses in Americanization, and 22 unclassified.
METHOD OF REHABILITATION
That the disabled soldier may overcome his handicap has been proved by hundreds already retrained. Men who have suffered amputation have become successful farmers, bee keepers, tailors, welders, and professional men. The deaf have taken agricultural and mechanical training. The blind have been taught to work as typists, poultrymen, and assemblers in machine shops. Outdoor occupations have opened a path to the tuberculous. Sixty-three distinct courses of training are reported, embracing agricultural, commercial, technical, and professional choices, with some cases of specialized work in jewelry and architecture. Forty-four institutions are represented in the training schools.
Wounded soldiers are reconstructed mentally as well as physically in the army hospitals, under the direction of the
Surgeon General. Reconstruction aids are of two branches. Physio-therapy includes especially hydro-therapy, electrotherapy, mechano-therapy, and massage. Massage has overcome paralysis in many cases. Occupational reconstruction is taught by teachers of handicraft, commercial subjects, elementary subjects, and music. Commercial subjects are learned by many men who have lost an arm or leg. The making of baskets, beadwork, weaving, modeling, and embroidering help both mentally and physically. The mere pulling of reeds in a basket may straighten a warped and twisted hand. At the Fort Snelling Hospital, when a patient's injuries are such that he must select a new vocation, his choice is aided by a Psychological Bureau, and the Federal Bureau, when he leaves the hospital, provides re-educational facilities.
What the Government is doing to fit the returned disabled soldier for a normal position in industry is strikingly evidenced in the various institutions which have undertaken this kind of work. Among these may be mentioned the Walter Reed General Hospital, near Washington; the New York Debarkation Hospital, the Red Cross Institute for Crippled and Disabled Men, and the United States General Hospital at Fort Snelling, Minnesota.
A report published by the American Red Cross Department of Civilian Relief on Feb. 7 lists some ninety-six base hospitals in twenty-four French centres, seven American Red Cross Military Hospitals in France and five in England, and eleven American Red Cross Hospitals in France. In these institutions the American wounded and sick still abroad are variously distributed. [For the American Hospital at Beaune see following page.]
METHODS OF INSTRUCTION The objects sought at such an institution as the Walter Reed Hospital, above referred to, have been explained by Major B. T. Baldwin, Chief of the Educational Service, as curative and vocational, including the physical restoration of the disabled man, the realization on his part that he is again a social being and must function as such, and the educational development of the patient while confined to the hospital. In the first category falls the teaching of a man who has lost one arm to use the other, and his equipping with an artificial limb, with special appliances suited to the man's special need. Major Baldwin says:
The reconstruction of disabled men begins at the bedside. There are fifteen young women working here on bedside occupational therapy. They are giving work to patients in early convalescent stages. They help the men develop the proper attitude toward themselves and toward their future outlook in life. The patient may learn basketry, weaving, wood carving, modeling or other lines of hand work. His chief interest is taken away from his discomforts or his disability and he is made to feel some sense of responsibility toward himself and others. When he is strong enough he Is taught some of the more difficult handicrafts or industrial arts—telegraphy, automobile construction, academic instruction, the principles of electricity, &c. No time Is lost in the work of physical and mental reconstruction, and after living in the atmosphere of the Walter Reed Hospital the patient begins to feel as if he were just as useful an individual as any of his brothers on the outside.
WONDERS OF SURGERY In their endeavors to return wounded men to something like their former condition army surgeons have accomplished marvels, and surgery has developed in the course of the war to a point which ordinarily would have taken many years to attain.
Major Duval, the celebrated French surgeon, before the American Clinical Congress, set forth some of the remarkable wartime achievements, especially in lung surgery, with the development of which he is largely credited. He told of the success of the new technique whereby, after the thorax has been opened, a bullet removed from the lung, and the wound cleansed, the cavity is closed over, leaving open only an "anatomical valve" through which the air is exhausted from the pleural cavity with an aspirating apparatus. The valve then is closed, and, as a rule, in from twelve hours to four days the lung inflates itself once more and functions normally.
In New York—in the debarkation hospital that used to be a large department store—a battered American soldier was being examined. Over his damaged arm hung a white plate. And through the white plate Captain Charles Whalen, the X-ray expert of the establishment, was looking at the bone. He said it had been well set. Swinging the plate a foot to the left, the wounded lad's ribs were promptly brought into view. And there, expanding and contracting rhythmically, was his heart, and his lungs, as they filled and emptied, were visible. This contrivance by which the secrets of the body are bared to the human eye is the fluroscope. An old story to doctors, it still indicates the wider field into which the various methods of surgery have expanded since the war.
The American Hospital at Beaune
TT7HEN the Army Medical Corps was W confronted with the problem of choosing a site in France for a hospital centre, it went to Beaune, a beautiful village in the Cote-d'Or region, where a small hospital built by the Duke of Burgundy in 1443 had become famous throughout France for its cures.
There, in the midst of vineyards famous for their Burgundy wine and under the shadow of Cote-d'Or Mountain, a gigantic hospital sprang up in a few months to overshadow the little institution at its side. It, too, already is fa
mous for its surgery and its cures of ailments. The little American cemetery among the trees has only 150 American graves, representing the deaths among about 15,000 who have passed through the hospital.
Surgeons say that in all France there are not two other hospitals to compare with these unique institutions. The American Army Hospital covers a square mile of territory, has 600 buildings of a permanent type, with accommodations for almost 25,000 patients, and is more than fifteen times the size of Bellevue