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the belligerents had been $197,000,000,
000. In his statement the Secretary said: I asked the War Department experts to look up for me the direct expenditures ■which had been made by the nations engaged In this war, and they have left out all the devastations, and they have left out the dead man's strip along the western front, where cities and villages and farms and everything else have been destroyed, left out all the incidental damage, and brought me a report which is as narrow an estimate as they can make of the direct expenditure of money in the belligerent nations, which amounts to $197,000,000,000. Nobody knows what that Is; nobody can figure or make any illustration that will illuminate that kind of statement. Mr. Baker said it had been estimated
that the total wealth of the United States
was less than this sum.
All the land value, all the value of personal property of every kind, all the improved value, buildings, clearing of forests, building of railroads, dredging of canals, improvement of harbors, and everything man has done of a permanent value from the time Columbus discovered America until now to make this a civilized and settled country—all that remains and is here now, plus accumulated profit of industry, and the wealth of this country Is $186,000,000,000, or about $11,000,000,000 less than the direct expenditures of the war by the participant belligerent nations.
The world of course is poorer by that amount. If the two oceans had swept together and" swamped this great continental and Industrial Republic of ours the money lost to the world would not have been as great as the direct expenditures of the participant belligerent Governments.
The Zionist Commonwealth
PRESIDENT WILSON met a delegation of representative American Jewish Zionists, who presented to him a memorial setting forth the present status of the Jews in Eastern Europe and the effect upon them of new and enlarged European States; also a resolution adopted by an American Jewish Congress, held in Philadelphia in December, 1918, which set forth guarantees considered necessary for securing fundamental human rights to Jews throughout the world. The President replied to the delegation in the following words:
As for your representations touching
Palestine, I have before this expressed my personal approval of the declaration of the British Government regarding the aspirations and historic claims of the Jewish people in regard to Palestine. I am, moreover, persuaded that the allied nations, with the fullest concurrence of our own Government and people, are agreed that In Palestine shall be laid the foundations of a Jewish Commonwealth.
A countermovement in opposition to the establishment of a Jewish Commonwealth in Palestine developed throughout the United States, and strong protesting resolutions were transmitted to the Peace Congress by prominent American Jews who opposed the plan to organize an autonomous Jewish State in Palestine.
* * *
Total Battle Losses
GENERAL MARCH, Chief of Staff, made a statement March 1 regarding the total deaths in battle during the war, as far as then determined from official reports. His total did not take into consideration those who had died of disease, accident, or other causes than battle action, or wounds in battle. In the thirteen nations engaged in the conflict there was a total of 7,354,000 battle deaths, divided as follows:
Serbia and Montenegro 100,000
United States 50.000
* * *
Losses Of The Turkish Army TT was announced on Feb. 21 that the ■*■ losses of the Turkish Army from the time Turkey entered the war until the end of 1918 were 948,477—dead, wounded, prisoners, and missing—according to an official statement. The casualties were distributed as follows: Killed and died of wounds and disease—5,550 officers, 431,424 men; wounded—407,772 officers and men; prisoners and missing— 3,030 officers, 100,701 men.
Distinguished Service Crosses
GENERAL MARCH made public also a table showing the number of Distinguished Service Crosses awarded to the different divisions of the American Expeditionary Forces, which totaled 3,819. The detailed figures are: 2,942 to the infantry, 251 to the air service, 238 to the medical corps, 183 to the artillery, 149 to the engineers, 50 to the signal corps, 36 to the tank corps, and 70 to others.
The Second Regular Army Divisions received 664 crosses, the 77th 146, the 27th 139, the 1st Division 300, the 2d 233, the 26th 229, the 42d 205, the 30th 177, the 5th 163, the 29th 150, the 32d 134, the 91st 134, the 89th 97, the 78th 95.
Transporting American Troops
AN agreement was reached between the United States and British Governments on Feb. 17 as to the amount to be paid to Great Britain for transporting American troops to France during the war in British ships. The figure finally agreed upon was based upon the cost of transportation with no margin for profit. General March gave the following figures on transportation of troops:
We transported up to the signing of the armistice 2,056,122 men; of those the British carried 1,047,374; American ships, 898,449; Italian ships, 61,608, and French ships, 48,691. There have been embarked from France up to Feb. 20 for the United States 352,922 men. In that embarkation —in the return of these men—American ships have carried 245,688 men, or 70 per cent; British, 75,174, or 21 per cent.; French, 16,368, or 5 per cent.; Italian, 8,773, and all other ships, 6,919. These figures show clearly the reversal of the problem; Great Britain's ships are now being used for their own purposes, the transportation and repatriation of their own troops, and are not at our disposal the way they were in sending the men over.
* ♦ •
New Minister To France TJUGH C. WALLACE of Tacoma, ■*■■*■ State of Washington, was appointed on Feb. 15 by President Wilson as Ambassador to France to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William G. Sharp. Mr. Wallace is a Missourian by
birth. He was appointed by President Cleveland to be Receiver of Public Moneys of the State of Utah in 1885, at the age of 22, but held no subsequent public office. He took a prominent part in the Democratic national campaigns of 1892, 1912, and 1916; in the latter campaign he was a member of the Democratic National Committee. While officially a resident of Tacoma, he spent most of his time at Washington, D. C.
Opening The Dardanelles rpHE Dardanelles were thrown open to ■*■ American trade on Feb. 15 for the first time since the world war began. The action was taken by the War Trade Board, following cable advices that an agreement had been reached by the Supreme Economic Council in Paris which would make such a step possible without destroying the effectiveness of the blockade of the Central Powers. Resumption of trade at the same time was authorized between the United States and Bulgaria, as well as the Turkish Empire, both in Europe and in Asia Minor.
* * *
Death Op Sib Wilfrid Laurier
SIR WILFRID LAURIER, ex-Premier of Canada, was stricken with paralysis Feb. 16 and died a day later at the age of 77 years. For many years he had been the recognized head of the Libertl Party, which, prior to Its defeat in 1911, had held uninterrupted sway in Canada for fifteen years. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1897, and received many other honors. He led the fight against conscription in Canada in 1917 and was defeated.
* * *
ACCORDING to a British Admiralty report issued on Feb. 20, the number of vessels launched in the United States in 1918 was higher than the whole output of this country during the ten years 1907-16, and exceeded by over 25 per cent, the combined output of the rest of the world in 1918. The total world's output for that year, exclusive of Germany and Austria-Hungary, was 1,866 merchant vessels of 5,447,444 tons. In this construction the leading nations were:
The United States 2.382,954
United Kingdom 1,348.120
Other countries 908,255
The output of the United States was also more than three times our output in 1917; Japan's increase was nearly that; but the figures for the United Kingdom are 584,033 tons below the blueribbon year of 1913, and represent an output 25 per cent, lower than the average of the three pre-war years, 1911-13; still they are higher than the totals for the previous three years, the Dresent total being 185,224 tons more than that for 1917 and 739,885 tons mor» than that for 1916.
During the five years 1894-d the tonnage launched in the United Kingdom amounted to 74.7 per cent, of the world's total output for that period. For the fifteen years 1899-1913 the United Kingdom's share in the world output was 60 per cent. During the war, 1914-18, a very serious decrease took place, and only about 25 per cent, of the world's output was launched in the United Kingdom.
* * *
New Emir Of Afghanistan
SIRAJ-UL-MILLAT-WAD-DIN, Emir or Ameer of Afghanistan, was murdered while in camp at Laghman on the morning of Feb. 20. Official advices from Kabul state that an attempt was made, with evidence to warrant definite progress, to trace the crime to disappointed German agents.
The late Emir, who was born in 1872 and succeeded to the throne in 1901, was a great friend of the English. That, however, did not prevent him from receiving with open arms Lieutenant von Hentig and the German mission which came to him in the Summer of 1915. The Emir accepted money from them, but had the Germans arrested and sent to Kabul, and, as Austen Chamberlain, Secretary for India, said in the House of Commons on Nov. 29, 1916, "it would not be in the public interest to state what had become of them."
On Feb. 21 Nasrullah Kahn, the murdered man's brother, proclaimed himself ruler at Jellalabad; what has become of the natural heir, Mayatullah Kahn, is not known. Nasrullah had not up to March 17 been recognized at the capital, Kabul. The anti-British proclivities of Nasrullah would have created a serious situation in Asia had his brother been murdered during the war. This brother took but a small part of the subsidy granted him by the Indian Government, leaving it at Calcutta to be invested.
In Indian official circles it is indicated that the India Office will not intervene, whoever becomes the de facto Emir. Seventy years ago it did intervene in the contest of rival candidates to the Kabul throne, expended many lives and much treasure, and received one of the worst blows British prestige even suffered in Asia.
* * *
Espionage Law Upheld
THE United States District Court sustained the espionage law in the trial of Victor L. Berger, which closed at Chicago Feb. 20. Berger was a Socialist leader, and was elected to Congress from Milwaukee in 1918. He was found guilty of violating the espionage law and of conspiring to obstruct the war program of the United States. He was sentenced by Judge Landis to twenty years' imprisonment, along with four other defendants, including the Rev. Irwin St. John Tucker. The case was appealed. The prisoners were released on bond on their making a pledge that they would refrain absolutely "from doing those things and saying those things for which they had been convicted." The United States Supreme Court in a decision in February sustained the Selective Draft act and features of the espionage law.
* * *
United States War Claims
THE war claims of the United States against Germany were officially estimated at $750,000,000, a sum nearly equal to the total value of German property seized in this Country by the Alien Property Custodian.
RAOUL PERET, Chairman of the Budget Committee of the French Chamber of Deputies, in opening the discussion of the financial situation in the Chamber March 7 placed the assets of France on the coming March 31 at 159,000,000,000 francs and her liabilities at 181,000,000,000 francs, leaving a deficit of 22,000,000,000 francs, ($4,400,000,000.) He estimated that the after-the-war budget would be 18,000,000,000 francs and the revenue 13,000,000,000 francs.
Louis Klotz, Minister of Finance, on March 13 discussed the financial situation. He confirmed the statement of M. Peret that the deficit to meet was over $4,000,000,000; he stated that half of this could be met by increased direct and income taxes, and intimated that a tax on capital would be inevitable.
In consequence of the British withdrawal of the artificial support of exchange between sterling and francs there was a flurry in French finances and the franc dropped several points. The situation was serious, and there was renewed urgency that rates of exchange be internationalized so that France would not be penalized in the purchase of raw materials by unfavorable exchange rates or that the war debts of the Allies be pooled and guaranteed by an allied union.
On March 18 the franc was quoted at 5.76 to the dollar, being 15 per cent, discount below normal. * * * Egypt Seeks Independence TAETAILS of an attempt by Nation*-* alists to obtain complete autonomy for Egypt were officially reported to Parliament on March 18. It was announced that last November a deputation of Egyptian Nationalists under the leadership of Said Pasha Zagloul, Vice President of the Legislative Assembly, called at the British residency to advocate a program of complete autonomy for Egypt, which would leave to Great Britain only the right of supervision in regard to the public debt and facilities for shipping in the Suez Canal.
They demanded to be allowed to proceed to London immediately in order to submit their program. At the same time
the Nationalists elected a committee of fourteen leaders and commenced agitation throughout the country, collecting signatures to petitions and also subscriptions in support of their program.
Shortly afterward the Prime Minister Rouchdi Pasha, suggested that he and Adly Pasha, Minister of Education, be allowed to visit London in the immediate future in order to discuss Egyptian affairs. Rouchdi further urged that the Nationalist leaders should also be allowed a hearing in London.
This request was declined, whereupon the two Ministers resigned. They were afterward invited to come to London in February, but they declined unless the other Nationalist leaders were included. Serious obstacles were encountered in forming a new Government, and in consequence of an attempt at coercion the British Government deported the Vice President of the Assembly and three other leaders to Malta. Demonstrations and riots followed in Cairo, Tanta, and other Egyptian cities; six persons were killed and thirty-one wounded in the fighting at Cairo; at Tanta the casualties were eleven killed and forty-one wounded. It was announced on March 14 that order had been restored.
* * *
American Army Strength
THE strength of the American Army on March 15 was 2,268,537, a decrease of 1,402,351 since the signing of the armistice. A War Department statement reported 1,508,133 officers and men, exclusive of 24,000 marines, in Europe— France, Germany, and Russia. In the United States there were 640,013 and at sea 64,203. The force in Siberia numbered 8,970, with 47,218 in the insular possessions.
A total of 470,736 officers and men of the American Expeditionary Force had sailed for home up to March 13. That number represented 24 per cent, of the strength of General Pershing's forces on Nov. 11 and left 1,478,580 in France.
Of the total returned home or on the way 176,516 were casuals, including sick and wounded. Of 687,074 infantry in France in November, only 89,494 had been returned, while field artillery figures showed 73,058 sent home out of 213,846.
* * *
Vocational Training Fob Solders In Australia
THE Australian Cabinet on March 18 approved a plan for the expenditure of $6,500,000 in the extension of vocational training to returning soldiers who were under 20 years of age at the time of enlistment. An earlier scheme for vocational training applied only to those who had no trade before the war. It is estimated that the cost of training and sustenance will be about $750 a man. It is believed that only about half of the 17,000 Australians eligible will take advantage of the plan, which is to extend over three years.
* * *
German Austria's Assembly
THE Austrian elections were held on Feb. 15 with 4,000,000 men and women- participating. The result of the elections was a sweeping victory for the Socialists, who obtained 70 delegates, as against 64 Christian Socialists, 73 of various groups, 3 candidates of the Styrian Peasants' League, 1 Czech, and 1 German. A public meeting was held on the 19th in Vienna, in which 20,000 Socialist soldiers took part. The question of the republican form of government having been thus decided, the subject of union with Germany came again to the fore. Despite the warning of Count Czernin on Feb. 20 that Austria could afford to defer her decision on this momentous question, it was announced on March 5 that Dr. Otto Bauer, Foreign Minister, had begun negotiations with Germany looking to such a union.
The National Constituent Assembly met in Vienna on March 4. The Assembly elected Karl Seitz, leader of the Social Democracy in Austria, President, and Herr Hauser, Social Democrat, Vice President. Delegates to the number of 225 began the work of providing what is left of the German part of the old Dual Monarchy with a Constitution and set of basic laws. At this first session all the deputies expressed approval of the projected union with Germany. The Presi
dent, addressing the Assembly in favor
IT was announced March 17 that Gen-
Asch is the most western community in Bohemia, and one of the most beautiful, being situated on the uplands iiW^"