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of the military, incapacitates them from paralyzing official communication.
A. MERRY DEL VAL,
The Ottoman delegation for the Peace Conference departed from Constantinople on April 28. It remained incognito at Berne until officially called to Paris. It is headed by Damad Ferid Pasha, the Grand Vizier, whose departure gave rise to the story that he had resigned, and includes Mustafa Reshid Pasha, ex-Minister for Foreign Affairs; Izzet Fuad Pasha, Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs; Reshad Halim Bey, the recently appointed Ottoman Minister at Berne; Ghalib Kemali Bey, ex-Minister at Athens and Moscow and President of the Capitulation Commission; Reshid Bey, Director of Political Affairs and personal representative of the Sultan, and Colonel Edib Bey as Military Plenipotentiary.
Up to May 3,300 prisoners had been arrested in Constantinople or brought there on the evidence furnished by the Interallied Mission. The charges against them range from treason to murder and the instigation of massacres. The execution of Kiamil Mahmud Pasha, charged
with massacres of Armenians at Yozghad, where he was Governor, has already been announced in these columns as having taken place on April 12, in Bayazed Square, Stamboul.
By May 3, Fethi Bey, ex-Minister of the Interior, and nineteen others had been released with the suspended verdict of "not yet proven." The case of the ex-Grand Vizier, Said Halim Pasha, was then taken up for examination. It is said that he has made statements of the highest political importance, reveal-ing that Germany began as early as July 10, 1914, five days after the famous Potsdam conclave, to win Turkey to the side of the Central Empires, and that a treaty was signed on Aug. 1 by himself, Baron von Wangenheim for Germany, and Count Pallavicini for Austria-Hungary.
In this treaty the participation of Great Britain in the war was ignored and Turkey was guaranteed against attack by any two powers. A second treaty was signed by the same parties on Aug. 10, taking the hostility of Great Britain into account. In the middle of November a third treaty was signed to which Austria-Hungary was not a party. It dealt with the disposition of British interests in the Near East.
Progress in American Demobilization
More Than a Million Soldiers Home Again From
[period Ended May 20, 1919]
WHILE public attention was intently fixed upon the proceedings of the Peace Conference at Paris, there was no diminution of American effort to turn into the channels of trade and commerce the energies that had been so largely devoted to war. Demobilization proceeded at an accelerated rate, the last of the public loans necessary to settle the war account was largely oversubscribed, and
decisions were reached on matters of national importance.
General March, Chief of Staff of the Army, announced May 10 that, according to estimates made by the General Staff after communication with General Pershing, there would be left in France on Aug. 1 only 225,924 American troops, including marines and the navy personnel abroad. In denying that the War Department had any idea of reaching a maximum of 450,000 a month in the returning of troops, General March asserted that " if we reached a ship capacity of 450,000 a month we would not have troops to fill it." charges, all railway rolling stock now being delivered to the War Department under outstanding contracts.
General March also announced that the 2,000,000 mark in the demobilization of troops had been reached during the week and that the millionth man was embarked from abroad on May 7. So far, he explained, seventeen complete divisions had been brought back from France, and the demobilization movement had now been standardized.
According to the latest data in his possession, General March said the number of enlisted men ordered demobilized since Nov. 11 was 2,127,000, and the total discharges had been 2,006,834, of whom 106,389 were officers and 1,900,445 enlisted men. The number of overseas troops so far returned to the United States was 859,219, of whom 39,498 were officers. He added:
It took over a year to demobilize the small force in the Spanish-American war, so that this performance, which represents the six months since the signing of the armistice, is really a twentieth century performance.
We passed the million mark of men embarked from France for the United States on May 7, and that million includes all personnel embarked; that is, army officers and men, navy officers and men, marines, officers and men; army nurses, and civilian personnel attached to the army. It is the entire personnel of our forces In Europe, now returning to the United States, which has crossed the million mark.
During the month the 300.000 mark was passed in troops embarked from France, and this personnel is the same as I have already given. This is well in advance of our former predictions. The figures of embarkation are 303,188 during April. The total number of troops landed during April was 275,297. The rest of those embarked are now on the high seas.
Figures prepared by the War Department as of May 10 gave the total of battle deaths in the American Expeditionary Forces under General Pershing as 48,909. The total of wounded was given as 237,135, but it was explained that there was a duplication of probably 7,000 in this classification. The total of
casualties from battle deaths and wounds was 286,044.
Other figures as of March 1, 1919, put the number taken prisoners at 322 officers and 4,112 enlisted men, a total of 4,484. The figures in each instance were as given by divisions.
The table showing battle deaths and wounded follows:
Division. Deaths. Wounded. Total.
2 4,419 20,657 25,076
1 4,204 19,141 23,345
3 3,102 15,052 18,154
28 2,531 13,746 16,277
42 2,713 13,392 16,005
26 2,168 13,000 15,168
4 2,587 11,596 14,183
32 2,898 10.986 13,884
77 1,990 9,966 11,956
27 1,791 9,427 11,218
30 1.652 9,429 11,081
5 1,908 7,975 9,883
33 1,002 8,251 9,253
89 1,419 7.394 8,813
82 1,338 6,890 8,228
78 1,359 6,800 8,159
90 1,387 0,623 8,010
35 960 6,894 7,854
79 1,396 6,194 7,590
80 1,141 5,622 6,7(!3
91 1,390 5,106 6,496
29 940 5,219 6,159
37 992 4,931 5,923
36 592 2,119 2,710
93 574 2,009 2,583
7 302 1,516 1,818
92 185 1,495 1,080
81 250 801 1,051
6 97 479 570
88 27 63 90
Total 47,313 232,073 279.986
Other units 1,596 4,462 6,0."8
The War Department expended approximately $200,000,000 on railroad equipment sent to France, which was short of rolling stock, and the original agreement stipulated that France might purchase all equipment left in the country after the withdrawal of the American Expeditionary Force.
The American Government constructed 937 miles of standard gauge and 460 miles of fabricated narrow gauge track. Most of this construction was in yards and terminals. In fact, less than six miles of double main track was built by Americans.
18,000 CARS SENT TO FRANCE
The United States Government shipped to France 1,346 standard gauge locomotives at an approximate cost of $56,000,000, and 406 narrow gauge locomotives at an approximate cost of $3,000,000. Cars shipped amounted to 18,303 standard gauge freight cars at a cost of approximately $49,000,000, and 5,691 narrow gauge cars at an approximate cost of $4,500,000.
In England, American engineers had constructed nineteen hospital trains of 304 cars. This equipment was obtained at a cost about $22,000 per train less than it could have been constructed for in America and shipped to France.
Other construction in France cost America hundreds of millions of dollars, and must stay over there. This includes modern dock and steamship terminal facilities, miles of warehouses, training camps, rest camps, hospitals, an ordnance plant costing $25,000,000, and facilities for housing all manner of activities connected with a huge army organized on modern lines.
In addition the American Government spent many millions in Great Britain on both its army and navy, and arrangements were made in advance with Britain, too, to take over permanently some of this construction work.
The War Department announced on May 10 that contracts outstanding Nov. 9, 1918, to the value of $5,500,000,000
had been reduced by terminations and deliveries to a little over $500,000,000. Cancellations and suspensions reported for the two weeks ended April 12 amounted to about $70,000,000, and deliveries to about $50,000,000. The status of cancellations as of April 12, 1919, follows:
Contracts RemainOutstanding Ing OutNov. 9, 1918. standing.
Ordnance Dept $3,000,000,000 $279,200,000
Bureau of Aircraft
Production 672,849,000 14,810,000
Motors and vehicles 441,691,000 20.620.000
Military railroads... 291.320,000 21,444.000
Clothing equip., &c. 368,492,000 88,843.000 Machinery and eng.
materials 108,234,000 20,370.000
Medical and hospital
supplies 57.ei4.000 9,831.000
Signal Corps sup 82,187,000 51.776.000
Total April 12 $,-),022,387.000 $512,900,000
RETENTION OF ARSENALS
The approved arsenal plan of the War Department, Acting Secretary Crowell announced April 28, contemplates the maintenance of thirteen manufacturing and finishing arsenals with the possible addition of the Springfield, Mass., small arms plant and a Detroit plant, should Congress authorize the necessary expenditures for these two.
The arsenals definitely decided upon for the permanent program include the plants at Edgewood, Md.; Rock Island, 111.; Watervliet, N. Y.; Watertown, Mass.; Old Hickory, Tenn.; Amatol, N. J.; Tullytown, N. J.; Frankford, Tenn.; Rochester, N. Y.; Erie, Penn.; Chicago, (shell machining plant,) and Madison, Wis.
The War Department stated on May 8 that fifteen flying fields and five balloon schools were to be held by the Air Service for permanent training. Rockwell Field, San Diego, Cal.; Langley Field, Hampton, Va.; Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla., and Kelly Field, No. 1, San Antonio, Texas, which are now owned by the Government, will be retained. The following flying fields, now under lease, will be purchased:
March Field, Riverside, Cal.; Mather Field, Sacramento, Cal.; Carlstrom FieM and Dorr Field, Arcadia, Fla.; Ellington Field, Houston, Texas; Park Field, Millington, Term.; Souther Field, Americus, Ga.; Self ridge Field, Mount Clemens, Mich.; Scott Field, Belleville, 111.; Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111., and Kelly Field, No. 2, San Antonio, Texas.
The balloon schools to be retained by the Government are at Lee Hall, Va.; Fort Crook, Neb.; Arcadia, Cal.; San Antonio, Texas, and Fort Omaha, Neb.
The ex-Army Judge Advocate's Committee on Military Justice, of which Major George C. Beach is the Chairman and Major Roscoe Stewart is Secretary, issued the following statement April 12:
The announcement of the War Department . on April 8, that the Clemency Board, appointed to review the court-martial records of soldiers undergoing confinement in military prisons, has recommended clemency in a vast majority of cases considered by it, is proof that the present court-martial system is in need of radical revision and reform.
The figures given out by the War Department are that the Clemency Board to date has considered 1,683 cases; that it has recommended clemency In 1.521 cases, that it has recommended the reduction of the average sentence from seven years and four months to one year and nine months, or a total of 9,339 years from the aggregate sentences imposed.
In other words, the Clemency Board is of the opinion that in the cases so far considered by it the present system of military Justice has practiced injustice in over 90 per cent, of the cases and that the sentences imposed by it are over 400 per cent, higher than they should have been.
Major Gen. Leonard Wood, testifying on April 16 before the committee of the American Bar Association investigating court-martial procedure in the army, advocated a law putting authority in the hands of the President to fix maximum punishment for offenders found guilty in court-martial trials, in peace times as well as in war. This was also urged by Major Gen. Hugh L. Scott, who followed General Wood as a witness.
General Wood thought courts-martial were in many cases too severe. He felt that much of the dissatisfaction over such trials would be removed if more thorough investigation were made by officers of the court, to whom charges were made, before bringing them to trial. This investigation, he said, would
unquestionably reduce the number of cases brought for trial and would save time now thrown away. Means of conducting such investigations, he said, are provided under the existing law, but the practice is not thoroughly carried out.
MARINES AT CHATEAU-THIERRY
Of the 8,000 officers and men composing the Marine Brigade when it and other units of the 2d Division were thrown into the fighting near ChateauThierry June 5, 1918, to stop the German thrust at Paris, 126 officers and 5,073 men were killed or wounded before the brigade was relieved at the end of the month. While in this action the marines took Ducy-le-Bocage, cleaned up Belleau Wood, and finally captured the important town of Bouresches.
In disclosing these casualties April 22 Major Gen. Barnett, commandant of the Marine Corps, said published statements from army officers that the marines were not in the fighting at ChateauThierry were misleading. The marines, he said, were not actually in the town itself, but fought in the action known officially as the battle of Chateau-Thierry. General Barnett cited official communications, both from General Pershing and the War Department. He pointed out that a number of marines received the Distinguished Service Cross from General Pershing for heroism "at Chateau-Thierry."
It was stated on April 18 that Admiral Henry T. Mayo, who at the time of the German fleet surrender was in command of the American dreadnought squadron of the Atlantic fleet, had been designated by Secretary Daniels as Commander in Chief of the "United States Fleet." This order does not affect the present disposition of the nation's naval forces. Admiral Mayo would be in supreme command only in the event that the three separate fleets—the Atlantic, the Pacific, and the Asiatic—were brought together.
Admiral Caperton continued as commander of the Pacific fleet until April 30, when he undertook the special mis
sion of preparing a record of his diplomatic work in South America during the war. Most of the ships which formerly composed his force are now in the army transport service, but a few vessels remain on the west coast under Rear Admiral Fullam, whose flagship is the old cruiser Minneapolis.
The Navy Department on April 12 announced that 32 per cent, of the enlisted men of the Naval Reserve Force and the entire enlisted personnel of the regular navy were to Be assigned to sea duty at once.
VICTORY LOAN A SUCCESS The fifth and last of the great public loans of the United States during the war period, like all its predecessors, was oversubscribed. The loan was for $4,500,000,000, and consisted of short time notes maturing in four years, but with a privilege of redemption in three. The rate of interest was 4% per cent. The loan lagged at the start, and pessimistic predictions were not wanting that the people, now that the war was over, would not respond. In the last few days of the campaign, however, there was a great influx of investors, and the loan went "over the top."
Approximately 15,000,000 persons bought Victory Liberty notes in the campaign, according to estimates received by the Treasury Department from the Federal Reserve Banks. This total compares with approximately 21,000,000 purchasers in the fourth loan, 17,000,000 in the third loan, 9,400,000 in the second loan, and 4,000,000 in the first loan.
Treasury officials expressed great satisfaction over this wide distribution in view of the changed industrial conditions and the fact that this loan came at a time when the agricultural interests found it less convenient to invest money in Government bonds because of the greater demands for capital in crop production. The result was considered especially gratifying in view of the fact that this loan was conducted without the excitement of war to stimulate it. At the close of the campaign the total amount of the oversubscription was estimated to be sufficient to bring the aggregate to $6,000,000,000.
RETURN OF CABLES
Postmaster General Burleson on April 29 issued an order for the return of the marine cables to their owners on May 2. In a statement he said he still firmly believed in Government ownership and operation of the telephone and telegraph systems, but as the incoming Congress apparently did not approve such a policy there was but one course for him to pursue—to return the wires to private ownership after safeguarding legislation had been enacted. The order returning the cables follows:
ORDER NO. 3,047. The marine cable systems of the United States, and every part thereof, Including all equipment and appurtenances thereto whatsoever, and all material and supplies, the possession, control, supervision, and operation of which was assumed by the President by his proclamation of the 2d day of November, 1918, to be exercised by and through the Postmaster General, Albert S. Burleson, are hereby returned to their respective owners, managers. Boards of Directors, or receivers, to take effect on midnight. May 2, 1019. Representatives of the Postmaster General now operating said properties will take immediate steps to carry this order into effect. By direction of the President:
A. S. BURLESON,
The Industrial Board of the Department of Commerce came to an end May 9, as a result of the failure of the Railroad Administration and the steel interests to agree upon prices for rails at their conference in New York City, and it was announced that, so far as the Department of Commerce was concerned, the law of supply and demand would from then on be permitted to govern the problems of industrial reconstruction. In accepting the resignations of the members of the Industrial Board, however, Secretary Redfield asserted that he believed much had been accomplished to develop standards of public co-operation which would be of permanent value.
Mr. Redfield said that at least four other industries had been prepared to make concessions in behalf of the advancement of reconstruction, but that negotiations now were, of course, to be abandoned. These industries, he said,