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the council and held special sessions under the Presidency of Jules Cambon, a former Minister of France to Germany. Many of the details of the new boundaries had been fairly well established by March 15, but were not yet announced.

A dispatch of March 5 reported that sanguinary engagements had occurred between Czech soldiers and citizens in numerous towns in German Bohemia. The trouble started when the Germans attempted to hold elections in German Bohemia for the Austrian National Assembly, which the Czech Government prohibited because Bohemia is Czech territory. The Germans organized manifestations against Czech rule and the Czechs used rifles and bayonets in suppressing the demonstration.

Three persons were reported to have been killed at Karlsbad and ten at Sternberg. A number of others were reported killed or wounded in clashes at Reichenberg, Aussig, Bruex, Eger, and Mies.

CLAIMS OF RUMANIA Most of one sitting of the Council of the Five Powers was occupied with the claims of Rumania. These include, on the west, nearly all the territories be tween the Carpathians and the River Theiss, in particular Transylvania; on the north, the Bukovina, which is also claimed by the Ukrainians; on the east, Bessarabia, and on the southeast the Dobrudja.

The portion of the Banat of Temesvar to the north of Belgrade, which is claimed by the Serbians, is small in extent compared with the Rumanian claims against Hungary, Russia, and Bulgaria, but the question is of considerable interest.

This is one of the cases in which the races are so intermingled that a division by nationality is impossible. Rumania bases her claims largely on the secret treaty of Aug. 18, 1916, by which, of course, the South Slavs are not committed.

As a justification for their claim that the Serbs should not insist on the annexation of the 240,000 Serbs who live in the Banat, the Rumanians point out the large numbers of Rumanians settled

in Bulgaria and Serbia. This subject was thoroughly discussed in a pamphlet written by a professor of the University of Jassy in 1913. The most recent Bul-. garian statistics show the number of Rumanians living in Bulgarian territory as over 75,000. In Serbia the number of Rumanians has been estimated by non-Rumanian investigators as 260,000. These 260,000 Rumanians are not claimed by Rumania, which wishes to maintain the natural frontier of the Danube and to remain in friendly relations with Serbia; but she asks Serbia, on her part, not to claim the 240,000 Serbs living in the contested portion of the Banat.

CLAIMS OF GREECE The claims of Greece were heard before the Conference on Feb. 3. M. Venizelos expounded these claims at this and a subsequent session. The Greek Government issued a special memoir setting forth in detail the Greek point of view. The exposition of M. Venizelos bore on the following claims: 1, Northern Epirus, which has a population of 150,000 Greeks; 2, Thrace and the region of Constantinople, (731,000,) and the shores of the Aegean Sea, given to Bulgaria after the war of 1913, (43,000;) 3, the Vilayets of Balikeser and Aidin in Asia Minor, (1,694,000;) 4, the islands of the Dodecanese, (102,000;) 5, the Island of Cyprus, (235,000.) These populations, said M. Venizelos, all together comprise 3,256,000 souls of pure Greek origin. The present Greek Kingdom has but slightly more, specifically 4,300,000.

In North Epirus the Greek population had been in the majority since 1913. After the adventure of the Prince of Wied England had occupied this territory, Valona only remaining under Italian domination. Cyprus, which had been offered to Greece by the Government of London in 1915, and which the Government of Constantine had refused, is now reclaimed. The Dodecanese Islands had been ceded provisionally to Italy after the Italo-Turkish war of 1912; the treaty of April, 1916, when Italy entered the war, had confirmed them to Italy. Thrace was given to Bulgaria after the war of 1912. All the territory claimed is almost exclusively inhabited by Greeks,

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who have never ceased to protest since vantageous to the powers of the West. 1913 .against their annexation to Bul. The freedom of the straits, he said, garia—(84,652 Greeks, as against 31,875 would be maintained. Bulgarians.)

The Conference Commission on Greek On Feb. 4. M. Venizelos ended his ex- Claims submitted a report on March 13, position of the Greek claims with a treat- but it was not unanimous. Most of the ment of the questions of Constantinople Commissioners favored giving Smyrna to and Asia Minor. The Greek Premier re-, Greece, but the American members held called all the injury done Europe by the a different view, on the ground that Turkish possession of the straits. Bas- Smyrna was essential as a port of exit ing herself upon her historical past, and entrance for the vast commercial Greece claims the city on the ground that enterprises of the hinterland of Asia both in numbers and in quality it is domi- Minor. Thus divided, the report went nated by Greeks, (200,000.) The Turk- before the council of the great powers ish element equals the Greek only in the for final decision. number of its functionaries of all de- Concerning the Dodecanese Islands, grees, and of its garrison. Nevertheless, the commission was unanimous in recogin view of the great interests at stake, it nizing the Greck civilization of the islwas understood that Greece would yield ands and the American delegates favored if it should be decided to give Constanti their incorporation in Greece, but the nople to the League of Nations.

French, British, and Italian delegates, In Asia Minor, M. Venizelos stated, in view of the secret treaty of London, there lived 1,700,000 Greeks, who had withheld their approval until the subject suffered every form of persecution. The can be diplomatically adjusted with giving of Thrace and Asia Minor to a Italy. peaceful power like Greece instead of to The Commission on Greek Affairs, on Bulgaria and Turkey, whose past policies March 2, debated at length the new situargue ill of the future, would be ad- ation to be created in Asia Minor.

ELIMINATION OF TURKEY The general plan adopted for the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire is the total elimination of that empire, the internationalization of Constantinople, and the straits, the creation of a Turkish State in the centre of Asia Minor, and the liberation of all nationalities from the rule of Turkey.

As regards Asia Minor, the commission agreed in principle that the strip of the coast between Avali and Kos, including Smyrna and Ephesus, should be assigned to Greece as full owner or as international mandatary.

FINLAND AND ALAND ISLANDS Toward the beginning of February the population of the Aland Islands sent to Paris a deputation to plead the cause of the islands, which wish to be reunited to Sweden, the mother country. This deputation consisted of two members of the Council of the archipelago and of M. Sunblom, an Aland Deputy in the Diet of Finland.

As soon as Finland separated from Russia, the Aland population, which is pure Swedish in origin, language, and

aspirations, sent an appeal to the King of Sweden for annexation. Sweden then proposed to Finland a plebiscite in the islands. Finland, however, opposed the aspirations of the population of the islands, supported in this opposition by all the press of the former Grand Duchy, to which the Aland Islands have been administratively attached. The Aland deputation spoke bitterly of the régime of oppression introduced by the various Finnish Governments and of the Prussian methods of repression used by the Military Governor von Bonsdorff, supported by Finnish-speaking troops. The Finns, they said, admit the principle of free choice for themselves, but not for the people of the islands. Finnish, a language which the Aland population do not understand at all, has been declared the official language of the new republic. General Mannerheim, they added, had characterized the Paris deputation as “ traitors to the fatherland." In satisfying the national aspirations of the islands, the deputies declared, the Peace Conference would guarantee the security of Sweden and the peaceful development of the Scandinavian peoples.

Poland's Triple Warfare Over Boundaries

Other Events of the Month

M HE Pacerewski Government, organ| ized Jan. 19, 1919, issued a call for

elections to choose delegates to a National Assembly to be held on Feb. 9. The elections were held in orderly fashion, and some of the figures are summarized below. They refer to the large centres where the “National Group" (formed by the National Democrats, the Progressives, the Realists, and the Populists) obtained a large majority:

In Warsaw, out of 287,000 votes the National Group received 150,000—as against 42,000 given to the Polish Socialists and 74,000 to the Jews—and put through ten Deputies, among them M. Paderewski and Roman Dmowski, the head of the Polish National Committee in

Paris. The Socialist and Jewish Parties each obtained three Deputies. In Lodz, out of 150,000 votes the National Group received 56,000, as against Socialists, 33,000; Germans, 18,000, and Jews, 28,000. In Cracow the National Group received 29,000 votes, as against 20,000 given to the Polish Socialists and 10,000 to the Jews. Among those elected from the National Group was Professor Stanislas Grabski, the well-known factional leader. Ignace Daszynski was one of those elected by the Socialists.

CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY The Constituent Assembly, so impatiently looked forward to by the whole Polish Nation, was opened in Warsaw

on Feb. 10. The city was decorated with flags. The official ceremonies began on Sunday, the 9th, with a solemn service in the cathedral, at which General Pilsudski, M. Paderewski, and all the Ministers, the Anglo-American Mission, with Colonel Wade at its head, the Pontifical delegate, the representatives of the Commission of Galicia, and the National Councils of Posnania and Silesia were present. A parade of the notabilities to the Belvedere palace, seat of the Government, followed, to the acclamations of an enthusiastic throng, through streets decked out with the Polish national flag. The solemn opening of the Diet took place the next day, under the Presidency of Prince Radziwill. who read a telegram announcing the arrival of Polish troops at Brest-Litovsk. General Pilsudski delivered an inaugural address in which he referred to the close bonds that united Poland and the Entente.


A previous issue of CURRENT HISTORY MAGAZINE referred to the negotiations carried on between the delegates of the Supreme Popular Council of Posnania and delegates of the German Government. These negotiations produced only negative results. The Germans held that the armistice recognized the German eastern frontiers of 1914, and consequently demanded the immediate evacuation of Posnania by the Polish troops and the reestablishment of the German authorities in Eastern Prussia. This demand the Poles refused and proposed a two weeks' truce, which the Prussian Cabinet rejected, declaring that it would consent to a suspension of hostilities only on withdrawal of the Polish troops from German soil.

The Germans were reported on Feb. 20 not to be observing the provisions of the armistice agreement as to fighting in Posen, and skirmishes occurred at scattered points. In a dispatch of March 4 the German Government was said to have informed General Dupont, head of the French Mission in Berlin, that it had decided to stop fighting the Poles in Posen and that it had sent officers to Posen to enforce its orders.

The Polish Governmental Commission

functioning in Lemberg, in view of the critical military situation in Eastern Galicia, sent two of its members, Dr. Ernest Adam and Dr. Edward Dubanowicz, to Paris to report the situation to the Polish National Committee there. In an interview with these delegates given in the Paris Temps of Feb. 8, the history of this war waged by the Ukrainians of Eastern Galicia in connivance with the Austro-German military circles, supported by Russian Ukrainians sent by Petliura and by bands of Bolshevist peasants, was recounted in some detail. The oil region of Boryslav furnished these forces the financial means to carry on the conflict, which, after three months, had now assumed a savage and destructive character. The Poles, lacking arms and equipment, had the greatest difficulty in protecting their territory from pillage and massacre and in defending the essentially Polish city of Lemberg, (Lvof or Leopol,) where more than 200,000 Poles reside, especially in view of the triple menace of the Russian Bolsheviki on the north and of the Germans and Czechs on the west.

On Feb. 15 the fighting was be pushed on Lemberg, with the Ukrainians claiming gains, in an attempt to cut off the railway lines of the Poles into the city. From that time on they besieged Lemberg with increasing force, bombarding it with heavy guns. The Ukrainians were said to be desirous of capturing the city before the arrival of the Interallied Mission. Up to Feb. 22 the small Polish garrison in Lemberg had beaten off these new attacks. A four days' truce was entered into at Lemberg on Feb. 23 between the Poles and the Ukrainians.

On March 2 Premier Paderewski was advised that the Ukrainians, defying the Entente Powers, had denounced the armistice of Feb. 23, and resumed the attack upon Lemberg. The Ukrainian delegates sent a letter explaining that the resumption of hostilities was caused by reasons of a purely military character. On March 8 Premier Paderewski went to Posen to explain to the Interallied Mission the danger of the situation.

By March 13 the siege of Lemberg had become a serious matter. The Interallied Commission had quitted the place,


since the Ukrainians had thwarted its that hostilities between the Ukrainians every attempt at reconciliation. The and Poles in East Galicia had not ceased Lemberg-Cracow railway was in posses- and the Ukrainians were starting new sion of Ukrainian troops, and Lemberg attacks against Lemberg, that a special itself was wholly cut off from outside aid delegation from the Interallied Commisand was being bombarded daily with hun sion should be sent to Lemberg to confer dreds of heavy shells which were fast with the Ukrainians in an endeavor to destroying the town and killing its pop bring about an armistice with the shortulation.

est possible delay. CONFLICT IN TESCHEN

The Armistice Mission sent to Warsaw

returned to Kiev with such assurances At Teschen, in Austrian Silesia, the from the Poles that a new mission headed conflicts between the Czechs and the by Stepnicky was sent to Warsaw in the Poles have been growing constantly more hope of concluding peace. Stepnicky was embittered. Clashes between the Czecho accompanied by numerous representaslovaks and the Poles, which had resulted tives of the Ukraine Government. in 1,000 men killed and 2,000 wounded,

FIGHTING FOR OIL WELLS had quieted down about Feb. 18, both parties resting on their arms. Shortly The Interallied Commission faced following the arrival of the Interallied many problems, the most important of Mission the strike of the workmen came which were the food supply and the difto an end as the result of the commis ferences between the Poles and the sion's appeal for order. The Czechs, Ukrainians regarding the oil region near however, later drove the Poles from Lemberg, Galicia. Teschen, and refused to evacuate the I n regard to the oil dispute the Ukraindistrict, despite the agreement made in ian Government announced that it would Paris on Feb. 3. Anti-Polish demon- not negotiate with the Poles as long as strations began again about March 2. the Poles occupied any of the territory in As a result of the Czech occupation many dispute. The announcement said that the Polish miners were out of work.

negotiations with the allied representa

tives, Colonel Wade of the British Army PEACE CONFERENCE MISSION

and General Barthelmy of the French The Peace Conference decided to send Army, failed because the officers accepta special mission to Poland to endeavored the Polish viewpoint and not the to reconcile the conflicting elements. Ukrainian. This mission reached Warsaw from Paris Members of the Interallied Mission to by way of Prague on Feb. 12. Its ar- Poland were fired upon by Ukrainian rival was made the occasion of an un soldiers while traveling on Feb. 20 from precedented ovation by all classes, in Cracow to Lemberg in a Polish armored cluding workmen's guilds and similar or train. The delegation, which included ganizations, which previously had re Professor Robert H. Lord of Harvard frained from taking part in affairs of University and Major Gen. Francis J. the Paderewski Government. Premier Kiernan of the United States Army, was Paderewski received the mission, speak on its way to Lemberg to arrange an ing to the members of each ality in armistice between the Poles and the their native tongues. The former French Ukrainians. Seven Poles on the train Ambassador to Russia, M. Noulens, now were wounded by Ukrainian bullets. The a member of the mission, brought the train returned, and notice was sent demonstrations in the street to a climax ahead that the mission was coming. The by shouting “ Jeszcze Polska!” the first efforts of this delegation resulted in an words of Poland's national anthem, armistice on Feb. 23, but this truce was meaning “ Poland lives again!” from broken by the Ukrainians, who resumed the balcony of the hotel.

hostilities on March 2. A few days after the mission's ar. During the session of the Polish Narival, it was decided, owing to the fact tional Assembly on Feb. 20 M. Trom

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