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Rotation insures mediocrity and inexperience,

247.
Rough and ready, 213-a Wig, 214 - a kind of

scratch, ib.
Royal Society, American fellows of, 265.
Rum and water combine kindly, 256.
Runes resemble bird-tracks, 254.
Runic inscriptions, their different grades of un-

intelligibility and consequent value, 254.
Russell, Earl, is good enough to expound our

Constitution for us, 230.
Russian eagle turns Prussian blue, 195.
Ryeus, Bacchi epitheton, 272.
Sabbath, breach of, 176.
Sabellianism, one accused of, 205.
Sailors, their rights how won, 236.
Saltillo, unfavorable view of, 185.
Salt-river, in Mexican, what, 185.
Samuel, avunculus, 271.
Samuel, Uncle, 224 — riotous, 195 — yet has

qualities demanding reverence, 201 - a good
provider for his family, ib. - an exorbitant
bill of, 211 — makes some shrewd guesses,

238, 239 — expects his boots, 245.
Sansculottes, draw their wine before drinking,

199.
Santa Anna, his expensive leg, 209.
Sappho, some human nature in, 271.
Sassycus, an impudent Indian, 233.
Satan, never wants attorneys, 186 – an expert

talker by signs, ib. - a successful fisherman
with little or no bait, 187 — cunning fetch of,
188 — dislikes ridicule, 190 — ought not to
have credit of ancient oracles, 196, note - his

worst pitfall, 243.
Satirist, incident to certain dangers, 188.
Savages, Canadian, chance of redemption of.

fered to, 217.
Sawin, B., Esquire, his letter not written in

verse, 183 – a native of Jaalam, ib. - not
regular attendant on Rev. Mr. Wilbur's
preaching, ib. -- a fool, 184 - his statements
trustworthy, ib. — his ornithological tastes,
ib. — letters from, 183, 206, 212- his curious
discovery in regard to bayonets, 184 - dis-
plays proper family pride, ib. — modestly con-
fesses himself less wise than the Queen of
Sheba, 186 — the old Adam in, peeps out, ib.
- a miles emeritus, 206 -- is made text for a
sermon, ib. - loses a leg, 207 — an eye, ib.
left hand, ib. — four fingers of right hand, ib.

has six or more ribs broken, ib. --a rib of
his infrangible, ib. - allows a certain amount
of preterite greenness in himself, ib. -- his
share of spoil limited, 208 — his opinion of
Mexican climate, ib. - acquires property of a
certain sort, ib. — his experience of glory, ib.
- stands sentry, and puns thereupon, 209–
undergoes martyrdom in some of its most
painful forms, ib. -- enters the candidating
business, ib. modestly states the (avail)
abilities which qualify him for high politi-
cal station, ib. — has no principles, ib.
peace-man, ib. — unpledged, ib. — has no ob-
jections to owning peculiar property, but
would not like to monopolize the truth, 210

- his account with glory, ib. — a selfish mo-
tive hinted in, ib. - sails for Eldorado, ib. -
shipwrecked on a metaphorical promontory,
ib. - parallel between, and Rev. Mr. Wilbur
(not Plutarchian), 211 – conjectured to have
bathed in river Selemnus, 212– loves plough
wisely, but not too well, ib. - a foreign mis-
sion probably expected by, ib. – unanimously
nominated for presidency, ib. — his country's
father-in-law, 213-nobly emulates Cincin-
natus, ib. -- is not a crooked stick, ib. - ad-
vises his adherents, ib. — views of, on present
state of politics, 213-215 — popular enthusi-
asm for, at Bellers's, and its disagreeable
consequences, 214 – inhuman treatment of,
by Bellers, ib. — his opinion of the two par-
ties, ib. agrees with Mr. Webster, ib.
his antislavery, zeal, 215 — his proper self-
respect, ib. — his unaffected piety, ib. - his
not intemperate temperance, ib. - a thrilling
adventure of, 215-217 his prudence and
economy, 215 — bound to Captain Jakes, but
regains his freedom, 216– is taken prisoner,
ib. — ignominiously treated, ib. — his conse-

quent resolution, 217.
Sawin, Honorable B. O'F., a vein of humor sus-

pected in, 222 – gets into an enchanted castle,
223 — finds a wooden leg better in some re-
spects than a living one, 224 — takes some-
thing hot, ib. — his experience of Southern
hospitality, ib. — waterproof internally, ib.
sentenced to ten years' imprisonment, 225
his liberal-handedness, 226 – gets his arrears
of pension, ib.-marries the widow Shannon,
227 – confiscated, ib. finds in himself a nat-
ural necessity of income, 228 — bis missionary
zeal, ib. — never a stated attendant on Mr.
Wilbur's preaching, 239 — sang bass in choir,
240 - prudently avoided contribution toward
bell, ib. – abhors a covenant of works, 242-
if saved at all, must be saved genteelly, ib.
reports a sermon, 243- experiences religion,
ib. would consent to a dukedom, 244 - con-
verted to unanimity, 245 — sound views of,
247 — makes himself an extempore marqnis,
248 - extract of letter from, 283, 284 - his

opinion of Paddies, 284 — of Johnson, ib.
Sayres, a martyr, 197.
Scaliger, saying of, 188.
Scarabæus pilularius, 185.
Scott, General, his claims to the presidency,

190, 191.
Scrimgour, Rev. Shearjashub, 273.
Scythians, their diplomacy commended, 206.
Sea, the wormy, 255.
Seamen, colored, sold, 182.
Secessia, licta, 271.
Secession, its legal nature defined, 227.
Secret, a great military, 260.
Selemnus, a sort of Lethean river, 212.
Senate, debate in, made readable, 197.
Seneca, saying of, 188 - another, 196, note -

overrated by a saint (but see Lord Boling-
broke's opinion of, in a letter to Dean Swift),
203 — his letters not commended, ib. - a son

of Rev. Mr. Wilbur, 211 — quoted, 266, 267.
Serbonian bog of literature, 197.

a

Sermons, some pitched too high, 240.

225 --- of subscriptions, 225, 226 – too high-
Seward, Mister, the late, his gift of prophecy, pressure, 228 - prima facie noble, 244.
233, - needs stiffening, 281 — misunderstands Spanish, to walk, what, 186.
parable of fatted calf, ib.

Speech-making, an abuse of gift of speech, 196.
Sextons, demand for, 185 — heroic official devo-Spirit-rapping does not repay the spirits engaged
tion of one, 217.

in it, 264.
Seymour, Governor, 267.

Split-Foot, Old, made to squirm, 228.
Shakespeare, 274 — a good reporter, 192. Spring, described, 261, 262.
Shaking fever, considered as an employment, Star, north, subject to indictment, whether,
208.

199.
Sham, President, honest, 194,

Statesman, a genuine, defined, 258.
Shannon, Mrs., a widow, 225 — her family and Stearns, Othniel, fable by, 282.

accomplishments, 227 — has tantrums, ib. Stone Spike, the, 234.
her religious views, 242 -- her notions of a Store, cheap cash, a wicked fraud, 211.
moral and intellectual being, 243 - her Strong, Governor Caleb, a patriot, 189.
maiden name, 244 — her blue blood, ib. Style, the catalogue, 262.
Sheba, Queen of, 186.

Sumter, shame of, 237.
Sheep, none of Rev. Mr. Wilbur's turned Sunday should mind its own business, 258.
wolves, 183.

Swearing commended as a figure of speech, 184,
Shem, Scriptural curse of, 217.

note.
Shiraz Centre, lead-mine at, 245.

Swett, Jethro C., his fall, 277.
Shirley, Governor, 233.

Swift, Dean, threadbare saying of, 190.
Shoddy, poor covering for outer or inner man,
264.

Tag, elevated to the Cardinalate, 187.
Shot at sight, privilege of being, 245.

Taney, C. J., 247, 256.
Show, natural to love it, 185, note.

Tarandfeather, Rev. Mr., 245.
Silver spoon born in Democracy's mouth, what, | Tarbox, Shearjashub, first white child born in
194.

Jaalam, 230.
Simms, an intellectual giant, twin-birth with Tartars, Mongrel, 224.
Maury (which see), 244,

Taxes, direct, advantages of, 211.
Sin, wilderness of, modern, what, 200.

Taylor, General, greased by Mr. Choate, 214.
Sinai suffers outrages, 200.

Taylor zeal, its origin, 214.
Skim-milk has its own opinions, 264.

Teapots, how made dangerous, 267.
Skin, hole in, strange taste of some for, 208. Ten, the upper, 245.
Skippers, Yankee, busy in the slave-trade, 243. Tesephone, banished for long-windedness, 197.
Slaughter, whether God strengthen us for, 187. Thacker, Rev. Preserved, D. D., 265.
Slaughterers and soldiers compared, 212. Thanks get lodged, 208.
Slaughtering nowadays is slaughtering, 212. Thanksgiving, Feejee, 224.
Slavery, of no color, 182 - cornerstone of lib- Thaumaturgus, Saint Gregory, letter of, to the

erty, 196 — also keystone, 198 — last crumb Devil, 203.
of Eden, 199 — a Jonah, ib. - an institution, Theleme, Abbey of, 248.
204 - a private State concern, 215.

Theocritus, the inventor of idyllic poetry, 229.
Slidell, New York trash, 252.

Theory, defined, 256.
Sloanshure, Habakkuk, Esquire, President of Thermopylæs, too many, 252.
Jaalam Bank, 248.

They 'll say" a notable bully, 236.
Smith, Joe, used as a translation, 200.

Thirty-nine articles might be made serviceable,
Smith, John, an interesting character, 203.

187.
Smith, Mr., fears entertained for, 200 — dined Thor, a foolish attempt of, 198.
with, 203.

Thoreau, 229.
Smith, N. B., his magnanimity, 202.

Thoughts, live ones characterized, 275.
Smithius, dux, 270.

Thumb, General Thomas, a valuable member
Soandso, Mr., the great, defines his position, of society, 195.
202,

Thunder, supposed in easy circumstances, 207.
Soft-heartedness, misplaced, is soft-headedness, Thynne, Mr., murdered, 183,
268.

Tibullus, 266.
Sol, the fisherman, 185 — soundness of respira- Time, an innocent personage to swear by, 184,

tory organs hypothetically attributed to, ib. note - a scene-shifter, 202.
Soldiers, British, ghosts of, insubordinate, 234. Tinkham, Deacon Pelatiah, story concerning,
Solomon, Song of, portions of it done into Latin not told, 225 — alluded to, 229 - does a very
verse by Mr. Wilbur, 269.

sensible thing, 242.
Solon, a saying of, 187.

Toms, Peeping, 203,
Soul, injurious properties of, 247.

Toombs, a doleful sound from, 253.
South, its natural eloquence, 259 — facts have a Trees, various kinds of extraordinary ones, 210.
mean spite against, 252, 253.

Trowbridge, William, mariner, adventure of,
South Carolina, futile attempt to anchor, 198 — 187.
her pedigrees, 24

Truth and falsehood start from same point, 188
Southern men, their imperfect notions of labor, – truth invulnerable to satire, ib. - compared

66

to a river, 192 — of fiction sometimes truer Water, Taunton, proverbially weak, 215.
than fact, ib. – told plainly, passim.

Water-trees, 210.
Tuileries, exciting scene at, 196—front parlor Weakwash, a name fatally typical, 233.
of, 250.

Webster, his unabridged quarto, its deleterious-
Tully, a saying of, 192, note.

ness, 269,
Tunnel, Northwest-Passage, a poor investment, Webster, some sentiments of, commended by
248.

Mr. Sawin, 214.
Turkey-Buzzard Roost, 227.

Westcott, Mr., his horror, 199.
Tuscaloosa, 227.

Whig party has a large throat, 190 — but query
Tutchel, Rev. Jonas, a Sadducee, 255.

as to swallowing spurs, 214.
Tweedledee, gospel according to, 201.

White-house, 205.
Tweedledum, great principles of, 201.

Wickliffe, Robert, consequences of his burst-
Tylerus, juvenis insignis, 270- porphyrogenitus, ing, 267.
271 - Iohanides, flito celeris, ib. bene titus, Wife-trees, 210.
272.

Wilbur, Mrs. Dorcas (Pilcox), an invariable
Tyrants, European, how made to tremble, 225. rule of, 191 - her profile, ib. — tribute to,

265.
Ulysses, husband of Penelope, 189 — borrows Wilbur, Rev. Homer, A. M., consulted, 181

money, 211 (for full particulars of, see Homer his instructions to his flock, 183 – a propo
and Dante) — rex, 270.

sition of his for Protestant bomb-shells, 187 —
Unanimity, new ways of producing, 245.

his elbow nudged, ib. his notions of satire,
Union, its hoops off, 245 its good old mean: 188 - some opinions of his quoted with ap-
ing, 256.

parent approval by Mr. Biglow, 189- geo
Universe, its breeching, 246.

graphical speculations of, ib. - - a justice of
University, triennial catalogue of, 191.

the peace, ib. -- a letter of, ib. - a Latin pun
Us, nobody to be compared with, 225 — and see of, 190 — runs against a post without injury,
World, passim.

ib. - does not seek notoriety (whatever some

malignants may affirm), ib. -- fits youths for
Van Buren, fails of gaining Mr. Sawin's confi- college, 191 - a chaplain during late war
dence, 215 — his son John reproved, ib.

with England, ib. - a shrewd observation of,
Van, Old, plan to set up, 215.

192 - some curious speculations of, 196, 197 —
Vattel, as likely to fall on your toes as on mine, his Martello-tower, 196 - forgets he is not in
238.

pulpit, 200, 206 — extracts from sermon of,
Venetians invented something once, 211.

200, 201, 202 — interested in John Smith, 203
Vices, cardinal, sacred conclave of, 187.

- his views concerning present state of let-
Victoria, Queen, her natural terror, 195 — her ters, ib. -- a stratagem of, 205 – ventures two
best carpets, 250.

hundred and fourth interpretation of Beast in
Vinland, 255.

Apocalypse, ib. - christens Hon. B. Sawin,
Virgin, the, letter of, to Magistrates of Messina, then an infant, 206 --- an addition to our sylva
203.

proposed by, 210 - curious and instructive
Virginia, descripta, 270.

adventure of, 211 his account with an un-
Virginians, their false heraldry, 240.

natural uncle, ib. — his uncomfortable imagi-
Voltaire, esprit de, 270.

nation, ib. - speculations concerning Cincin-
Vratz, Captain, a Pomeranian, singular views natus, 212- confesses digressive tendency of
of, 183.

mind, 217 -- goes to work on sermon (not

without fear that his readers will dub him
Wachuset Mountain, 236.

with a reproachful epithet like that with
Wait, General, 232.

which Isaac Allerton, a Mayflower man, re-
Wales, Prince of, calls Brother Jonathan con- venges himself on a delinquent debtor of his,

sanguineus noster, 231 -- but had not, appar- calling him in his will, and thus holding him
ently, consulted the Garter King at Arms, ib. up to posterity, as John Peterson, THE
Walpole, Horace, classed, 203 his letters BORE”), ib. — his modesty, 220 — disclaims
praised, ib.

sole authorship of Mr. Biglow's writings, 221
Waltham Plain, Cornwallis at, 184.

- his low opinion of prepensive autographs,
Walton, punctilious in his intercourse with ib. -

- a chaplain in 1812, 222 - cites a hea-
fishes, 187.

then comedian, ib. — his fondness for the
War, abstract, horrid, 204 — its hoppers, grist Book of Job, ib. - preaches a Fast-Day dis-
of, what, 208.

course, 223 — is prevented from narrating a
Warren, Fort, 267.

singular occurrence, ib. — is presented with a
Warton, Thomas, a story of, 191.

pair of new spectacles, 228 – his church ser
Washington, charge brought against, 213.

vices indecorously sketched by Mr. Sawin,
Washington, city of, climatic influence of, on 243 — hopes to decipher a Runic inscription,

coats, 193 — mentioned, 197 — grand jury of, 248 - a fable by, ib. - deciphers Runic in-
199.

scription, 253–255 — his method therein, 254
Washingtons, two hatched at a time by im- - is ready to reconsider his opinion of to
proved machine, 213.

bacco, 255 — his opinion of the Puritans, 260
Watchmanus, noctivagus, 272.

his death, 265 - born in Pigsgusset, ib. - let-

Page 137. But there comes Miranda, Zeus ! where shall I flee to ?

(If it be not too late, strike out these four verses in “ Miranda :

There is one thing she owns in her own private right,
It is native and genuine — namely, her spite;
When she acts as a censor, she privately blows
A censer of vanity, 'neath her own nose.

Lowell to C. F. Briggs, October 4, 1848.]

ter of Rev. Mr. Hitchcock concerning, 265, 266 -- fond of Milton's Christmas hymn, 266 - his monument (proposed), ib. his epitaph, ib. — his last letter, 266, 267 — his supposed disembodied spirit, 269 - table belonging to, ib. - sometimes wrote Latin verses, , - his table-talk, 272-275 — his prejudices, 273 – against Baptists, ib. — his sweet nature, 277

his views of style, 278 — a story his, ib. Wildbore, a vernacular one, how to escape, 197. Wilkes, Captain, borrows rashly, 234. Wind, the, a good Samaritan, 206. Wingfield, his "Memorial," 241. Wooden leg, remarkable for sobriety, 207 —

never eats pudding, ib. Woods, the. "See Belmont. Works, covenants of, condemned, 242. World, this, its unhappy temper, 223. Wright, Colonel, providentially rescued, 185. Writing, dangerous to reputation, 222, Wrong, abstract, safe to oppose, 194. Yankees, their worst wooden nutmegs, 253. Zack, Old, 213.

THE BIGLOW PAPERS I am indebted to Mr. Frank Beverly Williams for these illustrative notes.

FIRST SERIES

IV. NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS

Page 111. On any pot that ever drew tea.

When Mr. Garrison visited Edinburgh in 1846, a handsome silver tea-set was presented to him by his friends in that city. On the arrival of this gift at the Boston custom-house, it was charged with an enormous entrance duty, which would have been remitted if the articles had ever been used. It was supposed that if the owner had not been the leader of the unpopular abolitionists, this heavy impost would not have been laid on a friendly British tribute to an eminent American.

Page 111. There jokes our Edmund,
Edmund Quincy. (See page 383.]
Page 112. Let Austin's total shipwreck say.

On the occasion of the murder of Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy, editor of an anti-slavery newspaper at Alton, Illinois, an indignation meeting was held in Boston, at which Mr. Austin, AttorneyGeneral of Massachusetts, made a violent proslavery speech, which called forth a crushing reply from Wendell Phillips, who thenceforth became a main pillar of abolitionism.

Page 112. Smiles the reviled and pelted Stephen.

Stephen S. Foster.
Page 112. Sits Abby in her modest dress.
Abby Kelley,

Page 131. There is Bryant, as quiet, as cool, and as dignified.

[I am quite sensible now that I did not do Mr. Bryant justice in the “Fable.” But there was no personal feeling in what I said — though I have regretted what I did say because it might seem personal. I am now asked to write a review of his poems for the North American. If I do, I shall to do him justice. Letters I. 221.]

This series of the Biglow Papers relates to the Mexican War. It expresses the sentiment of New England, and particularly of Massachusetts, on that conflict, which in its aim and conduct had little of honor for the American Republic. The war was begun and prosecuted in the interest of Southern slaveholders. It was essential to the vitality of slavery that fresh fields should constantly be opened to it. Agriculture was almost the sole industry in which slaves could be profitably employed. That their labor should be wasteful and careless to preserve the productive powers of the soil was inevitable. New land was ever in demand, and the history of slavery in the United States is one long series of struggles for more territory. It was with this end in view that a colony of roving, adventurous Americans, settled in the thinly populated and poorly gov. erned region now known as Texas, revolted from the Mexican government and secured admission to the Union, thus bringing on the war with Mexico. The Northern Whigs had protested against annexation, but after the war began their resistance grew more and more feeble. In the vain effort to retain their large Southern constituent, they sacrificed justice to expediency and avoided an issue that would not be put down. The story of the Mexican War is the story of the gradual decline of the great Whig party, and of the growth of that organization, successively known as the Liberty, FreeSoil, and Republican party, whose policy was the exclusion of slavery from all new territory. One more victory was granted to the Whigs in 1848. After that their strength failed rapidly. Northern sentiment was being roused to a sense of righteous indignation by Southern aggressions and the fervid exhortations of Garrison and his co-workers in the anti-slavery cause. Few, however, followed

Garrison into disloyalty to the Constitution. The greater number preferred to stay in the Union and use such lawful political means as were available for the restriction of slavery. Their wisdom was demonstrated by the election of Abraham Lincoln twelve years after the Mexican War closed.

Page 181. A cruetin Sarjunt.

The act of May 13, 1846, authorized President Polk to employ the militia, and call out 50,000 volunteers, if necessary. He immediately called

for the full number of volunteers, asking Massa- advocated secession. There were several other chusetts for 777 men. On May 26 Governor instances of an expression of this sentiment, but Briggs issued a proclamation for the enrol- for the most part they were not evoked by ment of the regiment. As the President's call opposition to slavery. was merely a request and not an order, many Page 184. Hoorawin' in ole Funnel. Whigs and the Abolitionists were for refusing The Massachusetts regiment, though called it. The Liberator for June 5 severely censured for May 13, 1846, was not mustered into the the governor for complying, and accused him of United States' service till late in January of not carrying out the resolutions of the last Whig the next year. The officers, elected January 5, Convention, which had pledged the party to 1847, were as follows: Caleb Cushing, of Newpresent as firm a front of opposition to the buryport, Colonel ; Isaac H. Wright, of Roxinstitution as was consistent with their alle- bury, Lieutenant-Colonel; Edward W. Abbott, giance to the Constitution."

of Andover, Major. Shortly before the troops Page 182. Massachusetts . . . she's akneelin' embarked for the South, on the evening of with the rest.

Saturday, January 23, 1847, a public meeting An allusion to the governor's call for troops was held in Faneuil Hall, where an elegant (cf. note to p. 181) as well as to the vote on the sword was presented to Mr. Wright by John War Bill. On May 11, 1846, the President sent A. Bolles, on behalf of the subscribers. Mr. to the House of Representatives his well-known Bolles' speech on this occasion is the one remessage declaring the existence of war brought ferred to. on" by the act of Mexico," and asking for a Page 184. Mister Bolles. supply of $10,000,000. Of the seven members Mr. John Augustus

Bolles was the author of from Massachusetts, all Whigs, two, Robert a prize essay on a Congress of Nations, pubC. Winthrop, of Boston, and Amos Abbott, lished by the American Peace Society, an essay of Andover, voted for the bill. The Whigs on Usury and Usury Laws, and of various throughout the country, remembering the fate articles in the North American Review and of the party which had opposed the last war other periodicals. He was also the first editor with England, sanctioned the measure as neces- of the Boston Journal. In 1843 he was Secresary for the preservation of the army, then in tary of State for Massachusetts. peril by the unauthorized acts of the President. Page 185. Rantoul. Page 182,

Mr. Robert Rantoul (1805–1852), a prominent Ha'n't they sold your colored seamen? lawyer and a most accomplished gentleman, Ha’n't they made your env’ys w'iz?

was at this time United States District Attor South Carolina, Louisiana, and several other ney for Massachusetts. In 1851 he succeeded Southern States at an early date passed acts Webster in the Senate, but remained there a to prevent free persons of color from entering short time only. He was a Representative in their jurisdictions. These acts bore with par- Congress from 1851 till his death. Although a ticular severity upon colored seamen, who were Democrat, Mr. Rantoul was strongly opposed imprisoned, fined, or whipped, and often sold to slavery. into slavery. On the petition_of the Massa- Page 185. Achokin' on 'em. chusetts Legislature, Governor Briggs, in 1844, Mr. Rantoul was an earnest advocate of the appointed Mr. Samuel Hoar agent to Charles- abolition of capital punishment. Public attenton, and Mr. George Hubbard to New Orleans, tion had recently been called to his views by to act on behalf of oppressed colored citizens of some letters to Governor Briggs on the subject, the Bay State. Mr. Hoar was expelled from written in February, 1846. South Carolina by order of the Legislature of Page 186. Caleb. that State, and Mr. Hubbard was forced by Caleb Cushing, of Newburyport, Colonel of threats of violence to leave Louisiana. The the Massachusetts Regiment of Volunteers. obnoxious acts remained in force until after the Page 188. Guvener B. Civil War.

George Nixon Briggs was the Whig Governor Page 183. Go to work an' part.

of Massachusetts from 1844 to 1851. The eamPropositions to secede were not uncommon in paign referred to here is that of 1847. GoverNew England at this time. The rights of the nor Briggs was renominated by acclamation States had been strongly asserted on the acqui- and supported by his party with great enthusition of Louisiana in 1803, and on the admis- siasm. His opponent was Caleb Cushing, then sion of the State of that name in 1812. Among in Mexico, and raised by President Polk to the the resolutions of the Massachusetts Legislature rank of Brigadier-General. Cushing was deadopted in 1845, relative to the proposed annex- feated by a majority of 14,060. ation of Texas, was one declaring that such Page 188. John P. Robinson. an act of admission would have no binding

John Paul Robinson (1799-1864) was a resiforce whatever on the people of Massachusetts. dent of Lowell, a lawyer of considerable ability.

John Quincy Adams, in a discourse before and a thorough classical scholar. the New York Historical Society, in 1839, sented Lowell in the State Legislature in 1820, claimed a right for the States “to part in 1830, 1831, 1833, and 1842, and was Senator friendship with each other when the fra- from Middlesex' in 1836. Late in the guber ternal spirit shall give way, etc. The Garri- natorial contest of 1847 it was rumored that sonian wing of the Abolitionists notoriously Robinson, heretofore a zealous Whig, and a

He repre

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