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The deepest cause of war is found in the varying density of population in European states, which fixed political boundaries emphasize more and more. The “New Principle” is a redistribution of territory periodically, about every fifty years, so as to increase the territory of the more densely populated states. The smaller states, like Belgium, need not be considered, since they are not likely to fight to extend their boundaries, nor Britain, as an island state. Eastward expansion is inevitable, France into Alsace and Lorraine, Germany into Russian Poland, Italy into Serbia, and Serbia into Greece. Existing inhabitants in each case would have to be moved out to make room for the newcomers. But this would be no worse than the results of the existing method of altering frontiers by war. And strategic frontiers have lost their real importance since the advent of the airplane. Besides, such migration would be a small matter, “seeing that by this means the calamities of war are avoided.”

This little work furnishes another example of the constant agonizing revolt of the spirit of man against the world-anarchy which is war. That its “new principle" is almost fantastically impracticable does not seem to the author conclusive, nor does he seem to realize that the machinery to carry out his plan would necessitate the very world organization of which he despairs.

FRANK H. Wood.

The Three Stages in the Evolution of the Law of Nations. By C. Van

Vollenhoven. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. 1919. pp. 102.

The striking feature of this interesting booklet is its assertion that Vattel demoralized international law by grafting into it the idea of sovereignty. “Vattel may possibly have been a good man in the opinion of his relations and domestic servants; but he gave a Judas-kiss to Grotius's system,” says our author; "he sides with Richelieu and calls his unbridled, arbitrary dealings ‘sovereignty.' In Vattel we find the cheap finery of a theoretical equality of all states; for are not all equally sovereign?Grotius is the apostle of the rights of nations, perhaps the prophet of an ultimate League of Nations. Vattel is the absolute negation” of both. “The unbridled liberty to wage war for the sake of paramount power was not exposed and not renounced.” In short, Grotius's distinction between just and unjust wars was abandoned, and all wars were alike good, i.e., legal.

The author is skeptical about “this perfectly voluntary arbitration to which a sovereign state can never be forced to submit, but to which a prince's conscience delights to lead him-provided, of course, that the interests of his country will allow him.” Vattel's “monstrous conception of “sovereignty” destroyed the work of The Hague Peace Conferences, and denied that states could commit crimes. Recent examples of such crimes are cited, and the law that tolerated them is termed “this misshapen conglomeration of hypocrisy and cynicism."

The “third period,” since 1914, is marked by a return to the spirit of Grotius. War is either a crime, or else the punishment of a “crime of the country that sets it ablaze.” Our author would abolish the term and the thing, “neutral," a word Grotius never uses, though it was used in his day. Offensive and defensive alliances are also anathema in this new day, because they compel nations “to sustain their ally even when he commits the worst crime a state can commit, viz., the crime of assailing other nations."

High tribute is paid to the work of Bryan in his arbitration treaties. “Bryan's formula of 1913 is a treasure trove."

The style is vigorous, burning as it does with the glowing hatred of war which marked the year 1918, when it was written. The few typographical errors do not in any case conceal the meaning.



[See Table of References, p. 451.]

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ance. T. Okamoto. Contemp. R., Mar., 1921. 663: 354. - The Japanese Problem in California. C. R. Hicks. J. Int. Rel., Apr., 1921.

2:606. Anglo-American Relations. La politica exterior Americana. J. H. Latané. Revista

del Mundo, May, 1921. 9: 57. - The Future of Sea Power: Naval and Mercantile. A. Hurd. Fortn. R., Apr., 1921. 109 (n, s.): 62. No war with England.

Our World Trade Rivalry. Nation, Apr. 27, 1921. 112: 610.
Merchant Marine Problems. Nation, May 4, 1921. 112: 644.
The Menace of Naval Competition. Nation, May 11, 1921. 112: 677.
Oil. Nation, May 18, 1921. 112: 706.
The Bearing of International Finance. Nation, May 25, 1921. 112: 731.

Cables and Canals. Nation, June 1, 1921. 112: 782. Anglo-Russian Relations. L'Accord Commercial Anglo-Russe. L. Weiss. L'Europe : Nouvelle, Apr. 2, 1921. 4: 430.

The Victory at London. K. D. Soviet Russia, Apr. 16, 1921. 4: 369. Armaments and Disarmaments. L'aeronautique Française. Gén. H, Salle. R. Pol. et

Parl., Feb., 1921. 106: 195.

- The Army (British) in war and peace. F. G. Stone. 19th Cent., Mar., 1921. 529 : 494. - The arrest of armaments. G. H. Perris. R. of R. London, Feb.-Mar., 1921. 64: 105. - The greatest navy in the world (British). F. T. Piggott. 19th Cent., Mar., 1921. 529 : 511. - Limitation of armament. F. I. Cobb, L. C. Andrews, T. Iyenaga, E. M. Borchard, H. A. Gibbons. B. of League of Free Nations A 88., Mar., 1921. 2: 1. - Naval policy and the British Empire. J. M. Kenworthy. Foreign Affairs,

May, 1921, 2: 169. - Pressing need for disarmament. World's Work (London), Mar., 1921. 37: 301. - Revue des questions navales et maritimes (France). R. La Bruyère. R.

Pol. et Parl., Feb., 1921. 106: 323.
Armenia and Turkey. H. Buxton. Foreign Affairs, May, 1921. 2: 174.
Australia for the White Man. C. F. Murray, 19th Cent., Mar., 1921. 529: 417.

White Australia. Round Table, Mar., 1921. 42: 312, 406. Austria. The agony of. M. H. H. Macartney. Fort. R., Apr., 1921. 109 (n. 8.): 603. - L'Offre de Paix séparée de l'autriche et les négociations du Prince Sixte.

J. de Witte. Etudes, Apr. 5, 1921. 167: 29. Aviation Law. Problems in. G. G. Bogert. Cornell L. Q., Mar., 1921, 6: 271. Bagdad Railway. The. A. D. C. Russell. Q. R., Apr., 1921. 467: 307. Balkans, The, and Emancipated Central Europe. Cur. Hist., June, 1921. 14: 516.

Balkans, The. The hope of order in the Balkan chaos. H. F. Armstrong. Weekly R.,

May 28, 1921. 4: 509.

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1921. 14: 513. - Latvia, Lithuania, Esthonia. Cur. Hist., May, 1921. 14: 267. - The French colony in the Baltic Sea. A. D. Soviet Russia, Mar. 19, 1921.

4: 280. Belgium. The international situation of. E. Cammaerts. Contemp. R., May, 1921.

119: 625. Bolshevism and Socialism. M. W. F. Treub. New World, Mar., 1921. 4: 331.

- Catching up with "The Soviet Idea.” B. Baker. Weekly R., Apr. 30, 1921. 4: 413.

- Lenin's address to the Communist Party. Soviet Russia, May 7, 1921. 4: 458. - Speedy end of the Armenian and Georgian Republics. Cur. Hist., May, 1921.

1.4: 264. - Stemming the Red Tide. T. T. C. Gregory. World's Work, Apr., 1921. 61: 608; May, 1921. 42:95.

- What Russia thinks of the Bolsheviki. Sir P. Dukes. World's Work, May,

1921. 42: 100. British Empire. Imperial unity and the Peace Treaty. F. W. Eggleston. Q. R., Apr.,

1921. 467: 286. - The problem of Empire defence. G. Aston. Fort. R., Apr., 1921. 109: 635. - South Africa and the Empire. Round Table, Mar., 1921. 42: 338, 428. British Mandates. The new department for “Backward Peoples.” S. Oliver. Headway,

Feb., 1921. 1: 19. British West Indian Federation. Cur. Hist., Apr., 1921. 14: 147. - The problem of Crown Colony Government in the Caribbean. S. Hoare. 19th

Cent., Apr., 1921. 530 : 606. Canada. Appeals to the Privy Council. A. C. Galt. Can. L. Times, Mar., 1921. 41:


- The new Canadian tariff. W. L. Edmonds. Cur. Hist., May, 1921. 14:289. Canada-France. La nouvelle convention commerciale entre la France et le Canada.

A. Touche. France-Amérique, Mar., 1921. 111: 60.
Caribbean Sea. La preponderancia de los Estados Unidos en el Mar Caribe. R. de

Cárdenas. Cuba Contemporánea, Mar., 1921. 25: 221.
Central American Union. Pact of the. Cur. Hist., Apr., 1921. 14: 153.

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Readings from ancient Chinese codes and other sources of Chinese law and legal ideas. J. Wu. Mich. L. R., Mar., 1921. 19:502. - Some pressing problems in, Hua-Chuen Mie. J. Amer. Bar Ass., Apr., 1921.

7: 179.

Suicidal factors at work in. E. S. Ling. J. Amer. Bar Ass., Apr., 1921. 7: 177. Chinese Banking Consortium. Canton and the consortium. J. W. Kingsnorth. Mil

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14:335. Costa Rica-Panama Boundary. Costa Rica invades Panama. Cur. Hist., Apr., 1921.


Panama rejects the White award. Cur. Hist., May, 1921. 14:334. Czechoslovakia. Vetoes the Hapsburgs. Cur. Hist., Apr., 1921. 14: 167. Diplomacy. British foreign policy in Europe. C. Battine. Fort. R., Apr., 1921. 109

(n. 8.): 581. - By conference. Sir M. Hankey. Round Table, Mar., 1921. 42: 287. - The development of modern. II. J. B. Scott. Adv. of Peace, Apr., 1921.

83: 96. Egypt. Is Egypt a nation? Nation, Apr. 6, 1921. 112: 516; Apr. 13, 1921. 112: 540;

Apr. 20, 1921. 112: 599. - The needs of. Prince I. Hilmy. Cur. Hist., May, 1921. 14: 269. - The report of the Milner Commission on. M. McIlwraith. Fortn. R., Apr., 1921. 109 (n. s.): 561. — The protectorate and the Milner report. T. Barclay. Fortn. R., Apr., 1921.

109 (n. s.): 567. France. Clemenceau and Gambetta. A study in political philosophy. J. W. Pratt.

80. Atl. Q., Apr., 1921. 20:95. - France's colonial empire. A. Tardieu. World's Work (London), Apr., 1921.

37: 439. - The economic and financial position of France in 1920. G. Jèze. Int. J. Eoon., Feb., 1921. 35: 175.

The foreign policy of France. A. Tardieu. World's Work (London), Mar., 1921. 37: 314. - France's position and politics. S. Huddleston. Contemp. R., Mar., 1921. 663: 289.

- The Supreme Court of France. J. F. C. Waldo. J. Amer. Bar. Ass., Apr.,

1921. 7:171. France-Germany. De la nécessité d'un rapprochement Franco-Allemand. H. Fernau.

La Paix par le Droit, Feb., 1921. 31:54. France-Russia. La protection des interéts prives français en Russe. L. Martin. R.

Pol. et Parl., Feb., 1921. 106: 212. - Russians held in France. B. Souvarine. Soviet Russia, May 28, 1921. 4:521. Georgia. Exit. P. Hibben. Nation, Mar. 30, 1921. 112: 475. Germany. Crushes Communist revolt. Cur. Hist., May, 1921. 14:210.

- Germany's political changes. Cur. Hist., June, 1921. 14:384. - The present situation in Germany. P. Rohrbach. Weekly R., Apr. 6, 1921. 4:313. - Those black troops on the Rhine-and the white. L. S. Gannett. Nation, May 25, 1921. 112: 732. - What the world should know about Germany. M. Harden. World's Work

(London), Feb., Mar., 1921. 37: 320. German Indemnity. The breakdown of the London Conference. Politicus. Fortn. R.,

Apr., 1921. 109 (n. 8.): 549. - La Conférence de Londres. Th. Ruyssen. La Paix par le Droit, Mar.-Apr., 1921. 31: 122. - The London Conference. L. Bashford. 19th Cent., Apr., 1921. 530: 594.

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