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lacks force, sincerity or eloquence, but because it leaves a very vivid impression of the hopeless and ever more bitter economic and political involvement of Europe. While his appropriate and gracious appeal to sentiment may stir sympathy and gratitude, his picture of the financial situation of Europe will terrify our people and defeat any hope of enlisting their determined support of a policy of participation in the "guarantees” of treaty enforcement. Just as M. Tardieu remarks that France is not to blame for having been fifteen centuries exposed to the invasion of the lawless millions of Germany, and having now to enforce peace in Europe, so will the people of the United States be likely to declare that they are not to blame for having been happily isolated from Europe, and not having now to underwrite the financial fulfillment of the Treaty of 1919. The conviction that non-participation is the correct policy admittedly is strong; it will be strengthened rather than diminished by M. Tardieu's brief.

C. E. MCGUIRE.

Foreign Rights and Interests in China. By Westel W. Willoughby. Balti

more: The Johns Hopkins Press. 1920. pp. xx, 594.

The purpose of Dr. Willoughby's volume as stated in the preface is "to provide a statement of the rights of foreigners and the interests of foreign States in China as they are to be found stated in treaties with or relating to China or in other documents of an official or quasi-official character.” That there was a pressing need for such work as the author remarks, few will question, despite the valuable work covering portions of this field which had been previously done by such publicists as H. B. Morse, V. K. Wellington Koo, and M. T. Z. Tyau, to whom Dr. Willoughby gives due credit.

Dr. Willoughby is eminently qualified as a scholar, publicist, former Legal Adviser to the Chinese Government at Peking and experienced traveler in the Orient for the task to which he set himself. The result of his work is, in the judgment of the reviewer, worthy alike of the subject and the author. Dr. Willoughby has prepared a well-balanced, accurate, and thoroughly useful and usable volume which no one who seriously deals with the subject with which he treats can afford to be without. The scope of the work embraces such topics as Extraterritoriality, The Rights of Foreign Merchants, Patent Rights, Foreign Corporations in China, Settlements and Concessions, The Open Door, Spheres of Interest, The Japanese in Manchuria, Shantung, etc., Opium, China's Foreign Debts, and Railway Loans and Foreign Control.

The volume is expository, not argumentative. It is a law book, not a work of political science. As the author states in his preface, the “volume makes no claim to describe present political conditions in China, nor, upon the side of international law and diplomacy, to estimate the ethical character or practical wisdom of the policies which the several Treaty Powers have pursued in their dealings with China.” It must have cost the learned author much self-denial to adhere to the policy thus laid down and to refrain, as he has almost always succeeded in doing, from comment upon the story told by the documents. It is to be hoped that Dr. Willoughby will in the near future find time for the preparation of the further volume suggested by his preface which will comment upon the documentary evidence which is collected and arranged in the present work. However, the old adage that a case well stated is more than half won applies to the present volume. The documents are so well arranged and summarized that in large part they state their own case and assist the reader to draw his own conclusions even with respect to questions of policy.

An especially interesting chapter, and one in which the learned author comes measurably near to overstepping the limitations against comment which he has placed upon himself, is the chapter dealing with “Japan's

Special Interests' in China,—The Lansing-Ishii Agreement." The facts and circumstances surrounding this interesting diplomatic document which give it color are set forth in detail, and Secretary Lansing's testimony regarding it before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate is fully and fairly summarized. While the whole chapter should be carefully read by anyone interested in understanding the LansingIshii Agreement, the general conclusions of the author appear to be fairly inferable from his statements that “giving to the agreement the construction which the Secretary [Mr. Lansing] has given to it there would, in fact, appear no reason why, upon the part of the United States, it should not have been signed,” (p. 438) but that “the terms of the agreement are so indefinite as to lay the basis for, rather than to prevent future suspicion and discord,” (p. 436) and finally “thus a certain amount of mystery still surrounds the Lansing-Ishii Agreement” (p. 437).

In his introduction the learned author says “the writer has not deceived himself nor does he wish to mislead his readers with the idea that he has made a complete statement of the situation.” Such a statement would in any event disarm criticism as respects a matter here and there which the reader would like to see more fully treated, but bearing in mind the limitations imposed by Dr. Willoughby's plan, there is in fact only one chapter which in the opinion of the present reviewer is fairly open to criticism on the ground of inadequacy of treatment, and that is the chapter on “Mongolia and Tibet.” This remark applies particularly to the discussion of Tibet, which is treated in less than four pages, or at considerably less length than the same subject is dealt with in Dr. C. C. Wu's memorandum on The Leading Outstanding Cases Between China and the Foreign Powerscontained in the appendix to B. L. Putnam Weale's The Fight for the Republic in China. Probably this slender treatment is due to the difficulty experienced by Dr. Willoughby in securing authentic documentary evidence with respect to the Tibetan question. This difficulty appears to result from the failure of the Chinese Government to give the facts of the Tibetan negotiations to the world in the same way that the facts of the negotiations with Japan growing out of the Twenty-One Demands were given to the world. This is not to suggest that the Tibetan situation and the situation in Shantung and Manchuria are identical or even comparable, but it is meant to suggest that fairness requires that neither China nor the United States, which means neither Chinese nor American public opinion, should be “respectors of persons''-or countries, and that the British “forward” policy in Tibet should be subjected to the same impartial examination upon its merits in the light of all the evidence as Japan's “Black Dragon” policy in Shantung and Manchuria and in all China.

It is to be hoped, particularly in view of the interest in Chinese affairs sure to result from the conference on the Limitation of Armament and Pacific Problems now about to convene, that Dr. Willoughby will shortly prepare a new edition of his book and that he will endeavor to secure and publish the documentary evidence necessary to a complete understanding of the Tibetan question. The value of Dr. Willoughby's book is greatly enhanced by his references to Mr. J. V. A. MacMurray's Treaties and Agreements with and Concerning China, 1894-1919, which are referred to in galley proof. A new edition would have the further advantage of enabling page references to be made to those indispensable volumes.

In conclusion, it is not too much to say that all students of Chinese affairs, whether they pursue the subject from a scholarly or professional viewpoint, are under genuine obligation to Dr. Willoughby for his book.

WILLIAM CULLEN DENNIS.

INDEX

(Abbreviations: BR., book review; CN., current note; Ed., editorial comment; JD.,

judicial decision; LA., leading article.]

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PAGE
Aaland Islands question. P. M. Brown. Ed.....

268
Aargau v. Solothurn, R. O. 41, I, 135, 136, cited, 157, 174; R. O. 4, 46. Cited.... 172
Aargau v. Zurich, R. O. 4, 42; 14, 37; 26, I, 451. Cited................155, 159, 170
Abrogation of intercantonal treaties. Luzerne v. Aargau, R. O. 8, 56-7. Cited... 164
Administration of estates of deceased aliens. C. C. Hyde. Ed..................
Admiralty Law. The law of the sea. G. L. Canfield and G. W. Dalzell. BR.....
Adriana, The. 1 C. Rob. 313. Cited..

215
Aeronautics, civil, Federal legislation upon. A. K. Kuhn. CN........

564
Aina, The. Spinks, 316. Cited........

408
Alien paupers, care of, in Switzerland.........

176
Aliens, torts upon. International responsibility for. K. Strupp. BR.......... 146
American and British Claims Arbitration Tribunal. C. P. Anderson. Ed., 266;
awards .......

........ 292
American Society of International Law, Annual meeting of...

......51, 446
American Supreme Court as an international tribunal. H. A. Smith. BR..... 333
American territorial expansion, The nature of. P. B. Potter. LA., 189; P. Capo-

Rodriguez, LA. .....
American world policies. David Jayne Hill. BR....

................ 138
Anderson, Chandler P. American and British Claims Arbitration Tribunal. Ed. 266
- The Costa Rica-Panama boundary dispute. Ed..

......... 236
- The making of the reparation and economic sections of the Treaty.
B. M. Baruch. BR ............

- The Peace Treaties. Ed........
Ann, The. 1 Dodson 221. Cited....
Ann Green, The. i Gall. 274. Cited .........

393
Anna Catharina, The. 4 C. Rob. 107. Cited .......

230
Annual meeting of the American Society of International Law, The.
Antonia Johanna, The. 1 Wheat. 159. Cited.....

406
Appenzell Ausser-Rhoden v. St. Gall, R. O. 21, 972. Cited..

167
Arbitration, general, for arbitral disputes. G. A. Finch. LA..
Arbitration resumed at the Hague. J. B. Scott, Ed. 73. JD..
Argentina-Chile. Agreement for limitation of naval armaments.

508
Argo, The. 1 C. Rob. 159. Cited...,

215
Arica-Tacna dispute and the Monroe Doctrine. J. S. Reeves. Ed.......
Arica y Tacna, La cuestion de. E. Castro y Oyanguren. BR.....

485
Ariga, Nagao. La Chine et la Grande Guerre Européenne. BR..
Armaments, Conference on the Limitation of. J. B. Scott. LA..

503
Armed Neutrality of 1780. W. S. Carpenter. LA................

511
Austin on independent political society. Cited...........

16
Austria-Hungary. The Little Entente. P. M. Brown. Ed.....

67
Austria-United States. Peace treaty, 1921. C. P. Anderson. Ed.......

552

125

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28

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...........

..........

........

Balance of power. The principle of equilibrium and the present period. T. H.
Wistrand. LA.........

.....................
Baldwin, Simeon E. H. A. Smith. The American Supreme Court as an Inter-

national Tribunal. BR...........
-

Sir T. Barclay. Collapse and Reconstruction. BR....
Barclay, Sir Thomas. Collapse and reconstruction. BR....
Baruch, Bernard M. The making of the reparation and economic sections of the
Treaty. BR. ...............................

...........
Baty, Thomas. Enemy goods and house of trade. LA......................198, 384
Belgique, Etudes sur l'Occupation Allemande en. A. Henry. BR....
- Histoire diplomatique du Traité de 1839. A. de Ridder. BR.........

- L'Euvre du Comité National de Secours et d'Alimentation pendant la
Guerre. A. Henry. BR...............
Benes, Dr. Statement regarding Danubian confederation......
Bernisse and the Elve, The. 37 Times L. R. 193. JD....
Bernon, The. 1 C. Rob. 102. Cited ...............................
Birkhimer. Quoted on superior orders and war crimes.....
Boak, A. E. R. Greek interstate associations and the League of Nations. LA...
Borchard, Edwin M. E. Castro y Oyanguren. La cuestion de Tacna y Arica. BR. 485

- K. Strupp. Das Völkerrechtliche Delikt. BR..
Bound volumes of publications of American Society of International Law......
Boundary disputes between cantons of Switzerland............................
Bourgeois, Leon. Award of Nobel peace prize to. J. B. Scott. Ed..
Bouvé, C. L. N. Ariga. La Chine et la Grande Guerre Européenne. BR........
British and American Claims Arbitration Tribunal. C. P. Anderson, Ed. 266;

awards ...........
British Imperial Conferences. Cited..........
British Year Book of International Law. CN., 80. BR....
Brown, Philip Marshall. The Aaland Islands question. Ed......

E. D. Dickinson. The equality of states in international law. BR..
The Federation of Central America. Ed..........

The "Little Entente.” Ed...........................

- The understandings of international law. Ed....
Bryan, W. J. Objections to program of League to Enforce Peace. Cited........

- Speech on imperialism. Cited........
Buchanan, Secretary. Instructions regarding recognition of new governments..
Buell, Raymond Leslie. Contemporary French Politics. BR.....
Butte, George C. K. Helfferich. Vom Eingreifen Amerikas bis zum Zusammen-

bruch. BR. ......

:

:

..........

California-Japanese question. T. S. Woolsey. Ed............
Call, Arthur Deerin. F. C. Hicks. The new world order. BR.................
Canfield, George L. The law of the sea. BR.....
Capo-Rodríguez, Pedro. Colonial representation in the American Empire. LA...
-

J. H. Latané. The United States and Latin America. BR...........
Capture, damages for illegal. The Elve and Bernisse, 37 Times L. R. 193. JD..
Carpenter, William S. The United States and the League of Neutrals. LA.....
Castro y Oyanguren, E. La cuestion de Tacna y Arica. BR......
Central America, The Federation of. P. M. Brown, Ed....
Charming Betsey, The. 2 Cranch 64. Cited.....
Chester, The, 2 Dallas, 41. Cited..................
China, Foreign rights and interests in. W. W. Willoughby. BR............

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