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quences must result therefrom to ercise of British enterprise and energy. Great Britain herself, and especially And in noticing these we shall glance to her shipowners. We have at pre- first at the province of New Brunswick. sent going on from this country, and With respect to this province, the folfrom Europe, viâ British ports, an lowing remarks are contained in a emigration which takes off upwards of Report recently made by a Railway a thousand persons per day to people Commission to the British Legislathe soil of the United States and Brit ture : ish America, yet of this vast number a mere fraction only proceed direct of New Brunswick, it is impossible to
“ Of the climate, soil, and capabilities in British ships to British American speak too highly. There is not a country ports. We have shown above that a in the world só beautifully wooded and large portion of our shipping enters watered. An inspection of the map will those ports in ballast, thus enhancing show that there is scarcely a section of it the cost of their homeward cargoes of without its streams, from the running timber, bread-stuffs, and other pro- brook to the navigable river. Two-thirds duce. By-and-by the advantages of its boundary are washed by the sea ; afforded by the St Lawrence route,
the remainder is embraced by the large not only to Canada, but also to the rivers, the St John and the Restigouche. western territory of the United States, latter river and its branches are rarely
The beauty and richness of scenery of this will become more extensively appreciated; and the British and colonial surpassed by anything on this continent.
" The lakes of New Brunswick are nushipowner will be enabled to compete merous and most beautiful; the surface successfully in a trade from which the
is undulating-hill and dale, varying up Americans, during the past ten years, to mountain and valley. It is everywhere, have been profiting extensively, and except a few peaks of the highest mounalmost exclusively. The diversion of tains, covered with a dense forest of the the passenger-carrying traffic to Brit- finest growth. The country can everyish American ports will at the same
where be penetrated by its streams. In time exercise an important influence
some parts of the interior, by a portage of in improving the model and build of three or four miles only, a canoe can float our colonial ships. A considerable
away either to the Bay of Chaleur or the
Gulf of St Lawrence, or down to St John's improvement has been effected in this and the Bay of Fundy. Its agricultural direction within the past few years, capabilities and climate are described by and especially since emigration has in- Bouchette, Martin, and other authors. creased so rapidly to the gold districts of The country is by them--and most deserAustralia. The builders in the ports of vedly so-highly praised. For any great St John, N.B., and Quebec have of late plan of emigration or colonisation there been producing ships whose perform- is not another British colony which preances at sea have not been surpassed sents such a favourable field for trial as by those either of the mother country
New Brunswick. On the surface is an abunor of the United States, which pride dant stock of the finest timber, which, in
the markets of England, realises large themselves upon the qualities of their
sums annually, and affords an unlimited clipper vessels. Some of the fastest supply of fuel to the settler. If the forests vessels in our Australian merchant
should ever become exhausted, there are fleet are of colonial build ; and this the coal-fields underneath." branch of industry promises to become one in which a far greater amount of The growth of the province in cullabour and capital will be employed, tivation and population, although it than was the case when the colonial falls much short of that of Upper builders studied only to secure great Canada, has been very rapid for a carrying capacity at the lowest possible country whose soil has to be cleared cost of construction.
by the axe. In 1840, the quantity of We must, however, withdraw our land improved and under cultivation observation now from Upper Canada, was 426,611 acres. In 1851, the and direct it to what are commonly quantity was 643,954 acres, showing called the Lower Provinces of British an increase of 50 per cent. America, the recent development of pulation, in 1834, was 119,477 ; in which has been very rapid, and which 1840, 156,162 ; and in 1851, 193,800, afford most profitable fields for the ex although a portion of territory, con.
taining, in 1840, 2162 soulso had been with cargo, than at present; and the ceded to the United States by the means will thus be provided for divertAshburton Treaty. These figures, how- ing to the province a larger portion of ever, form a very imperfect basis for the tide of emigration from this counestimating the probable future growth try and from Europe. As an illustration of the province. The extension of the of the existing state of things, we may railway system to New Brunswick state that, whereas out of 489,150 is only a question of time; and when tons of shipping, the total entered at this is done, the route both to Upper St John's in 1851, only 113,665 tons and Lower Canada by the port of St went direct from Great Britain, the John in the Bay of Fundy must be- remaining portion being driven to take come a favourite one. The harbour of outward cargoes to the West Indies, St Jobn's is described as spacious, with the States, and other countries, presufficient depth of water for vessels of viously to going to that port for cargo. the largest class, with a tide-fall of The clearances direct to British ports from twenty-one to twenty-five feet, were in the same year 347,757 tons, which effectually prevents its being out of a total of 538,528 tons. To frozen over or impeded by ice during show the importance to this country the winter. When connected by of the development of the great rerailway with the Canadian and United sources possessed by New Brunswick, States lines, and with the navigation we give the following statement of of the great lakes, we shall see a much the quantities and values of the timlarger amount of tonnage entering New ber floated down the river St John in. Brunswick direct from British ports, the season of 1852:
White-pine timber, 100,000 tons, valued at 600,000 dollars.
Or, £405,208 sterling. The total imports of New Brunswick possess enables them to secure superior were, in 1849, 3,467,835 dollars, and strength and durability. The followin 1850, 4,077,655 dollars. Of these ing was the number and tonnage of amounts the colony took from Great ships built in the province in 1851:Britain direct, in 1849, 1,507,340 St John's, 60 ships, 28,628 tons. dollars, and in 1850, 1,988,195 dollars. Miramichi, 21 The exports were, to all countries, St Andrew's,
109 in 1849, 3,007,310, and in 1850, 3,290,090 dollars. To the amount of Total, 87 ships, 34,350 tons. exports, bowever, we bave to add the Being an average of nearly 400 tons value of the ships built in the colony, to each vessel. and sold principally in Great Britain. There is no portion of our North This branch of business is largely in American colonies, as we have alcreasing in the province, the St John's ready stated, wbich affords a finer builders, especially, having recently field for the British emigrant than furnished us with some of our finest New Brunswick, unless, perhaps, we clipper ships, and now possessing a except the valley of the river Ottawa deservedly high reputation. More in Lower Canada. To the sturdy attention is being paid to the finish labourer, not possessed of capital, it of their productions than formerly; offers a home and an independent whilst the excellent timber which they settlement as a landholder in return
* A species of larch much valued for ship-building both in the colonies and the United States. Ships built of this wood rate first-class for seven years, whilst those built of spruce or pine are only first-class for four years.
for his labour. The best woodmen sixty miles, to the thriving town of are found to be the Irish. After a Woodstock. On all these rivers there year or two of location in this or any is an abundant fall of water, the value other portion of North America, the of which is incalulable to the colonist. native of Ireland is found to be a most Every few miles along their banks valuable settler. Change of diet small communities are being formed, increases his physical powers; and availing themselves of this power for change of scene and occupation trans- manufacturing and other purposes. forms him into a totally different be. First in order generally rises a sawing from what he was whilst vegetat- mill, to aid the operations of the luming upon the soil of his birth. His berman. A flour, or, as it is termed bearing is more manly, and more in the colonies, a grist mill, rises next worthy of his physical formation. He in order; then a store-wooden in may cling to his Roman Catholicism, general—a few dwellings, and, when a but he is no longer the bigoted slave small body of population has been of his religious priesthood. Parties drawn together, a church or chapel who have visited British America re- and a school-house. From the census port emphatically upon the change in of 1851, we find that there had been the Celtic character. It cannot be established in this way throughout conceived that the Scotsman is in the entire province,ferior to the Irishman in adaptation Establishments. Number. Hands employed. to the business of a backwoodsman.
4302 He is generally found, however, to Grist-mills, 261
366 betake himself at once, on arrival, to Tanneries,
255 purely agricultural pursuits. The Founderies,
242 great fishing-stations of New Bruns- Breweries,
8 wick are located on the islands of Weaving and cardGrand Manan, Campobello, and West ing (5475 hand 52
96 Isles, in St John's harbour, and in
953 Cumberland Bay. On these stations an aggregate of five hundred vessels The difficulties and hardships of a are found fishing during the season ; settler's life, the fear of which deters and there are reared in the pursuit so many from trying their fortune some of the hardiest seamen to be in our colonies, are very materially found in the world. Upon the sub- smoothed down by the rapid formaject of the fisheries, the Commissioners' tion of these small communities in Report, from which we have already every eligible site, wherever the forest quoted, remarks :
has fallen before the woodman's axe, “ The rivers, lakes, and sea-coast and the soil been brought under cultiabound with fish. Along the bay of the
vation. The formation of railway Chaleur it is so abundant that the land routes from St John's and Miramichi, smells of it. It is used as a manure ; and by the aid of which the tide of emiwhile the olfactory senses of the traveller gration may flow direct to the proare offended by it on the land, he sees out vince, must, within a very few years, at sea immense shoals darkening the sur render New Brunswick one of the face of the water."
most flourishing colonies belonging to A rapidly-increasing internal trade the British crown. is carried on by means of the rivers The province of Nova Scotia next St John, Peticodiac, Richibucto, Mira- claims our attention, by the rapidity michi, and some lesser streams, which of its recent growth in commerce and are navigable for a considerable dis- population, the latter of which is extance from their respective harbours tensively Scottish, both in origin and on the Bay of Fundy and the Gulf of in religion. In 1817 the population St Lawrence. The St John, which is of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton four hundred and fifty miles in length amounted to 91,913. Its subsequent from its mouth, will accommodate growth has been as follows:ships of one hundred tons and large
1827. steamers for ninety miles, to Frederic
142,578 208,237 276,117 ton, the seat of government; and small steamers ply farther upward for Showing an increase of 32 per cent
from 1838 to 1851. Excluding Cape richest and most prolific portion of BritBreton, whose population decreased ish North America. Nothing can during these years, Nova Scotia has ceed their enduring fertility and fruitfuladded to its inhabitants nearly 40 per
ness, to which there seems no reasonable
limit." cent. Its principal religious denominations, from which we gather a fair These marshes are said to contain idea of the origin of the population, an area of upwards of 40,000 acres, were, in 1851,
valued at about 60 dollars per acre.
The improved land was about 800,000 Church of England,
36,482 acres in 1851. Nova Scotia, however, Roman Catholics,
69,634 although as yet behindhand in its Presbyterians,
agriculture, is rich in its fisheries, and Kirk of Scotland,
18,867 in the possession of minerals. In 1851, Presbytery of Nova Scotia, 28,767 the number of vessels employed in
Free Church of Scotland, 25,280 the fisheries was 812, with a burthen Baptists,
of 43,333 tons, manned by 3681 men. Methodists,
The number of boats engaged was The progress of the province, both 5161, manned by 6713 men. The in population and in wealth, has been total value of the products of the fish materially aided by its chief port,
and oil was estimated as greatly exHalifax, being adopted as a calling ceeding a million of dollars. The coalstation for the Cunard line of mail mines of the province are situated at steamers between this country and Pictou, on the Gulf of St Lawrence, the United States; and this progress in Cape Breton, and at the head of must be materially aided when the the Bay of Fundy. The main seam railwaycommunications projected from at Pictou is thirty-three feet in thickits Atlantic seaboard, to join those ness, with twenty-four feet of good which are in progress from Lower coal, of which thirteen feet are fit for Canada to the westward, are carried exportation, and the remainder valuout. This must eventually be done, able for furnaces and forges. The as the splendid harbours which Nova principal exportation is to ports in Scotia possesses point her out as des. Massachusetts and Rhode Island, tined to provide a route for a large with a small quantity to New York. portion of the traffic, both passenger The quality is bituminous; and the and merchandise, between the Atlan- amount shipped to the United States tic and the Far West. It is stated alone was estimated, by the Hon. S. on reliable authority that, between Cunard, the general agent for the Halifax and Cape Canso, there are mines, to have been, in 1850, 62,954 twelve ports capable of receiving chaldrons of coarse, and 8518 chalships of the line, and fourteen others drons of slack. Cape Breton is also of sufficient depth for merchantmen. rich in minerals and in its fisheries. Unlike most other portions of British It contains a noble sea-water lakeAmerica, the province has not as yet the Bras d'Or-considered to have developed a large amount of agricul- been formed by some volcanic eruptural resources.
Some of its high tion, upon which fisheries of every lands are rocky and sterile ; but even
kind are carried on with great sucthese, when the surface is cleared
It has two entrances from the away, are found to possess an under
sea, one of which is twenty-three soil of great fertility. The portion miles long, and the other twentybest adapted for cultivation is its five miles. The shores of these enporth-eastern section, which is thus trances, we are informed, "are settled described :
by Scotch Highlanders and emigrants " Its most valuable portion is upon the
from the Hebrides, who prosecute the
fisheries in boats with much success." Bay of Fundy, where there are deep and In several of the large bays conextensive deposits of rich alluvial matter, nected with the Bras d'Or, large thrown down by the action of the extraordinary tides of this extensive bay.
timber ships from England receive These deposits have been reclaimed from
their cargoes at a distance of forty to the sea by means of dikes ; and the diked sixty miles from the sea. The coal marshes, as they are termed, are the deposits of Cape Breton extend over
about 120 square miles, containing dred miles, in breadth. The soundings on good working seams of bituminous it are from twenty-five to ninety-five coal of the best quality.
fathoms. The bottom is generally coverNova Scotia, including Cape Bre- ed with shell-fish. It is frequented by ton, has also made great progress in
immense shoals of small fish, most of the number and extent of its manu
which serve as food for the cod. Where
the bottom is principally of sand, and the facturing establishments. In 1851 depth of water about thirty fathoms, cod it possessed 1153 saw-mills, em
is found in greatest plenty ; on a muddy ploying 1786 hands; 398 grist-mills, bottom cod are not numerous. The best employing 437 hands; 237 tanneries, fishing-grounds on the Grand Bank are employing 374 hands; 81 weaving between latitudes 42° and 46° north.” and carding shops, employing 119 The deep-sea fishery is prosecuted hands, and containing 11,096 looms, on this bank in vessels of considerable with other manufacturing establish- size; but the shore fishery is carried ments of a miscellaneous character. on by the humbler portion of the inThe increase of its imports and ex- habitants, in boats, or vessels of a size ports has been very striking during corresponding with the means of those the past few years, the total having who use them. The shore fishery is been, in 1849, 7,728,925 dollars; the most productive, both of fish and 8,637,495 dollars in 1850 ; and oil. Herrings frequent the coasts in 9,069,950 in 1851.
vast shoals, but are not regarded as One of our most singular colonies, worth taking, except for bait. The to a European, is the island colony of most profitable fishery is that for Newfoundland. Viewed from the seals, which has been increasing sea, it has a wild and sterile ap- during the past few years, and empearance, covered with three different ploys a considerable amount of tonkinds of vegetation, the districts con nage. In 1851 there were engaged taining which are classed as “woods," in the seal fishery throughout the “marshes,” and “barreng." The island of Newfoundland 323 vessels,, trees of Newfoundland consist prin- with an aggregate tonnage of 29,545 cipally of the pine, spruce, fir, iarch tons, manned by 11,377 men. The (or Hackmatac), and birch. Some population, by the census of 1845, lighter woods are also found in the was 96,295 souls. On the 1st of colony. The timber is generally of January 1852, it was estimated at small growth. In the valley and the 125,000, of whom 30,000 were enlow lands are found open tracts or gaged directly in the fisheries. The marshes. These are very fertile. produce of these, including oil, was The “barrens ” occupy the summits estimated in 1851 at over £900,000 of the high lands, and produce little sterling. The coast of Labrador, beyond shrubs and herbs of various north of Newfoundland, is also the kinds. One of the most remarkable resort of a large amount of tonnage features of the country is the abun. and fishermen, chiefly from Newdance of lakes or ponds, which cover foundland and Nova Scotia. The its surface, and are to be found even value of the quantity of seals and upon its highest hills. The island fish caught is variously estimated at contains no river, and scarcely any from £600,000 to £800,000 sterling streams. Its area is estimated at per annum. 23,040,000 acres.
When we come to regard British The great staple of Newfoundland America as a whole, there are some is its codfish, the pursuit of which is considerations with respect to its either undertaken in large vessels in future which forcibly strike the mind. the open sea, upon the Grand Bank Throughout the various provinces of Newfoundland, or else in boats there was in 1851 a population of near the coast of the island. The close upon two millions five hundred Grand Bank is thus described in the souls, owing allegiance to the British report of Mr Andrews :
crown, extensive consumers of Brit“The Grand Bank is the most extensive ish products, and employing a large submarine elevation yet discovered. It amount of British capital and shipis about six hundred miles in length, and ping, which promises an amazing inin some places five degrees, or two hun crease, when, in the course of a few