« ПретходнаНастави »
and, other soldiers having come to his and 5000 prisoners. More than 12,000 support, captured the vessel. Many slaves, who rowed in the Tarkish other such deeds are related by Señor galleys, were that day liberated. Rosell, deeds worthy, as he truly says, Don John remained four days in of the heroic days of ancient Greece. the port of Petala repairing damages, The sea was literally reddened with making arrangements for the care of blood, and was covered for miles with the wounded, and taking counsel as human limbs and disfigured corpses, to the best means of turning his vicwith clothes, fragments of galleys, tory to good account. Thence he sent planks, oars, arms, and masts. The Don Lope de Figueroa to Spain, with storm broke forth in its fury, and the letters and despatches for the king his flames of Turkish galleys, set on fire brother, and with Selim's standard, because they were too much damaged which had been taken from the enemy. to be of service, lit up the terrible He also sent despatches to the Pope, scene — appropriate illuminations in and to Venice, as did the generals. honour of so signal a triumph. Night Veniero and Colonna. Philip II. recame on, and the allied fleet sought ceived the news without any sign of shelter in the adjacent port of Petala. joy or surprise-imitating, in that re
The trophies of this victory were, spect, the calmness of bis father on first, the two sons of Aali Pasha, one receiving intelligence of the victory of seventeen and the other thirteen years Pavia. He was at vespers at the of age, whose father had brought them time, and when the service was over, with him to accustom them to naval he directed the prior to have a Te discipline and to the dangers of war. Deum sung. On the following day he " It was a piteous spectacle,” says went to Madrid to offer up solemn Señor Rosell," to see the tears they thanksgivings for so great a blessing. shed on finding themselves orphans At Venice the joy was extreme. and captives." After the battle, Don Doge, senate, nobles, and people, all John had them brought before him, issued forth upon the square of St and, embracing them, he deplored Mark, to rejoice and congratulate each their hard fate and their father's death. other. The emotion of Pius V. was so He lodged them in his secretary's great—although it is said that he had cabin, one of the best in his ship, or prophesied the victory—that he shed a dered Turkish clothes to be bought for flood of tears, and exclaimed, in the them, gave them shirts of his own, and words of the evangelist, “ There was treated them as if they were his a man sent from God, whose name brothers. “He then sent for Sebastian was John,” -a not very reverend apVeniero, and to show him that he plication of the Gospel, but which, harboared no resentment for past perhaps, was excusable in a pope, and offences, he advanced to meet him as on such an occasion. Few victories far as the ladder of his galley, em have been so variously celebrated, or braced him most affectionately, and, acquired at the time so much fame calling him his father, extolled, as was
for their winners, as that of Lepanto. just, his great valour, and could not Princes, prelates, and magnates vied finish what he would have said for with each other in their praises and the sobs and tears that choked him. congratulations; cities voted laurel The poor old man, who did not expect crowns and rich presents to the illussuch a reception, wept also, and so trious conqueror; poets, sculptors, and did all who witnessed that scene." painters, sung, carved, and painted The armada of the League had lost memorials of the great fight, and of twelve galleys; but 130 of the enemy's the valiant prince who gained it. The were taken and divided amongst the city of Messina, whose port Don John allies. It was calculated that eighty entered in triumph three weeks after Turkish vessels were supk. Of men, the battle, presented him with thirty the loss of the allies amounted to 7600; thousand crowns, which he distributed namely, 2000 Spaniards—800 belong to the hospitals. Herrera, Rufo, Ering to the Pope's squadron, and the cilla, and many other Spanish writers, remainder Venetians. The loss of the composed poems in honour of the batenemy - perhaps somewhat exagge- tle, and especially of the victorious rated-was said to be 25,000 dead, chief. There were also poems written
in Latin, Portuguese, Catalan, and in the circumstances, appeared prophethe dialect of Majorca. In the royaltic, consoled and encouraged Selim ; Museo at Madrid are two valuable he abandoned the vice of drunkenmosaic tables which were given by the ness, which had given him a shameful Pope to Philip II. and to Don John reputation, and applied all his energies of Austria. Upon that of the prince to the creation of fresh forces wherenaval trophies are depicted. Mes- with to avenge his reverse. He apsina raised a colossal bronze statue of pointed Uluch Aali his high admiral, Don John. In the Vatican are still in place of the slain Aali Pasha; and, to be seen paintings of the battle; as a title of honour, made him change others are to be found in churches in his name from Uluch to Kilich, which Andalusia; there is one in the naval signifies sword. Thenceforward the museum at Madrid; and in the royal renegade was the first man in the museum of the same capital is 'an Turkish empire after the sultan. allegorical picture
representing the ac- Early in the following spring he was tion, painted by Titian, at the age of again at sea, with a hundred and ninety-four years. A long list might seventy galleys, besides other vessels; be made of the pictures, medals, and but he seems to have entertained a trophies which still exist to remind lively recollection of his defeat at the world of the battle of Lepanto, Lepanto, for although he had more and of its principal hero. At the end than one opportunity of bringing the of his work, Señor Rosell gives, be- Christians to battle, he avoided doing sides a small map of the action, en- so. On the 7th August 1572, the graved fac-similes of two medals in the two fleets met, the Turkish vessels numismatic museum of the Madrid numerically much superior to those of National Library. The obverse of the League, although the size of some one of these displays the likeness of of the latter made up the difference. Pius V., that of the other the very But Vluch Aali shunned & conflict, handsome head of Don John of Aus- and the same thing occurred on two tria. On the reverse of the latter subsequent occasions, the last being medal is a full-length of the conqueror, on the anniversary of Lepanto, when standing on a pedestal, whilst Vice a battle appeared so imminent that tory, a palm-branch in one hand, the Hispano-Venetians, with Don crowns bim with laurel. In the area John again at their head, made sure of the medal is a plan of the battle of of renewing their triumph of the preLepanto. Señor Rosell also gives a ceding year. But Uluch Aali, seeing vignette engraving of Sebastian Ve- his enemy bent upon attacking him, niero, after Tintoretto's portrait of took refuge under the guns of the him in the Madrid Gallery—a fine fortress of Modon. By the end of the head, at once venerable and martial, year, the Tark was considered to have but with a countenance expressing repaired all his losses, and to be even some of the irritability that charac- in a better state to take the field than terised the valiant Venetian.
he was before his terrible defeat. It Selim II., when news reached him was agreed to augment the forces of of his fleet's disaster, shut himself up the confederates to three hundred in his room, and for three days would galleys, and sixty thousand fighting see nobody, and scarcely eat anything. men; but this was never dono, for On the fourth day his grand vizier the Venetians, who for some time was admitted to see him. It is said past had complained of the expense that Selim took the Koran, read two of the war, left the League, and made chapters, and shut the book; then, peace with the Porte upon disgraceful happening again to open it, he came terms, Selim retaining all his conupon the following. verse : “ In the quests, and receiving back the castle name of the merciful and compas- of Sopoto, which had been taken from sionate God, I suffer by reason of the him during the war, receiving also one victory of the Christians over the in- hundred thousand ducats a-year for habitants of the earth ; but they shall three years. Don John would not not have occasion to glorify them- credit this base desertion until it was selves in future on account of their confirmed to him by the Venetians victory." These words, which, under themselves. Then he struck the
standard of the League, and hoisted mits that the immediate and material that of Spain, itself, in those days, a consequences of the battle of Lepanto terror to its enemies. Lepanto had were insignificant, defends his hero been the League's first and last tri- against the attacks of those who have umph. Although, owing to various said of Don John, as it has been said circumstances, it was not followed of Hannibal, that he knew how to up, either immediately, as many think conquer, but not how to profit by his it might advantageously have been, victory; and of others who, like Volor in the sterile year 1572, its import- taire, have maintained that the scanty ance was immense. “ What would fruits of the battle made it almost have been the fate of Europe," asks appear as if the Turks had been the Señor Rosell, in his interesting final victors. He alleges the damaged chapter, “ if upon that day the armada condition of the armada of the League, of the League had been destroyed and the heavy loss of fighting men by the scimitars of the janizaries ? it had suffered; he deems the plan of Master of Cyprus, Selim would quick- an advance on Constantinople rash, ly have conquered Candia, his squad- and hardly to be realised, since the rons:would have infested the gulfs of forces of the Porte were by no means the Mediterranean, and, aided by the exhausted by the destruction of its corsairs of Barbary, he would have fleet, nor was the Grand Seignior so subjugated the whole of the Adriatic defenceless that he would have had and Tyrrhenian shores. Soon extend at once to take to flight. At the same ing his empire from the Sea of Azov time, he evidently has a lurking susto Corsica and the Balearic Isles, and picion that, in the first moment of the with Africa submitted to his will, Turk's dismay, a dash might bave neither the Muscovite, as yet feeble, been successfully made at his capital, nor Austria, hardly powerful enough to capture the galleys there in port, to retain Hungary, nor the Catholic and perhaps to set fire to the rich King himself, discouraged and weak- arsenal of Constantinople. The best ened by his defeat, would have sufficed plea in exculpation of Don John from to check that torrent, when it pre- the charge of sluggishness after viccipitated itself from the mountains of tory, is to be found in the fact that the North to unite with the impetuous his powers were limited. His cautious, inundation of the South. It was not cold-blooded brother, who never stirred the destiny of Europe again to groan in any business without long previous in the bonds of barbarous nations ; reflection, feared that the ardour of but the obstinate and bloody strife youth and thirst for glory might lead would long have paralysed industry him into imprudence, and it was his and the arts, checking, and perhaps will and order that he should always frustrating, the development of its act in conformity with the vote of the genius, and the happy progress of its generals of the armada, and other conquests and institutions."
experienced persons who were to form Don John of Austria has been his council. Don John never knew blamed for not promptly following up the king's exact motive for this prehis victory by another severe blow cautionary measure ; but he yielded dealt at the Turkish power.
Some implicit obedience to the brother who writers, amongst others General San stood him instead of a father. After Miguel in his History of Philip II., his victory, he declared bis wish to have suggested the possibility that, follow it up by other exploits ; but if he had at once pushed on to Con the divisions in the council were stantinople, that capital might have many, winter was near at hand, time been conquered, the more so as its was lost, and nothing was done. Christian inbabitants, and especially The real results of the battle of Lethe numerous Genoese in the suburbs panto are perhaps best defined by of Pera and Galata, were ready to M. Poujoulat, in bis Histoire de conrise against the Turks. Señor Rosell, stantinople, where he says that, "from who discusses ingeniously, and at that triumph, glorious to the Chrisconsiderable length, a question which tians, may be dated the commencethe lapse of centuries has not yet ment of the Turks' decline, because stripped of all interest, and who ad- it cost them not only men and ships
a loss easy to repair-but also that the moral ascendancy that had been prestige which constitutes the chief her strength for three centuries and power of conquering nations, a power a-half.” If these opinions be accepted, but once acquired, and which, when it can hardly be said that the battle lost, is never regained.” Other of Lepanto was not an immense benewriters have expressed the same fit to Europe, or that Don John of opinion. “ Turkey,” says M. de Austria did not fairly and fully earn Bonald, “never recovered the battle the lofty pedestal upon which he still of Lepanto. She lost upon that day stands in the temple of military fame.
CLIVE'S DREAM BEFORE THE BATTLE OF PLASSEY.
["The majority (of the council) pronounced against fighting, and Clive declared his concurrence with the majority.
But scarcely had the meeting broken up than he was himself again. He retired alone ander the shade of some trees, and passed near an hour there in thought. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard, and gave orders that all should be in readiness for passing the river on the morrow."-MACAULAY.]
BENEATH the thick old mango-trees the trunks are growing black ;
Who walks at such an hour in the strange garb of the Frank,
Now sinks the din from either camp, and not a sound is heard
And CLIVE still lies extended; but no more he mutters now,
What changing cloud, what wreathing shapes float through that slumberer's
See WELLESLEY learn his deathless fight, see beams of glory take
H. G. K