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met with. But the most conspicuous plant is the Northern Scrub or Princis Pine (Pinus Banksiana) which here attains gigantic dimensions, one individual noticed rising to the height of more than forty-five feet, with a girt of six and a half feet. This tree, in its elm-like habit of growth, is in striking contrast with all the other evergreens around. At the end of May the numerous pyramidal erect spikes of flowers give it the aspect of a chandelier studded with yellow wax-lights. In Acadia it has an extensive range, for it is not only abundant throughout the Gulf districts, whence it spreads over to Grand Lake and the Petitcodiac river, but Goodale also met with it in Northern Maine, where, however, it is scarce.

Around the shores on the upper part of Kennebeccasis Bay, where the waters are shallow, species of a more southern type grow, such as the Nodding Wake Robin (Trillium cernuum), the Yellow Violet (Viola pubescens,) and the two Anemones (A. nemorasa and A. Pennsylvanica.) The shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa) also is very abundant.

There are two other positions in which the species of this type are found in Southern New Brunswick. One beneath the cool shade of evergreen trees which cover the abrupt hills between Kennebeccasis Bay and the sea-coast. On the mossy slopes under these trees the sweet Coltsfoot (Nardosmia palmata) opens its flowers in early spring; and the Round-leaved Orchis (Habenaria rotundifolia) may be found in bloom at a later period. Kalm's Lobelia (L. Kalmii) and the spurred gentian (Halenia deflexa) intermingled with other sub-Arctic forms, abound in the open pastures. Other species, such as the swamp chickweed (Stellaria uliginosa), for which, like Sedum Rhodiola, a station in Pennsylvania is known; the large-leaved Geum (G. macrophyllum), and the willow-leaved dock (Rumex salicifolius), have been found at the sea-side, on the borders of salt marshes, near St. John.

Looking at the known range of this type throughout Acadia, we may fairly suppose that the whole of its northern continental portion (except the Tobique valley and part of the Miramichi) will be characterized by the presence of the foregoing and other boreal forms; and that these may also be looked for around the whole southern bight of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In Insular Acadia it probably occupies Prince Edward Island, mantles over the hills

of northern Nova Scotia, and in Cape Breton blends with the subArctic flora of the Atlantic coast.

III. Continental Type.-In the Interior of Continental Acadia there is a large area overspread by a group of plants of a more southern type than those we have been considering. West of the Alleghanies they range as far south as New York, Ohio, and the south-west part of the Province of Ontario. Many of them, however, cross the Appalachian range, and are found more or less abundantly in west New England. The valley of the Connecticut river generally limits their range eastward.

This group includes many of the species found by Mr. Goodale to characterize the rich lands of the Aroostook valley, which he mentions in his report on the Botany of Northern Maine; but the range of others is such as to exclude them from this eastern fragment of a flora which finds its home west of the Green Mountains of New England. The following are the principal species:

Dicentra Canadensis.

Adlumia cirrhosa.

Nasturtium palustre var. hispidum.

Lathyrus palustrus var. myrtifolius.

Enothera chrysantha (Evening Primrose.)

Hippuris vulgaris (Marsetail.)
Artemisia biennis (Wormwood.)

Blitum captitatum (Strawberry plate.)

Listera convallarioides (Tway blade.)

Carex cylindrica.

Anemone Pennsylvanica (Pennsylvanian Anemone.)

Claytonia Caroliniana (Spring beauty, Mayflower of the Loyal


Conosilenium Canadense.

Aralia quinquefolia (Dwarf ginseng.)

Pogonia verticillata.

Goodale's remarks on the vegetation of the Aroostook country apply well to the valley of the main St. John river from Eel river to the southern hills, and represent with almost equal fidelity the aspect of the western and central part of the Lower Acadian Plain, where the soil is deep and drainage good. In approaching the Gulf this type of vegetation gives place to a collection of species having a more northerly range. In the valleys of the southern highlands, in King's County, it mingles with the New England

flora prevalent to the south-west, of which several species appear to be rare or wanting along that part of the Lower Acadian Plain facing the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

In concluding this division of the subject, it may be added that our present knowledge of Acadian botany would lead us to suppose that the Continental type, besides occupying the southern half of the Plateau of Continental Acadia, also spreads throughout the valley of the St. John and its tributaries, to the heart of the Southern hills, and reappears in the valley of the South-west Miramichi. That the Boreal type lies around it to the north-east and to the south-east, as far as the outlet of the St. John river. Here it mingles with the few sub-Arctic species which still hold their ground along this coast, and in like manner flourishes in company with these same species on the low points of land jutting into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The sub-Arctic species form, as it were, a fringe to the general vegetation of the country skirting the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy. The occurrence of an Alpine group in the northern highlands seems as yet scarcely established, since, on the highest of those hills, Professor Bailey met with but one species which could be referred to this type, viz., Vaccinium uliginosum. The plants of New England are widely spread throughout Acadia, but appear to be more especially prevalent in the south-western counties. Several species, such as the Blue-bell (Campanula rotundifolia), and Hemlock (Abies Canadensis), are reported by Mr. Fowler as scarce or wanting in many districts along the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the Cedar (Thuja Occidentalis) appears to be a rare tree in Nova Scotia, and even entirely wanting in most parts of that Province.






"YE SEE!" said Barney, "It was just this way: I was sittin'

mendin' my net on the gunwale av the bit coble that was lying half out from the tide, when I see them come ridin' down wid Mounseer Divvle at the head av' them, an' the minnit I clapped eyes an him, says I, "Here's himself to pay, sure enough, this time anyhow! He's up to some divilment, I know by the looks av' him! Well, who cares? An' if he be a roarin' up an' down the arth seekin' whom he may devour, isn't the say left, sure? An' with that I gin the boat a shove aff, an' jumped in. Next thing he rides up, rampagin', an' says he :

"Surrindher, Barney Bralligan! I arrist ye in the Queen's


"An' fwhat for?" says I.

"For the crime o' murdher," says he.

"I jist dhrapt at the word."

"Come out o' that," roars he, "this minnit, or I'll put a bullet through yez."

Thinks I, "It's betther shootin' than hangin' anyway." So I grips the oar, slid it aisy over the fur side, and gave a hard shove that sent her flying out. An' if I did, sure enough, he blazes away, but as luck 'ud have it, he didn't hit me."

Who's the murdherer now?" says I, givin' another shove. "Isn't it yerself, jist, Misther Divvle, that's the murdherer from the beginnin', as the good word says? An' more nor that, I fling the durty lie back in yer own black troat, where it belangs, for it's well seen ye're the father of lies, and there's Scriptur' for that too!"

Wi' that he rips out a sthring o' Frinch oaths, an' shakes his fist at me, for I was out av' range av his popper. Thin, he turns round an' speaks to the men, an' I saw one start off, full split, to the village beyant.”

"That's for another boat, I reckon," says I.

"An' then, I sees him jump fram his harse, an' start for the house to sarch it,' I heard him say.

“Pullin' in shore I axes the boys what it wor all about, an'

they ups an' tells me how the Colonel was shot, an' all about yer ride. An' I wor wild wid the grief, an' how at all they'd put it an me. In a minnit or two I sees the Frencher come out again, flourishin' my ould tin cap-box,-ye mind it, Masther Calvert ?"

"There's enough there to hang ye,' says he. Whatever did he mane by it, I dunno, at all, at all?"

Unobservant of the meaning glances interchanged between his three listeners, Barney went on.

"An' will ye come ashore, or will ye not?' roars he. 'If ye don't, I know a thrick will bring ye!' An' sayin' something to the men, he starts for the cabin again.

"What's he afther?" says I, seein' the boys kind o' hang back. "It's to put a turf to the thatch!"" says they.

"I backs in my boat in a hurry, for I heard the schrames o' the wife an' childher. But, first thing I saw, there was the Frinchman racin' out like mad, an' Biddy afther him, wid the ould rusty baggonet that she has stuck on a broom-handle for a poker, an' it red hot. An' atune whiles, she'd kape givin' him the t'other prod behind,- savin' yer presence, an' wint on tratin' him to the nate spaches I was tellin' ye av." av." And at the recollection of his wife's gallantry, the tears stood in the poor fellow's eyes, as he led off the general laugh that greeted the recital.

"Well done, Biddy!" cried Harvey. "But let us hear the upshot, Barney."

"Well, ye see, Sir," resumed he, "the Frinchman jumps on his harse in a hurry, an' dhraws his pistol and levels it at her, an' even the men round cried 'shame!' whilst I yelled wid the tirror.


"Hould back, thin, ye ould faggot!' says he, or I'll shoot ye. "The Divil thank ye!' says Biddy, noways daunted: 'It's yer thrade, ye murdherin' villain,' and wid that she let's dhrive at the harse, and it rairs an' runs for half a mile afore it 'ud shtop.

"More power to yer elbow! Mrs. Bralligan,' says the rest ov them, laughin', an' rode away.

"But that minnit I spies a boat comin' round the point, an' I takes to my oars, an' Biddy she schrames the blissins afther me. A tough pull it was I had for my life afore I got into the Dog's Mouth anunder here! But there's none o' them all daur folly me there, for it takes a quick eye an' a sure stroke to tap the wave that'll land ye safe over the grinnin' teeth that 'ud tear yer boat


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