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balat, where the small town of Chilecito, or Villa Argentina, with its silver mines, is situated. I became serious, and began to ruminate. After I had reflected awhile, I took another nibble, then smoked a cigarrito. My position had grown interesting, and my first movement was to reconnoitre.

I descended the side of the steep mountain until I reached the bottom of the chasm. There I found the most delicious stream of pure, crystalline water; when I had quenched my thirst at it, I thought of my poor horse and was almost tempted to go back after him. I explored the locality, and found on one side a huge mass of rock from which the brook I had drank of fell in a cascade, imitating, on a small scale, the Falls of Niagara. Going along down the chasm, after having walked on through the rushes for nearly four miles, I found my progress obstructed by an immense boulder some thirty or forty feet in height. The question of further advance was becoming complicated. I tried the right side, when, horribile visu! a few yards inside the woods, I discovered the carcass of a mule, or a horse, and, near by, the dried skeleton of a man! Instantly the truth revealed itself. I had walked a long way, and yet I found myself near by the place where I had entered the chasm: I was in the "Quebrada de las Animas" --the "Chasm of Spirits (or Ghosts "); and perhaps the next poor, foolish, presumptuous, brainless individual who might come after me would have the pleasure (?) of finding my bones and of leaving his own somewhere in the same place. A cold perspiration covered my brow: I felt dizzy. Something, however, was to be done; so I resumed my walk. At last, after three hours' search, I discovered a hidden kind of path, in which there were marks of a mule, that appeared quite recent, going in the direction of Chollás. Thank God! cried I, I am saved! I went back and climbed the mountain again. I saddled my horse, which could hardly stand; and as the descent was too steep to go down in a straight direction, I began chasing the poor animal before me in a zig-zag line, when, apparently tired of such a course, the brute gave me, on my left leg, a kick which, if I had been a few inches nearer him, would, undoubtedly, have broken my limb. I fell;-the horse ran away towards the chasm. The pain became more violent, the leg began to swell, and I almost fainted. Night was approaching; the few provisions left unconsumed had gone with the horse; and there I was, alone;—and how my poor leg was still swelling! Then

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again, the sight of that poor fellow's remains haunted me: tification of my wound, grangrene, a slow, miserable death by starvation, all these ideas passed before my imagination in less time than it takes to write it.

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Old Molière's expression, "Qu' allait-il faire dans cette galerè?" came into my mind: I was in a state of agony which cannot be described. In such a condition I remained all night and a part of the next day. Hunger and thirst were pressing me sore; I grew delirious; all my course of life passed in review before me. Thoughts of my happy days at college, of the time I might have employed more profitably while there; of home, of my dear mother and her kind and affectionate advice, of her efforts to dissuade me from returning to South America; of my obstinacy in refusing to listen to the counsels given me at the mine,-all rendered my situation more bitter, more painful. For I had to acknowledge that my vain self-pride had brought me to this end. I cried, I prayed, I vowed that I would do better hereafter, if spared now: I was conquered.

As I could not walk, and could not find any relief by remaining where I was, the only thing left for me to do was to drag myself and my leg along and try to reach the chasm. Should I find my horse, or, at least, my "alforjas" there? Perhaps. I began the process of creeping downwards. After a long and painful labor, I reached the bottom, and lo! my horse was there, the alforjas also. The poor beast neighed, as if glad to see me. I forgot all rancor, and gave him, as a peace-offering, a piece of biscuit. Then I bathed my leg and began to eat voraciously. After that I hauled myself, as I best could, up on the horse, and proceeded very slowly in search of the path I had before discovered. At last, towards seven o'clock in the evening, I reached the first rancho. It was fully time; for my horse would not move any farther, and I was ready to faint with pain. There were four women washing near by a brook; they came to me and brought me some milk, and, when I related what had taken place, they insisted on my alighting and staying there while they should send to the "Ingenio" (foundry) for M. Rosé, my countryman, and for means of transport. Samaritan-like, these kind ladies,—I say ladies, because all women, good at heart, are ladies,-assisted me in this way: one took hold of the horse, whilst the others lifted me in their arms and carried me to the rancho. Arrived there, they washed my

wound and applied to it some of their domestic remedies. Soon after, Mons. Rosé, accompanied by two miners, came; and, having bid farewell to the good creatures who had so opportunely aided me, I was carried to comfortable quarters, where I rested for a few days, decidedly subdued in spirit and positively resolved- for the second time-to trust no more to my own perspicacity.




1834 Canada grew restless and uneasy, under the administration. The French population daily beheld their influence waning, and saw the sons of old Canada unfitted, by reason of their nativity alone, for holding office or position, under government. The pettiest appointment or the most paltry grant was denied them. The "Family Compact" held supreme control, responsible government was an unknown thing, and French Canadians were made to feel the full force and severe truth of the axiom "that the many were made to be governed, and a favored few were born to govern them." It was towards the close of this year that the famous ninety-two Resolutions were introduced into the House of Assembly, and passed by a vote of fifty-six to twenty-four. Louis Joseph Papineau, then a prominent member of Parliament, in a lengthy speech, favored the Address, which was immediately transmitted to the Imperial Houses of Lords and Commons, and the result anxiously awaited by the people of Canada.

In the British House of Commons the question was ably discussed and debated, and after much argument, resolutions were passed which virtually suspended the Canadian Constitution of


All this time, heartburnings and restlessness were apparent among the population of Canada, speaking the French language. Real wrongs and imaginary injuries rankled in their breasts; murmurs of disquiet and discontent were breathed in the streets of cities and echoed in the alluvial fields of villages and hamlets. Numerous societies, chiefly composed of ardent young men, were formed,patriotism and liberty being the strong bulwarks of their existence.

The "Sons of Liberty," with their silken banners and bands of music, openly paraded the thoroughfares of Montreal, and frequent conflicts occurred between these agitators and a body of loyal citizens calling themselves the "Constitutionalists." The Government, however, looked upon these "straws" as mere idle gangs of men, and refused to accept them as true indicators of popular feeling. No danger was apprehended from, or alarm caused by their movements, and the House of Parliament continued to transact business as before. When the news reached Canada of the action of the British Government, and of the suspension of the Constitution, the smouldering fires of rebellion were fanned into a mighty flame. Papineau and Dr. Wolfred Nelson, the avowed and recognized leaders, inaugurated a series of indignation meetings throughout the country; Great Britain was denounced in burning invectives, and measures were proposed for the instant formation of a Republic, by force. These speeches created tremendous excitement among the more ignorant classes, and roused to enthusiasm many dormant spirits.

King William IV. had just died, and the youthful Princess Victoria had ascended the throne of the sea-girt isle. According to established custom, Te Deums were sung in all the churches throughout the land, and prayers were offered up for the Queen and members of the Royal family. The Roman Catholic clergy manifested no disloyalty on their part; but very many of the congregations at this stage of the services, left their places in the churches and refused to sanction, by their presence at least, these chants and prayers.

The morning of October 23rd dawned, and the first seeds of open revolt blossomed at St. Charles, on the banks of the picturesque River Richelieu. This was the famons "Five Counties" meeting, at which were over five thousand persons, including thirteen members of the Assembly and one of the Legislative Council, and almost every person of note or standing from the surrounding parishes. Dr. Nelson-the celebrated agitator-presided over this open-air convention. The "orations" made on this occasion were of the most incendiary character, and calculated to arouse the fiercest animal passions. Papineau came to the front, and in a perfect torrent of eloquent and rapid invective, unequalled since the days of Burke in the old world, denounced in scathing terms, and in rancorous irony, the " oppressors of Canada." Dr. Nelson


followed in the same trenchant style, and tried to incite the British soldiery to desertion. There were then in Canada, all told, about three thousand three hundred troops. Bands were immediately formed, armed, equipped and officered, and plans for a speedy and formidable conflict arranged. The result of this unhappy blunder, this sad blot in Canada's history, need not be told here and at this time. We have to deal with the name of Papineau only; but in order that the reader may understand his position and comprehend his attitude, a glance at the affairs of Canada, in her darkest and most trying hours, is perhaps necessary.

Louis Joseph Papineau was born in the city of Montreal, in the month of October 1789, and was educated at the Seminary of Quebec, then a school of learning held in high repute. In 1811 he was called to the bar. While he was prosecuting his legal studies, and when yet in his teens, he, like that great statesman Charles James Fox, of England, the bitter opponent of the equally celebrated and eminent William Pitt, was elected to Parliament before he became of age. In 1808 he represented the county of Kent, now called Chambly. In 1812 he was chosen leader of the Canadian Opposition, and in 1815 he was made Speaker; and from that time, with the exception of the period when he was absent on public business in England, until the fatal year of 1837, he continued to fill that office. The year 1820 found him elevated to a seat in the Executive Council, and in 1822 he was, with Mr. Neilson, chosen as a delegate to proceed to England to oppose the Imperial plan for the union of the Upper and Lower Provinces of Canada a mission which resulted in complete success, and the withdrawal of the obnoxious measure.

Although appointed to a seat in the Council under the Governorship of the Earl of Dalhousie, Papineau, through dislike of the representative of the King, refused to accept the position, and did not take his seat. This dislike culminated in bitter hostility, and extreme measures were resorted to by the friends of one party to circumvent the proceedings of the other. Papineau's triumph in England exasperated the Governor in Canada. He was a very irascible, hot-tempered and violent man, and upon being confronted with Papineau lost his temper completely. When Papineau was re-elected Speaker of the House, on his return from England, the Governor refused to accept him, and ordered the Assembly back to elect some one else and report in one week thence. The

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