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than if conpled with the closer "vertical plane" type. The Board does not propose to discuss the question as to which class forins“ mechanically” the more perfect union. It is suflicient to say that either forms a sufficiently perfect union. The advantage which many of the link class possess of coupling automatically with the old drawhead the Board deems of great importance. It will be many years before the latter is entirely discarded from the railroads of the country, and therefore, forms an important factor in the problem.

A serious difficulty, however, with this type is that none of them will couple automatically with the old drawhead unless the latter has a closed throat, so that the link will be pushed on to the hook or against the dog to allow the pin to drop, as the case may be.

All those familiar with the subject will recognize that this requires a link of a standard length, and a throat both in the old drawhead and in the automatic drawhead of a standard depth, shallow enough to insure the link being pushed so as to secure connection, and deep enough to permit the drawheads to come in contact after connection.

Inasmuch as a very large proportion of the old drawheads are either “skeleton" or hollow too far back, this requirement makes an automatic coupling with them impossible.

It is desirable that a standard link be adopted and that all drawheads be provided with a stop in the throat so as to permit the link to enter but half an inch beyond its middle point. This could be done at a trifling expense.

It is quite obvious, therefore, that any automatic coupler requiring a link longer than the standard (say 101 inches inside measurement) is essentially defective. This is equally true with regard to any ficed link coupler.

It is also asserted that any hooked coupler (such as Archer, etc.) is apt to have hook wear away, thus rendering uncoupling liable—this fact gives an advantage to a pin.

The law of the State as it exists to-day is very broad. It provides that no coupler shall be placed upon any new freight car “ unless the same can be coupled and uncoupled automatically without the necessity of having a person guide the link, lift the pin by hand, or go between the ends of the cars.

Šuch coupler might be defective, however, in many of the respects heretofore pointed out. The strict legal duty of the Board would be fulfilled in seeing that the railroad corporations adopt such devices as come within the law, however defective in other respects; and indeed it is the only positive power vested in the Board in the premises. It has deemed it better, however, to call attention to the matters hereinbcfore mentioned and to make the following recommendations:

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. The Board of Railroad Commissioners recommends:

1st. That the standard height of draw bar of the Master Car Builders' Association, viz. : two feet, nine inches from top of rail to center of drawhead when car empty, be adopted by all railroad corporations; that new cars be made to conform thereto, and that old cars when repaired be made to conform as nearly as possible.

2d. That all freight cars, not having platforms, be equipped with “deadwood” blocks to conform to the standard of the Master Car Builders' Association,

3d. That a standard link be adopted of ten and one-half inches inside measurement, and thirteen inches outside measurement.

4th. That all existing link and pin drawheads be provided with a stop in the throat to prevent a link entering more than seven inches.

5th. Of the couplers presented to be tested on the 16th and 17th of June the Board finds the following to fulfil the requirements of the law.

There are many others of which the Board has drawings or models and which possess merit, but as to them the Board makes no mention, for the reasons, first, that cars were not equipped with them, and second, that but little weight can be given to the working of a model alone.

Those practically tested are divided, 1st. Into classes mentioned in what the Board regards as the order of merit.

2d. Each coupler is mentioned under its class in what the Board regards as its order of merit.

FIRST CLASS.
A. Link and pin couplers; pin held up by catch or “dog.

“ dog.” The dog” is thrown back by link entering, allowing pin to drop automatically — uses standard link and couples automatically with old drawbar if stop in throat, or, B. Bevelled pin permitting link to slip under:

Hoag,
McKeen,
N. Barr,
Perry,
United States,
Robinson,
Keeler,
Smilie,
Sherman,
Thurber,
Whitman,
Kilmer (bevelled pin),
Wilson (bevelled pin).

SECOND CLASS. Vertical hook and link. Link pushed on to hook. Couples automatically with old drawbar if stop in throat :

Archer,
Aikman,
Marks,

Baldwin,
Fennell.

THIRD CLASS. So-called “ vertical plane couplers.” A knuckle," opening in a horizontal plane, fits into a corresponding knuckle on other drawbar - does not couple automatically with old drawhead except Cowell, which has throat in face :

Janney,
Barnes,
Cowell,
Thurmond,
Dowling,
Hein,
Titus & Bossinger,
Boston Automatic,
Lorraine.

FOURTH CLASS.
Fixed link. Does not couple automatically with old drawbar:

Ames,
Curtis & Wood,
Adams, Felthausen & Lawtenslager.

MISCELLANEOUS. Powell: Has a toothed wheel to serve for pin. Ingenious but practicability not been demonstrated. Couples automatically with old drawbar:

Wood & Drake, doubtful utility.
Kaltenbeck, doubtful utility.

By the Board.
WILLIAM C. HUDSON,

Secretary.

LENGTH OF STEAM RAILROADS

IN OPERATION SEPTEMBER 30, 1886.

[SMALL CAPITALS indicate lessee; indentions indicate leased or operated lines.]

Miles in State Name of Company.

of New York. Addison and Northern Pennsylvania..

10.50 Adirondack ....

58.00 Bath and Hammondsport.

9.40 Boston and Albany.

56.63 Boston, HoosaC TUNNEL AND WESTERN..

54.73 Hoosac Tunnel and Saratoga..

15.52 Saratoga Lake.....

10.00 BRADFORD, ELDRED AND CUBA.

23.71 Bradford, Rich burgh and Cuba..

3.62 Wellsville, Bolivar and Eldred.

20.62 Brooklyn, Bath and West End.....

7.00 Brooklyn, Flatbush and Coney Island

77.50 Brooklyn and Rockaway Bcach...

3.50 Buffalo Creek....

4.26 BUFFALO, NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA.

200.40 Genesee Valley Canal...

98.91 Genesee Valley Terminal.

2.46 Mayville Extension...

3.50 Olean, Bradford and Warren ...

12.53 BUFFALO, ROCHESTER AND PITTSBURGH.

166.21 Perry......

1.03 CATSKILL MOUNTAIN.

15.73 Cairo....

3.78 CENTRAL VERMONT: Addison.....

.75 Ogdensburgh and Lake Champlain.

118.00

53.96 Clove BRANCH..

4.25 New York, Boston and Montreal (trustees)

4.01 Conesus Lake....

1.70 Cooperstown and Susquehanna Valley..

16.25 Crown Point Iron Companies' Railroad..

12.84 DELAWARE AND HUDSON CANAL COMPANY: Albany and Susquehanna.

142.51 Albany and Vermont....

12.18 Cherry Valley, Sharon and Albany.

20.99 Glens Falls.....

15.12 Lackawanna and Susquehanna (owned).

17.65

Chateaugay..

Miles in Stato of New York

149.94 110.15 21.56 13.79 9.93 1.08

34.41

8.10 207.79 34.98 81.00 97.41 11.64 119.84

Name of Company.
New York and Canada..
Rensselaer and Saratoga.
Saratoga and Schenectady.
Schenectady and Duanesburgh..
Schenectady and Mechanicville (owned).

West Troy and Green Island....
DELAWARE, LACKAWANNA AND WESTERN:

Cayuga and Susquehanna Valley..
Greene...
New York, Lackawanna and Western..
Oswego and Syracuse....
Syracuse, Binghamton and New York,
Utica, Chenango and Susquehanna Valley..

Valley.....
Elmira, Cortland and Northern..
FALL BROOK COAL COMPANY:

Corning, Cowanesque and Antrim...
Penn Yan and New York.....

Syracuse, Geneva and Corning.
Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville,
GENEVA, ITHACA AND SAYRE...

Hayt's Corners, Ovid and Willard
Greenwich and Johnson ville. ....
Hartford and Connecticut Western.
Herkimer, Newport and Poland
Kaaterskill......
LACRAWANNA AND PITTSBURGH .

Rochester, New York and Pennsylvania.
Lake Champlain and Moriah...
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern.
Lehigh and Hudson River...
LONG ISLAND....

Brooklyn and Jamaica, .
Brooklyn and Montauk.
Bay Ridge Branch..
Far Rockaway Branch.
Greenpoint Branch....
Hunters Point and South Side.
Long Island City and Flushing.
New York, Brooklyn and Manhattan Beach.
Newtown and Flushing.
New York and Rockaway.
Stewart.....
Smithtown and Port Jefferson.
Whitestone Branch...

Woodside Branch..
Marine....
Middleburgh and Schobarie.
Newburgh, Dutchess and Connecticut.
NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK....

Garnerville...

15.64

6.50 57.775 26.17 113.35

2.99 14.65 41.60 16.73

19.50 79.86 11.75

17.66 171.00 15.10 177.45

9.68 67.08 4 23 9 41 3 79 1.52 14.05 12.39 3.98 8.91 16.34 19.06 4.00 3.99 0.33 5.75 58.84 18.15 1.00

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