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weakness, and it is suggested that the bridge be rebuilt. The next bridge is a forty feet span low through Howe truss, two years old. It has track stringers and plank ties, widely spaced, as have all the Howe truss bridges. South of State lipe, where four spans of deck Howe trusses were recently burned, is now an iron structure. The old abutments and piers remain. There are two spans of plate girder deck at each end with an iron pier in center. Over the river are two spans of deck riveted lattice trusses. One of the pedestals under each iron pier has settled to some extent; the piers are to be restored to a proper level. A good standard door covers the entire structure.

TROY AND Boston Railroad Co.,
SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE,

UNION DEPOT.

TROY, N. Y., October 20, 1886. Board of Railroad Commissioners :

In reply to yours of 12th, our bridge master is preparing to strengthen the Haines' bridge in the manner substantially that you recommend.

Yours truly,
J. CRANDELL,

Superintendent.

ULSTER AND DELAWARE RAILROAD. On page 316 first volume of the Railroad Commissioners' Report for 1884, may be found a report of the last inspection of this line. Since that inspection the extension between Stamford and Hobart, four miles in length, has been completed and brought into use. The extension is well constructed, has easy grades and curves, the line following a valley in which lies a branch of the Delaware river. The superstructure is laid with steel rails and is well ballasted, lined and surfaced. A good passenger station, well furnished, and har. ing covered platforms, has been erected at Hobart, also a freight-house, engine house and turntable.

Between Rondout aná Stamford considerable improvements have been made. At Rondout a brick engine-house with six stalls and a new turn-table have been built. Also a large frost-proof water tank and other betterments. These with the wood and machine shops and passenger station were found in good condition.

Much has been accomplished in widening narrow embankments noted in the report of 1884, but there are yet a few points on high embankments that should be filled out to give a firmer support and to better bold the alignment of superstructure.

The past winter has been one of severe exposure to slopes of earth cuttings, and slides hare occurred where least expected and will greatly increase the work of draining road-bed, a work that should not be in the least omitted,

Last season the entire roadway was cleared of trees and underbrush, the old track debris removed or burned and the line of ballast neatly defined. Seventy miles of fencing is said to have been rebuilt in 1885, and the work of repair and rebuilding was in progress at time of inspection. Considerable stone wall was erected, of which a large amount of the fencing is composed. Barbed wire is also extensively used. As a whole the fencing is now in fair order.

Twenty-eight thousand sleepers were renewed last year, and considerable reballasting of superstructure was done. This last branch of track maintenance requires further attention, as much of the old ballast is nearly worn out and the track needs to be raised in many cuttings, or the old material removed and fresh ballast substituted. If the cost was not too burdensome a system of tile drainage in cuttings most susceptible to frosts, would be economy in track maintenance. A wet road-bed is a constant source of expense and anxiety

There now remains six miles of iron rail in the entire superstructure, and some of this is over-worn. The company have on hand sufficient rail of like kind to make the deces. sary repairs, which is being done, and will bring the whole to a reasonably good condition. The steel rail is in good order, and mostly secured at joints with angle plates.

As a whole the sleepers are in strong life, and for the early season of the year in which the inspection was made, the line and surface of superstructure was in very good condition.

There are quite a large number of truss bridges on the road, and of trestles and minor openings about the average of other lines. All these openings were examined as closely as possible in the time that could be given to their inspection, and under the disadvantage of a severe rainfall, which continued during the entire day. Nothing was observed as delinquent in maintenance or anywise incompetent that was not further supported with proper temporary aid, and only in one or two instances was this the case.

Vear Sbokan station are two short spans of Queen trusses over the Bushkill, which by reason of age are now supported with bents. These trusses will be rebuilt this year. An under farm crossing, consisting of four spans of trestle work near West Hurley, is also too old and will be replaced with abutments and wooden girders.

Several Howe trusses have been rebuilt within the past year. One of these is at Stratton Falls and noted in last report as on bents. Near Big Indian are two other new Howe The work of providing a bridge floor for all openings as advised by the Railroad Com. missioners, bas received attention and the material is at hand to further that work, but it is recommended that all openings in road-bed be thus provided. Iron rails are often used as stringers for short openings, and they answer un excellent purpose, but these require a guard-rail or ribbon firmly bolted to the ties, otherwise a derailed wheel would move the lies together and thus defeat the object of a tloor system.

trusses.

Improvement bas been made at a few stations along the line in the passenger buildings, but very much in same direction remains to be done. At Big Indian, substantially a new depot on an improved location has recently been erected. The building is of good design, has covered platforms at ends and a covered carriage-way. The interior is neatly fin ished and comfortably furnished and if other stations of really no less importance were made to conform as far as necessary to the same design, it would add much to the appearance of the property, and be far more convenient for the patrons of the road.

Nearly all the way stations are constructed with the passenger rooms level with the freight houses attached, and have steps leading from the tracks, which are awkward and inconvenient, beside being more or less obstructed with standing freight cars. It is probably intended to reconstruct these stations as the buildings are generally dilapidated. Additions bare been made to the passenger equipment since the last inspection, and the Allen wheel is being substituted for those of cast iron. The motive power has also been increased.

Generally the maintenance of way, equipment and buildings are much improved.

WALLKILL VALLEY RAILROAD. This railroad was not inspected last season. The result of an examination made in 1884 is giren on page 318 of the Railroad Commissioners' Report for that year.

The character and condition of the truss-bridges, truss-girders and trestles remain un. changed, except in age of timber and the renewal of a few trestles and the flooring of others. The iron trusses and girders are well painted. A careful inspection of each truss and trestle revealed no defects, unless it be the absence of a strong floor, competent to up; hold a derailed wheel on some of the trestles which provide for under-farm crossings and waterways. Of these many have only piank ties and others bave the guard rails omitted.

There are a number of under-farm crossings and cattle-passes which are allowed to go unrenewed as it is intended to fill them up, arrangements to that effect having been made with the land owners. East of New Hurley is an old Howe truss crossing a stream, in the bed of which an arch culvert bas been built and the road-bed partly graded over it. The bridge is fast declining in strength but still supports the superstructure. Near Welden is a trestle work partly tilled and the structure will not be renewed.

Neither of the above structures which it is intended to do away with are positively insufficient, yet it would be better to complete the work of filling them with as little delay as possible, and the material for tilling could be advantageously obtained from side ditching And from slides from earth slopes, and thus improve the drainage of road-bed.

The masonry in the abutments of a number of small openings has become broken and 15 leaning inwardly. They are well shored with struts placed between them, but it would be much better if they were rebuilt.

Bridge No. 15, near Welden, is a two-span low Howe truss structure, one span of which is defective in condition and number of fioor beams. New beams and more of them are at band, and will probably soon be in place.

The roadway is very neat and orderly. Brush and weeds are cut out to bonndaries, annually and old debris removed or burned. The fencing is in very ordmary condition. Repairs and extensive renewals are necessary for a firm barrier against farm stock.

The surface and line of superstructure is in medium condition, particularly that portion laid with iron rails of wbich there are six and one half miles. The iron rail should bo at least in part renewed as much of it is exceedingly worn. Trains move over the old rail at a reduced speed. Twenty-seven miles of the road are laid with steel fastened at joits with angle plates three feet in length.

Since the last inspection considerable attention has been given to the cross-sleepers and their life raised to a much stronger condition. Eight thousand ties will be renewed this season. Stub switches are still in general use. All of the way stations were examined and a majority of them found poorly maintamed, meagrely and crudely furnished and some of them very untidy. A few were noticed as reasonably clean. The terminals are owned by adjoining roads.

Rosendale is mconreniently arranged. It has one waiting room located in rear of freight department and is poorly furnished with bench sittings. The whole looks dmgy and was uncleanly. For so large a place better accommodations appear to be necessary.

Springton is a flag station and is in poor order. At New Paltz there are two waiting rooms, poorly furnished, uncleanly, ceiling broken, and scarcely fit for their purpose. Forest Glen has one small waiting room, in neat condition.

Gardner has a one waiting room depot in poor order and crudely furnished with benches. Wallkill depot has one waiting room. The ceilmgs are broken, otherwise it is in comme:id. able order.' Welden has a two waiting room depot in fair order. Very little attention appears to be given the way stations which is a neglect that ought not to be. At least they could be furnished with comfortable sittings and strct cleanliness observed. The mainten. ance of way, followed by good equipment, are admitted to be the first and imperative essential, and station buildings of secondary importance, but cleanliness of passenger stations and their surroundings are in most instances more a matter of carefulness than of expense.

WEST SHORE RAILROAD. Formerly the New York, West Shore and Buffalo railway. It is now leased in perpetuity to and operated by the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Company;

The last inspection of this property was made by Commissioners Kernan and Rogers in the latter part of October, 1884, and reported on page 294 of the first volume of the Com. missioners' Report for that year.

The West Shore road in New York extends from the State line of New Jersey to a junction near East Buffalo with the Central-Hudson road, and thence over the tracks of the latter to the Exchange Street depot in the city of Buffalo. It also includes a branch from Coeymans Junction to a junction with the leased lines of the Delaware and Hudson Canal company immediately south of the city of Albany, and thence over the leased road to the Maiden Lane depot in that city. A branch from Athens Junction, east of Schenectady to Fuller's Station, is used as a freight transfer between the main line of the Central-Hudson and its West Shore division. There is another short branch from Coxsackie Station to Athens, which is not in operation.

East of Syracuse the West Sbore is double tracked, and west of that city there are about fifty-two miles of double track, a portion of which is not ballasted or in use. West of Akron, both tracks are in operation to East Buffalo. The main line is graded and the masonry constructed for a double track, allowing thirteen feet between their centers, and the bridging is of the most thorough and massive construction. There are nearly three miles of pile bridging along the Hudson river, exclusive of about one mile on the Albany branch near that city, and a short trestle fifty feet high near Selkirks on the same branch. Near Mohawk, in a basin of the Erie canal is a trestle bridge about 1,000 feet in length, and at the under crossing of the Batavia and Tonawanda branch of the Central. Hudson, near Akron, is a long pile bridge forming an approach to the iron truss over the branch road. This last structure will probably be done away with when renewal is necessary and a grade crossing substituted. Including the above timber structures, and one short span of Howe deck truss near West Park, which is the only wooden truss on the entire road, together with a few pile and trestle under-farm crossings and temporary trestles across salt vats at Syracuse, there are 570 openings from five to 290 feet span, nearly 500 of which are of irou and built with a standard of assured strength in excess of that usually adopted. The timber in the pile and trestle bridges is in strong life, ample in size of members, and all openings have competent standard floors.

The superstructure is of the best construction and as yet the sleepers show little if any decline. *A considerable ballasting of road-bed has been done in the past two years and generally the surface and line of track is in exceedingly correct adjustment. Along the Hudson river and at points in the Mohawk Valley, slides from slopes of rock and clay cuttings bave occurred, and in two or more instances embankments resting upon clay saturated with water have moved from their positions, necessitating a temporary curving away from the adopted location, and in one instance, near Mount Marion, a short permanent change of line will probably be adopted. At Yankee Hill in the Mohawk Valley great trouble has been experienced to retain a road-bed with the vertical wall in prism of canal adjoining; much of it has been relaid, and it is hoped that further dilliculty will be avoided." Near Savannah and Clyde, what are termed sink holes have been encountered and a large amount of filling is required to restore the plane of the road-bed. As a whole, the massive masonry constructed to uphold the heavy iron structures has proved competent in character of work and stability of foundation. Only two or three bridges have required a rebuilding of their substructures. The slopes of rock cutting along the Hud. son river, at Little Falls and a few other points, have been very well cleaned of loose detached rock, yet a careful surveillance of all will be necessary for some years to come, and of the beavy clay slopes as well, until the action of frost and rain shall have developed their perfect rest. The grading was amply but hurriedly done and the material forming many of the large embankments has not entirely become compact. Indurated earth com. poses a large part of these embankments west of Schenectady and particularly west of Little Falls, no more so than of other roads in the same locality, but the embankments of the West Shore are many of them very heavy, and the lumpy shape of the material when excavated forms in the banks vacancies that only time and the elements can compress into a solid road-bed, hence the necessity a larger force of section men to retain a proper track adjustment than is required for an old road. Considerable ditching in cuttings was noticed as desirable to aid in the maintenance of track surface, and the roadway could be improved by a more thorough cutting of weeds and underbrush; portions of the road however were very neat in this respect. There are no overhead obstructions so low as to require warnings for train men, and at grade highway crossings, unless necessary for drain. age, slats for cattle guards are used. West of Frankfort the cross fences at these crossings were neatly whitewashed and at each mile post an extra rail raised on posts from the ground was provided. In the long pile bridge near Albany, which is partly filled, some of the caps were noticed as showing signs of decay, one or two were split, and the piles under

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others appeared to be crushing into them. This was constructed only as a temporary expedient and its complete filling at an early day would be desirable. No other structure was observed as defective excepting that some of the iron bridges and girders should be again painted, men were observed at one or two points busy in this important work. All of the passenger depots were examined and generally found neatly kept. Of themselves they are well built and furnished with the essentials for public convenience. Some of them are large and costly buildings, and, where depots have been constructed, all, with the exception of that at Utica, are in every way suited to the localities they occupy. As a whole, it is generally conceded that the West Shore railroad stands at the front in permanency of construction, and in a few years if the standard adopted is adhered to the wisdom of such a coustruction will be confirmed.

SYRACUSE, ONTARIO AND New York RAILWAY. A further inspection of the Syracuse, Ontario and New York railway was made December 18, 1886, about seven months after the inspection previously reported. Since that inspec. tion the company have laid three additional miles of steel rails, renewed fourteen thousand sleepers, and provided a competent floor system for all the truss bridges. Such of the minor openings found defective on the previous inspection, have been rebuilt. The drain. age of road-bed has been improved, the road-bed widened where most necessary, and the adjustment of track bettered. At Georgetown a new frame depot bas been erected. It is comfortably furnished and of sufficient size for the business of that station. In general the property has been so far improved as to present no reasonable doubt of safety, especially as the train movement on the iron rail between Earlville and the junction with the Elmira, Cortland and Northern railroad, is at a rate of speed not exceeding twenty miles per hour. The road from the junction to Syracuse, covering about one-half its length, is bow laid with steel rail, and is generally in very good condition. From the old rail removed, probably a sufficient amount suitable for repairing the iron rail will be obtained, at least for the present winter and coming spring, at which time a further laying of steel rail will be done. Possibly the remaining iron rail will be entirely removed another season. A much needed increase in the passenger equipment has been made during the past year, and the motive power has been more or less rebuilt.

REPORT TO THE BOARD ON THE HEATING

AND VENTILATION OF CARS.

To the Honorable the Board of Railroad Commissioners:

Gentlemen - The following instructions were received November 12, 1893: “The Board directs you to make personal inspection of the principal railroads of the State and ascertain the condition of temperature and ventilation in sleeping and drawing-room cars and first class passenger cars, and the attention that porters pay to the traveling public, and report in detail to this Board."

Io compliance with these instructions, your inspector has made effort to obtain the required information by traveling at different times over the longer railroads, and by passing through trams while at stations, and thus has been able in a general way to arrive at the methods adopted for heating and ventilating passenger cars, and to some extent, the care given by train men to such matters. As far as possible, the solicitude of conductors and porters, for the convenience and comfort of passengers, in sleeping and drawing-room cars has received attention.

The general method of heating is by direct radiation, either with ordinary stores, or stoves heating water, and thence distributed in pipes along the lower angle of sides of car, with sometimes an additional piping, coiled under each sitting.

The fuel most in use is anthracite coal; a few roads penetrating the bituminous region of Pennsylvania, burn soft coal; but the use of wood has become alınost obsolete, which is much io be regretted, as it is the only fuel substantially i'ree from noxious gases, and hence best adapted for heating of cars. It is the experience of some roads that a hot water apparatus does not, in an extremely low temperature fully, and promptly, meet the neces. sities of a proper warmth. The water does not appear to circulate rapidly through the pipes, and if the fires are omitted, it requires considerable time in which to obtain sufficient heat to make cars comfortable.

An instance of such character was noticed in a parlor smoking car, which left a terminal, and ran 100 miles before the car could be made tenantable, and yet a sharp fire was made in the heater just before the train started.

Cars heated by direct radiation are ventilated, either by opening doors and windows, or ventilators in the upper deck, or both, as the emergency is. All such methods are attended with more or less discomfort and danger to those coming directly within the draught thus obtained. Such discomfort causes complaint from those exposed, resulting in the shutting out of the fresh air from the outside; using and reheating that inside of car, which at the best, will in a few minutes become tainted, even if the car is only partly filled with passengers.

Your inspector particularly noticed this on many trains, and was compelled more than once, to immediately return to the outside air after entering a car thus unventilated. Especially was the air in such cars found unbearable at early morning hours, on trains that had been running through the night.

A few of the railroads in our State have adopted a system of heating by indirect radiation, and which also includes a method of ventilation, that has proven effective and void of the annoyances and discomforts before referred to. Such a system was noticed on the Northern Central, the New York and New England, and, to some extent, on the Harlem and the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western and a few other railroads. The Central Hudson company are experimenting with the Creamer heater and improved ventilators, quite similar to the Spear heater and method of ventilation in use on the Pennsylvania railroad and the Northern Central of our State. The Gouge heater is used on the Harlem and Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroads.

Circular No. 22, issued by your Honorable Board, calls the attention of railroad compapies of this State to the method of indirect radiation for heating and for ventilation abore referred to, giving an outline of its application as follows: “An improved system is now in togue on some railroads in this State and elsewhere, which consists substantially in admitting fresh cold air through a screen into a small furnace at the end of the car, where it is heated and thence transmitted into the car through flues laid in the angle between the floor and sides, there being an opening or register at each seat, the circulation thus induced causing a constant movement of the air upward and out of the ventilating windows at the top of the car, instead of allowing the cold air to settle down, as is usually the case." The ventilating windows at the top of car may properly be called horizontal transom windows. They are so constructed as to be set trailing in either direction the capmay be moving, and the upper deck is extended beyond its side, thus, with the transom open forming a flue which will prevent side currents of air from entering the car, particularly when the car is in motion. The motion of the car through the atmosphere forces a cur.

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