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provinces. In the next year the collieries, especially those in Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, recognised the immense value of such a movement, and took it up with enthusiasm. The police of course received special attention in training, with what admirable results every one knows. While the importance of the work of First Aid on Railways led to a class for railway servants being opened in the same year.
A further development soon took place. The First Aid students quickly saw the value of co-operation among themselves, and formed Ambulance Corps in many parts of the country. These scattered corps became a nucleus, which in 1887 developed into the St. John Ambulance Brigade. Among the Colonies New Zealand was the first to form Brigade units in 1892. The Association has spread rapidly in Australia, New Zealand, India and Ceylon, Canada, Newfoundland, Malta and South Africa, numbering 5000 members of all ranks in 1915.
The Voluntary Aid Detachments, commonly known now by the kindly and affectionate name of V.A.D.'s, were originally founded in 1909, to provide bodies of men and women to supplement the personnel of the Territorial forces. The St. John Ambulance Brigade joined this movement, large numbers of its members joining the detachments as recruits. And on the outbreak of war in 1914, the Voluntary Aid Detachments were at once called upon to augment the medical units of the regular forces, in the vast number of hospitals and convalescent homes which sprang up to meet the overwhelming demands. At the end of July 1915, there were 198 men's detachments with a strength of 8107, and 505 detachments of women, numbering 14,572. These numbers have increased up to the present time— July 1917—so that 33,295 men and women are now engaged. And noble work they have done at home and abroad, whether they wear the white cross of St. John on its black ground, or the red cross of Geneva.
It is indeed difficult to over-estimate the magnificent work that the St. John Ambulance Brigade has done and is doing. It is open to all men who hold the First Aid certificate, and to women who hold the First Aid and Home Nursing certificates. Its headquarters is at St. John's Gate. At the beginning of the century it had so developed that, according to Mr. Edwards, the devoted secretary of the Order, ‘it was able to
'send 2000 members on active service as Hospital Orderlies 'attached to the R.A.M.C. in the South African and Chinese *Wars.' While in the present war the St. John Ambulance Brigade numbered, in September 1916, 43,277 men and 19,574 women.
Mr. Edwards gives an interesting example of the preparedness of the brigade :
* Late on the Saturday night of August 1st, 1914, when war seemed imminent, the Admiralty asked for Naval Sick Berth Orderlies, and on Sunday morning over 100 marched off fully equipped to take up their duties, and by Tuesday 4000 men were at their posts on board ship and in Naval and Military Hospitals.' Further :
‘An officer reported how a train of wounded arrived in Boulogne with 240 cases, of which 170 were on stretchers, and many others unable to walk. There was a squad of 40 Brigade men from Newcastle in attendance, who a few days before had been working in coal-mines. These men removed the whole 240 cases from the train to the hospital ship, and in forty minutes they were on their way to England.'
When war fell upon the world in 1914, the Order of St. John was not only ready with active help in nursing and ambulance work, but prepared to utilise the services of those who from age or other reasons were unable to give themselves up to such employments. And among its many activities, the West End Depot of the St. John Ambulance Association was started at 35 Park Lane. A record of its work from July 1915 to July 1917 (as no list was kept till then) will give some idea of the results, with some twenty-five to thirty ladies working every day.
Made bandages, 70,255 ; miscellaneous articles, 16,153 ; garments, 6467; woollen garments, 3210 ; swabs and dressings, 129,593.
This merely represents the work of one small depot and its correspondents in the country. Over 2000 certificated ' working centres' and 'home workers' are now affiliated to the Order, supplying the Gate with every description of work.
'The Gate' itself is a busy place from morning to night in these days of storm and stress. And each visit there fills one with fresh and yet deeper admiration of its many activities
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One of the chief works of the Order since the outbreak of war in 1914–2 work of which all its members are justly proud is the great hut hospital at Etaples, known as the St. John Ambulance Brigade Hospital, for whose equipment and maintenance the Order raised a fund of £75,000. All travellers to Paris know that line of sand dunes lying between Boulogne and the great estuary, where the Conche slides into the Channel at Etaples. Here, overlooking the broad stretches of the tide river, the little town of huts for nearly 600 suffering men has been built, under the most perfect sanitary conditions of sandy soil, healing freshness of pine trees, and pure sea air. And those who have helped in this noble work have the satisfaction
nowing, from the highest authority, that the St. John
Ambulance Brigade Hospital is considered to be possibly the best in France.
In admirably built huts, equipped with the very latest appliances, are beds for between five and six hundred patients. The staff consists of 19 officers under LieutenantColonel Trimble, C.M.G., L.R.C.P.Ed., a matron, an assistant matron, 53 trained sisters, and 24 V.A.D.'s; assisted by a Provisional Company of R.A.M.C., composed of St. John Ambulance men, enlisted for the duration of the war, with a strength of 141 of all ranks. There are pathological, X-ray, dental, and electro-cardiograph departments; two finely equipped operating theatres ; dispensary; and ice and soda water making machinery. While the entire hospital, including the Provisional Company of R.A.M.C. men, is fed from one large kitchen.
One has only to look at photographs of the gay flower garden in the spacious quadrangle ; of scores of sick and wounded men sitting or lying in the shady galleries and the covered ways that connect the wards, while the Australian band plays in the hot sunshine; or those long white wards with the white eight-pointed cross on its black ground upon the coverlid of each bed, to see what a haven of mercy has been prepared for our soldiers.
It is a token that the ancient Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem continues its beneficent work of tending sick and wounded soldiers, aided by the wonders of every appliance that modern science can give, as did its Knights Hospitallers over 700 years ago.
ROSE G. KINGSLEY.
SOME SOLDIER POETS
1. 1914 and other Poems. By RUPERT BROOKE. Sidgwick and
Jackson. 1915. 2. Pages from a Family Journal. Edited by Lord DESBOROUGH.)
Eton. Privately printed. 1916. 3. In Memoriam: Auberon Herbert. By MAURICE BARING.
Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 1917. 4. Worple Flat and other Poems. By E. WYNDHAN TENNANT.
Oxford: B. H. Blackwell. 1916. 5. Ardours and Endurances. By ROBERT NICHOLS. Chatto and
Windus. 1917. 6. Over the Brazier. By ROBERT GRAVES. The Poetry Bookshop.
1916. 7. The Old Huntsman and other Poems. By SIEGFRIED SASSOON.
W. Heinemann. 1917.
THE two years which preceded the outbreak of the war
1 were marked in this country by a revival of public interest in the art of poetry. To this movement coherence was given and organisation introduced by Mr. Edward Marsh's now-famous volume entitled 'Georgian Poetry. The effect of this collection-for it is hardly correct to call it an anthology -of the best poems written by the youngest poets since 1911 was two-fold : it acquainted readers with work few had 'the ' leisure or the zeal to investigate,' and it brought the writers themselves together in a corporate and selected relation. I do not recollect that this had been done—except prematurely and partially by 'The Germ' of 1850—since the ‘England's * Parnassus' and 'England's Helicon' of 1600. In point of fact the only real precursor of Mr. Marsh's venture in our whole literature is the Songs and Sonnettes' of 1557, commonly known as “Tottel's Miscellany. Tottel brought together, for the first time, the lyrics of Wyatt, Surrey, Churchyard, Vaux, and Bryan, exactly as Mr. Marsh called public attention to Rupert Brooke, James Elroy Flecker and the rest of the Georgians, and he thereby fixed the names of those poets, as Mr. Marsh has fixed those of our youngest fledglings, on the roll of English literature.