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PREFACE.

THE Compiler of this volume is a native of Michigan, and although long an exile from its borders, he has never lost his affection for the beautiful country. He has revisited it a number of times, and in a former publication did what he could to make known its physical attractions and aboriginal lore. Whilst cognizant of the fact that an admirable History of the Territory was in existence, and that one or two good Gazetteers of the State had been published, he felt convinced that there was still needed, for the use of the general public, a more comprehensive volume, and that want he has now endeavored to supply. His leading object has been to prepare an authentic book of reference, rather than to make any display as a writer; and while he has been contented to perform the duties of a literary scout, the success of his present enterprise has been assured by the effective artillery of James H. Lanman and General John Robertson. To the first, who is a relative of the Compiler, he is indebted for the history of the Territory, from its earliest settlement down to the organization of the State; and the latter, who was the able and indefatigable Adjutant-General of Michigan during the War for the Union, has contributed a complete account of the important part which the State took in subduing the Rebellion. Not only has he chronicled the action of the Legislature, but he has taken special care to place upon the record, in compact form, the heroic achievements of the Officers and Soldiers who have honorably identified their names with the State of their nativity or adoption.

With regard to the biographical part of this volume, the Compiler alone is responsible. Although most of this information has been obtained from original sources, he did not deem it advisable to amplify his records more than was absolutely necessary. He regrets, however, that a few of his notices are more brief than they should have been; and, if any persons have been omitted altogether, who deserved notice on account of their association with Michigan, it is because his efforts to obtain the proper data were unsuccessful. His leading intention has been merely to give the salient points in the lives of the persons who pass under consideration, referring the reader, who may desire further information, either to the historical narratives in the present volume, or to the more elaborate biographies hitherto published. Indeed, so far as the numerous officers are concerned, who acquired reputation during the Rebellion, or died the death of heroes, their services were found to have been so well depicted by General Robertson, that the Compiler has generally omitted their names altogether in his department of the work. To the many friends who have kindly assisted him, by their correspondence, he would tender his grateful acknowledgements. And, to the People of Michigan, he now dedicates this Historical Record, as an expression of his regard for their superior intelligence, persevering enterprise and exalted patriotism.

CHARLES LANMAN.

GEORGETOWN, D. C., November, 1870.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

General Description of the State. Its Soil and Scenery; Heavily Timbered Land;

Oak Openings; Burr Oak Plains; Prairies; Rivers; Lakes; Wild Ani-

mals; Birds and Fishes .......

First Advance of the French Missionaries and Travellers.-Brebeuf; Daniel ; Pijart;

Raymbault; First Arrival of White Men at Saut de Ste. Marie ; Father

Jacques Bressani ; Chaumonotot; Claude Dablon; Mesnard; Lallemand;

Dreuillette; Gareau; Mesnard Advances to Che-goi-ne-gon; Allouez; Mar.

quette ; Indian Council at Saut de Ste. Marie; Marquette's Explorations and

Death ; La Salle; His Explorations; Michilimackinac Founded; Death of

La Salle; Saut de Ste. Marie ; Fort St. Joseph ; Detroit Founded by Cadil.

lac; Early Condition; Attacked by Ottawas and Foxes; Hennepin ; La

Hontan; Charlevoix ; Their Operations on Lakes Erie, Huron, Michi-

gan, and Superior .......

Colonial Pioneers.—Merchants; The Rangers of the Woods ; The French Peas-

antry; The Jesuits; French Soldiers ; French Policy; Indian Mythology;

Frontier Posts, and the Fur Trade at Michilimackinac and Detroit....

Struggle Between France and England for Possession - The Iroquois and Algonquins;

British Troops Advance into Canada; Battle of Quebec ; Death of Wolfe

and Montcalm; British Detachment under Rogers takes Possession of

Michigan ; Rogers traverses Lake Erie; Pontiac makes his First Appear.

ance; Bellestre ; Surrender of Detroit .........

Condition of the Country under the English.—Pontiac forms a Confederacy to attack

the English Posts; War breaks out; Siege of Detroit; Battle of Bloody

Bridge ; Indians assemble around Michilimackinac; Minavavana; Alex-

ander Henry; Wawatam; Michilimackinac destroyed; General Brad-

street arrives ; Peace concluded ; Death of Pontiac ................................

The Fur Trade and American Independence.—Hudson's Bay Company; English

Administration of the Law; Criminal Trial ; Quebec Act; Mineral Rock

or Lake Superior; North-west Company; American Revolution; Expedi-

tions from Detroit; Indian Council held at Detroit ; American Indepen-

dence established...........

Organization of the North-western Territory.--Arthur St. Clair appointed Governor;

English refuse to surrender the Posts : Indian Disaffection ; Indian Coun-

PAGE

cil at Detroit; Message from the Spanish Settlements on the Banks of the

Mississippi ; Campaign of General Harmar; Campaign of General St.

Clair; Campaign of General Wayne; Extension of French Settlements;

Michigan surrendered to the United States; Condition of the Territory in

connection with the Fur Trade; Currency employed in the Fur Trade ......

Condition after the Surrender of the Posts.- Michigan erected into a Territory; Gen-

eral Hull appointed Governor; Detroit destroyed by Fire; Administration

of the Law; Third Indian Confedera y under Tecumseh and the Prophet;

Le Marquoit; Land Office established; Walk-in-the-Water ; Population

in 1811; Memorial from Michigan praying Aid from the General Govern-

ment; Savage Outbreak; Operations on the Wabash; American Fur

Company....

War between Great Britain and the United States.Defenceless condition of Michi-

gan; Representations of William Hull; Appointed to Command the West-

ern Army; Crosses to Sandwich and Addresses the Canadians ; Policy of

Prevost; Surrender of Detroit ; Tecumseh ; Conduct of Hull; Expedition

to the River Raisin ; Capture of Chicago; Battle of the River Raisin ;

General Harrison's Campaign ; Commodore Ferry ; His Victory on Lake

Erie; General Harrison arrives at Malden; Marches to Detroit; Battle of

the Thames ; Death of Tecumseh ; His Character; Attack on Mackinaw;

Peace concluded .........

Transition from Territory to State.—Lewis Cass appointed Governor of the Terri-

tory; Its Condition at that Time; l'ublic Lands brought into Market;

First Steamboat on the Lakes; University Founded; Expedition to Explore

the Lakes; The Clinton Canal; G. B. Porter appointed Governor; Mode

of making Surveys; Controversy with Ohio; State Organized .........

History as a State and Present Condition.—Admission of Michigan into the Union

as a State; Stevens T. Mason the first elective Governor; Act passed for

establishing University of Michigan; Other Events of his Administration;

Organization of the Militia ; Administration of William Woodbridge and

J. Wright Gordon; Branches of University Established; Grand Lodge of

Free Masons; John S. Barry Elected Governor; Administration of Alpheus

Felch and William L. Greenly ; Epaphroditus Ransom elected Governor;

Progress of Agriculture; Re-election of Governor Barry; Great Rail-

road Conspiracy Case; Commercial Advantages of Michigan; Adminis-

tration of Robert McClelland and Andrew Parsons; Election and Re-elec-

tion of Kinsley S. Bingham ; Ship Canal at the Falls of St. Mary; Moses

Wisner elected Governor; Election to the same Office of Austin Blair,

Henry H. Crapo, and Henry P. Baldwin; and Complete List of Governors

under French, English, and American Rule............

Education.—University of Michigan; Its Professors and Instructors; General

Features; Homeopatbic Controversy ; Action on the Admission of Women

as Students: Possessions and Advantages; Observatory; Adrian College ;

Albion College; Kalamazoo College ; Michigan Female College; State

Agricultural College ; Hillsdale College ; Public Schools of the State ;

State Normal School ; State Reform School; Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb

and Blind; Superintendents of Public Instruction; Asylum for the In-

sane; State Prison ; Public School Statistics; Union School System, and

List of Incorporated Literary Institutions.....

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