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PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

LIVERPOOL

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY.

ANNUAL MEETING.–Sixty-Ninth Session.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, October 6th, 1879. JOHN J. DRYSDALE, M.D., M.R.C.S., PRESIDENT, in

the Chair.

The Minutes of the last Meeting of the preceding Session were read and confirmed.

At the recommendation of the Council, the Meeting was adjourned to the 13th instant.

Dr. HAYWARD gave notice that he should propose at the adjourned Annual Meeting, the following alterations in Law 9:-That the words "not later than " should be substituted for the words “at or before ;” and that the words " or his election will be void” should be omitted.

ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, October 13th, 1879.

Rev. HENRY H. HIGGINS, M.A., Ex.-PRESIDENT, in

the Chair.

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and signed.

d

The reading of the Annual Report was deferred to the next meeting, at the request of the Honorary Secretary.

The Honorary Treasurer submitted the Annual Balance Sheet, and also an estimate of Income and Expenditure for the current Session. Both statements were duly approved and confirmed.

The following Office-bearers were then elected :

Vice-Presidents-Thomas J. Moore, Cor. Mem. Z.S.L., J. Campbell Brown, D.Sc., &c., T. Higgin, F.L.S.

Hon. Treasurer-Richard C. Johnson, F.R.A.S.
Hon. Secretary-James Birchall.
Hon. Librarian- Alfred Morgan.

Council - New Members, nominated by the retiring Council --- Wm. H. Samuel, Geo. F. Chantrell, C. H. Stearn, Rev. H. I. Johnson, M.A., Richmond Leigh, M.R.C.S.E. Nine Members of Council re-elected --E. Davies, F.C.S., G. H. Morton, F.G.S., W. Carter, M.D., Alfred E. Fletcher, F.C.S., I. Roberts, F.G.S., John W. Hayward, M.D., Josiah Marples, Rev. W. Stern, D.D., Baron L. Benas.

Mr. George Mackenzie, Cebu, Philippine Islands, was re-elected a Corresponding Member; and the Associates were also re-elected.

Dr. J. CAMPBELL BROWN then moved, on behalf of Dr. Hayward, who was absent, that Law 9 should be altered, according to the terms of notice given by Dr. Hayward. The motion was seconded by Rev. Dr. Stern. Its consideration was adjourned to the next meeting, and the new President then proceeded to deliver his Inaugural Address.*

See page 1.

FIRST ORDINARY MEETING.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, 20th October, 1879.

EDWARD R. RUSSELL, PRESIDENT, in the Chair.

An Extraordinary Meeting was first held, when the Hon. Secretary read the following

REPORT. The Council of the Literary and Philosophical Society has again the pleasure of congratulating the members upon the satisfactory position of the Society, upon its strength of numbers, and the character of its Proceedings.

The list of Ordinary Members continues to increase, the present roll containing the names of 256 members, being ten more than were reported at the beginning of the last Session. Eleven members have withdrawn during the last twelve months, and four have died, the names of the latter being Mr. Jas. Aikin and Dr. Vose, who had been connected with the Society for forty-six and thirty-five years respectively; Mr. Hugh Shimmin and Dr. Rickard. Twenty-five new members were elected during the Session.

Besides the Ordinary Members, the Society includes forty. Honorary Members, nineteen Corresponding Members, and twenty Associates. Of these, the term of Mr. George Mackenzie, Corresponding Member, Cebu, Philippine Islands, has expired, and the Society will be called upon to consider his re-election.

The Society's financial affairs have occupied considerable attention on the part of the Council, and for the purpose of restricting the current expenditure within the limits of the current income, it has been resolved, “That in future, an

estimate of the prospective income and expenditure be presented by the Council, at the Annual Meeting, and that no expense beyond this estimate shall be incurred without the sanction of the Council being first obtained." To facilitate the operation of this resolution, it has also been resolved, “ That no Paper selected for publication in the Volume of Proceedings shall exceed twenty-five pages, unless the Council, by a special vote of three-fourths of the members present, sanctions its further extension, or the reader of the paper is prepared to meet the expense of printing such additional pages as may be required. The volume which will shortly be issued has been compiled under this regulation, without diminishing, it is believed, the value of the papers selected. But its cost, as estimated for in the Budget drawn up and adopted at the beginning of the Session, does not appear in the Treasurer's accounts now presented - the item in this respect being the payment for the volume issued twelve months ago. A rigid adherence to the resolution now reported will, doubtless, contribute before long to a satisfactory condition of the Society's finances.

The right of the Society to the ownership of the papers read at its meetings has also been brought under the notice of the Council. The Laws are silent on this point; but as it is desirable that the matter should be decided, and the Society placed in the same position as other publishing bodies, the Council recommends the enactment of the following Law, to follow Law 55:-"All Papers read before the Society are thenceforward the property of the Society, and must not be printed or published without the permission of the Council.”

The remarkable success which attended the two Associated Soirées, encouraged your Council to initiate arrangements for holding a third Soirée in November or December next. Should this Soirée prove as attractive as its predecessors, these agreeable reunions may be regarded as an established part of the proceedings of all the Societies engaged, and requiring no further impulse from the Society which originated them.

The Council concludes its report with the recommendation of the following gentlemen for election on the new Council :-Mr. Wm. H. Samuel, Mr. G. F. Chantrell, Mr. C. H. Stearn, Rev. H. I. Johnson, and Mr. Richmond Leigh.

The Report was adopted, with the exception of the paragraph recommending the enactment of a Law asserting the Society's right of ownership in the papers read before it. The consideration of this question was deferred to the next meeting.

Dr. HAYWARD's proposal to alter Law 9, was, after some discussion, withdrawn.

The business of the Ordinary Meeting was then begun, and the Minutes of the Annual Meeting were read and signed.

Messrs. Charles McArthur, S. Veevers, Robert Gracey, F.C.S., and Thomas Mellor were elected Ordinary Members.

Mr. Josiah MARPLES described a recent appearance of Parhelia he had seen. “On Saturday, September 13th, 1879, while crossing the river from Egremont to Liverpool, between 8.35 and 8.50, we observed the very beautiful phenomenon of Parhelia or Mock Suns. The morning was hazy, and the sun was somewhat dimmed, so much so that it was possible to look at it without inconvenience. Around it was a halo, rather indicated than strongly marked, reaching from the horizon or below it to about 50° to 55° towards the zenith. The lower part of this was hidden, either by its being below the horizon or by the thick atmosphere of the town, but at the top and two sides of the halo, quartering as it were the

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