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Ny Dor 3,12

7 MAY 1912

1570, Ostien
3. Exchange &

IN CONVENTION, Feb. 27, 1868.

Resolved, That there be printed, in addition to the number already printed, a sufficient nur ber of copies of the debates, documents and journals, to furnish each of the members wit three copies; and also one copy each to the Mayor and the members of the Common Counc of the city of Albany, and one copy each to the State Law Libraries at Rochester and Syracus the law libraries of the several judicial districts, the Law Institute, the Astor Library, and th New York Historical Society in the city of New York, and the Young Men's Associations c the cities of Albany and Troy.




(minishes their own happiness, that roguery, injin this stage is cheered by the occasional visits every case, is a losing game. When we have of a teacher who gives him plain and practical doce this, and when we have placed the means instruction and who encourages every germ of d'obtaining an honest living in their hands, we effort which he may put forth to attain to a better may reasotably expect that our work will be understanding of his duties, and to a better reguaccomplished, and that our criminals will be re- lation of his conduct. He is in this stage under a tarted to society better men and useful citizens. very rigid coercion, but there is still considerable Again, we bare the large class whose crimes are scope left to him for the exercise and discipline attributabit to feebleness of the will. In these of his volitions. He can violate the rule which cases the indication is to strengthen its power. imposes silence. He may fail to accomplish his The 58xpenetrating power of the sailor's and appointed daily task. He may waste the material the late's eye is enlarged by the constant upon which he is set to work. ' He may use abung of the orgar; the muscles of the ballet sive language to his keeper or teacher. He may wär's legs and of the blacksmith's arms are neglect personal cleanliness, and in several other Laged ard streugthened by constant exercise; ways he may manifest a defiant and unsubdued the brain of the philosopher is enlarged in volume spirit. An accurate set of daily marks is kept and in power by habitual and vivid thought, and showing the exact progress of the prisoner in selfrich is the universal law of nature. It is as truo control which it is the main object of this stage a the moral as in the physical world, and as of imprisonment to cultivate. When the prisoner arse of moral gymnastics will be found as enters the solitary cell he learns that the duration Sezet in invigorating the affections as physical of his imprisonment will be determined by his Tegastics are in increasing the force of the obtaining a certain number of marks. Every day 304 The method to be adopted in these of perfect good behavior adds to the amount of es is not to subject the prisoner to a rigid ex. the marks. Every day of misconduct not only teral coercion, which supersedes all necessity of gives no addition to the sum of marks, but in roštica na his part, and which actually paralyzes proportion to its malignity the marks already he small amount of will power that he actually accumulated are taken away. In this way the poeseases, but he will be subjected at first duration of this penal stage is fixed by the prisonmal and nicely.graduated temptations, er himselt. If disposed to be rebellious, he can whick

, i' yielded to, is met with immediate and indulge in his disposition as long as he likes, if he s punishment. As the prisoner gradually ac- desires to protract his term of discomfort, his quires the mastery over himself, under this pro- keeper is quite patient and allows him to do so, Es the temptations are increased and the process but after a while, when he sees one after another svesnued until at last the power of resisting who entered the prison passing into higher and espation is fully acquired. The practical modes less penal stages of imprisonment, the most hard. by which these objects are accomplished were ened and rebellious finally yield and set them. eriginaly suggested by Captain Maconchie, but selves in good earnest for the first time to cultivate Feste greatly improved and simplified by Sir habits of obedience and self-control. When these Walter Crofton, under whose auspices the system habits are acquired, and not

until then, he passes was brougat into operation in the Irish prisons. into the second stage Here he is situated, The result in these prisons has for a series of in many respects, like the prisoners in our State years been so successful and so truly reformatory, prisons, he is confined in a solitary cell at night, ST62 when applied to the very worst of men, that but during the day he works in association with it has overcome all opposition and has commended other prisoners. The utmost attention is paid in itself to the approval of all thinking men. Sir this stage to his moral and intellectual training. Walter has recently been transferred to England, He is supplied with books of an interesting and where

, ander the full sanction of the govo instructive characters The utmost care is taken eru neat, he is gradually introducing the system to ascertain the weak points of his character, which has proved to be 80 successful in Ireland. which havo led him into crime, and the main The Irish system, as this is called, may be briefly stress of the instruction and discipline is directed described as follows: There are certain

general to strengthen and vivify these weak faculties. features in the plan which are applicable to all Competent teachers are employed to instruct him prisoners of all kinds, classes and idiosyncrasies, in all those matters which will it him to acquit these are modified with respect to intensity himself well

in the battle for life by honest and and duration, so as to adapt themselves to the reputable methods. This stage is divided into Specialties and individualities of each particular three classes, and the prisoner, on emerging from

Every part of it is carefully adjusted to the pedal stage, enters the third and lowest class. titate habits

of self-control on the part of the His continuance in each of these classes is gradusoner; his treatment is exactly determined by ated by his own progress; he must remain in

Tu conduct, and he is thus, to a very con- each until he has acquired the amount of knowl. serie extent, made the arbiter of his own fate. edge and the system of habits which that class is Eser prisoner passes through four separate designed to inculcato. If he is long in doing regs, cach stage being divided into steps. The this, his stay is long. If he does it quickly, he 1st stage is in the highest degree penal, and is soon rises into a higher class and remains in this e object of great dread to all classes. Each until he has fully acquired all that the discipline 800er is coained in perfect solitude in a repa of that class is intended to accomplish, when he 3. Tell He is kept constantly to the hardest enters the first or highest class, where the same 254, dressed in the coarsest raiment and fed on process is repeated. The powerful influence of De Lost unsavory food. Yet his solitude oven Hope is thus brought into exercise. He has a

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