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THE TREE OF HEAVEN

(Already in the Fourth Edition)

“A work of extraordinary power ranking assuredly among the
novels of our time which will make a lasting mark upon

litera-
ture and human thought and life... one of the most impressive
works of fiction of our day.”—New York Tribune. $1.60

Other New and Forthcoming Macmillan Books THE FLYING TEUTON

A WAR NURSE'S DIARY Alice Brown's New Book. Shows the The author has been "over the top” in the skilled literary workmanship which readers

fullest sense. She tells of her unusual exhave come to expect of the author of "The periences in a gripping and vivid fashion. Prisoner," and "Bromley Neighborhood.”

Ready in February. Ready Early in March,

THE SOUL OF DEMOCRACY THE CHRONICLES OF

By Edward Howard Griggs. An inspired SAINT TID

analysis of the war's effect upon our social

philosophy and upon the future democracy. By Eden Phillpotts. New stories of Devon

$1.25 and the west country by the author of "Old Delabole" and "Brunel's Tower." THE RECORD OF A QUAKER Ready in February.

CONSCIENCE: CYRUS

PRINGLE'S DIARY FLOOD TIDE

With an introduction by RUFUS M. JONES. By Daniel Chase. A new novel by a new

The personal diary of a young, Quaker, author, vividly and convincingly written.

who was drafted for service in the Union Ready February 20.

Army in 1863. Ready in February.

WAR TIME CONTROL OF HILL TRACKS

INDUSTRY By Wilfrid Wilson Gibson. A new volume

By Howard L. Gray. A clear interpretaof poems by the author of "Daily Bread,"

tion of English government control. “Battle," etc.

$1.75

Ready in February. THE OLD FRONT LINE

COÖPERATION: THE HOPE

OF THE CONSUMER By John Masefield. “What Mr. Masefield in print did for the Gallipoli campaign he By Emerson P. Harris. With an introducdoes here for the campaign in France. tion by John GRAHAM BROOKS. The failThe new work measures up to the stand ure of Our Middlemanism, Reasons and ard set by its companion both in vital in the Remedy, Practical Coöperation, Backterest and in literary quality."-Phila. ground, and Outlook, are the four parts of North American.

$1.00 this new book. Ready February 20.

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, New York

THE BOOKMAN

A REVIEW OF BOOKS AND LIFE

MARCH, 1918

WANTED: AN AMERICAN POLICY

BY WILLIAM FORBES COOLEY

IN OUR antipathy to Germany's through the German nature, which predatory programme we are apt to will thus prove itself fruitful of blessmiss the ideal side of it which justi. ings for other nations as well.” Such fies it in the eyes of Germans of men have a vision of one hundred and cultivation. Professors Harnack and eighty millions of Russians going to Euken and their ilk are not simply school under German masters, of the possessed with the mania teutonicus, waste places of Turkey redeemed and albeit it is to be feared that even in through German engineering bloomthem the infection is serious. For ing beyond their fairest estate in such Germans the war is waged, as ancient days, of new industrial and Bernhardi declares, "for the highest cultural centres built up at the ends interests ... of mankind,” as well of the earth, as at Kiao Chao, and as for German aggrandisement. Con of the inferior peoples of Asia and quest is for them the indispensable Africa lifted to higher forms of life means of lifting the world to a higher through German system and German plane. It is the means which nature science. Their ideal is of an improved employs, and therefore the right world order which shall be not only means. Said the eminent chemist, efficient but benevolent, which shall Ostwald, in the early months of the instruct the ignorant, develop the war, “Germany .. has attained weak, and bring plenty and comfort to a stage of civilisation far higher to the world, an order in which, as than that of all other peoples. This in Plato's “Republic,” the wise (the war will, in the future, compel these philosopher kings of Potsdam) shall other peoples to participate, under the rule, the brave (the German common form of German social efficiency, in a people, and the Germanic element in civilisation higher than their own.” other civilised countries, provided Other Germans, disciples of the these rise to their opportunity) shall humanities rather than the natural defend, and the hand workers (the sciences, colour the prospect more Latin and other less advanced races) warmly. “We hope," said Pastor shall find their highest good in Conrad, of the Kaiser Wilhelm obedient service of the whole; an Church in Berlin in 1915, “by the order in which, as Geibel sang half victory of our arms, to bring about a century ago, “German culture may a new efflorescence of humanity bring healing to the nations.” It is Vol. XLVII, No. 1.

under the spell of this vision that If we would understand the GerBernhardi is able to exclaim, “The mans, it is well to look occasionally brutal incidents inseparable from through their eyes. The late William every war vanish completely before James counselled, when dealing with the idealism of the main result.” a sincere opponent, getting first the

Now, this ideal is not only good other's point of view, and then movPlatonism, but was also good Judaism ing the point. The German idealist's at Israel's most brilliant literary point of view is evidently interest in period. According to the prophets, a higher world civilisation; and, for Jerusalem, through her triumphant one, I quite agree that we are inferior force, was to be the centre of power folk if we ignore that interest, and and blessing for the world, and in evil folk if we oppose it.

The consequence was to be looked to with "moving of the point” consists in reverent desire by all nations. “Out showing that Germany's plan for realof Zion" was to go forth the law, ising her dream converts it into a after the Messiah had put down all nightmare for the rest of the world, the opposition of the wicked, and for to the conquered it is a proreproved "strong nations afar off.” gramme of desolation and spiritual Then, under the sway of Zion's vic humiliation. The higher human weltorious king, were to follow the days fare has never been effected by conof peace, when swords were to be quest, and in the nature of the case beaten into ploughshares, and the cannot be. On the part of the victors nations should not "learn war any conquest develops haughtiness and more.”

harshness; on the part of the van. Yet we democratic peoples revolt quished it results either in resentfrom this programme in its modern ment and smouldering revolt or in rendering, and strive by bayonets and servility and treachery, according to mellinite shells to bring it to naught! the type of mind brought under the This, to the German idealist, is plain yoke. Abundant illustrations of this proof of our depravity, tempered truth are to be found in the history of somewhat by our ignorance. The real the Central European powers, as, introuble, as he views it, is that we do deed, in the history of the world. A not wish humanity to have the best higher civilisation can no more be things. We prefer that races should produced by smashing blows of the decay like the Haitians, or herd to mailed fist than flowers and fruit by gether without rational organisation,

organisation, biting winter blasts. The world good, as in the slums of Philadelphia and if effected at all, must be sought by New York, in order that our favoured friendly co-operation, not by compul. classes may exploit them-an opinion sion. Mutual service, now seen to be which he shares with the class social the fundamental principle of social ists. It is with an ethical and religious development as well as of ethical fervour, therefore, that German ideal. religion, must characterise this greatists join the Junkers in battling est of all undertakings. While we against Entente claims and forces. rightly insist, however, on the demo“Why do the heathen [we who cratic and fraternal character of wickedly oppose Germany's divinely sound social progress, we should not given mission for world elevation] lose sight of the fact that the goal to rage, and the peoples (of France and which the best German thought England, Italy and America) imagine a vain thing? :: The Lord of His justice we will fulfil, imbued with shall have them in derision!"#

holy rage, in vengeance upon the ungodly.

We thank Thee, Lord God *Cf. the lines of the poet Philippi: "We with thine iron rod we smite all Thine execute God Almighty's will, and the edicts enemies in the face."

directs itself, so far at least as it enterprise is present with us still. involves the collective welfare of Nevertheless, there is enough truth mankind, is the right goal.

in the German indictment to call for Over against this ideal what have careful searchings of heart, the more we Americans to offer the world so that our own more serious prophets indeed, to offer ourselves? Time was have spoken to somewhat similar efwhen our situation provided unitary fect. For one thing, it is all too true aims for us, aims which often we pur that America has been forcibly fed sued with little collective considera with new and heterogeneous citizens tion-independence, conquest of the beyond her natural appetite, and, it wilderness, political liberty, even for is to be feared, beyond her immediate the slave. But what national ob- power to assimilate. A more serious jective have we had since the close thing, however, is that multitudes of of the Civil War? Collectively we our people, natives as well as foreignseem to have run along on the mo- born, appear to regard their country mentum of earlier and more stren as a mere arena for individual, and uous times. Meanwhile, certain commonly selfish, aggrandisementforeign observers have been far from essentially the German view of us. blind to a lack in us. A friend of Winston Churchill, in his bitter-tastProfessor Shailer Mathews, we are ing but tonic tale, A Far Country, told, visiting Germany in 1903 in the makes his hero say, “I have been interest of the St. Louis Exposition, a typical American, regarding my was there informed repeatedly that country as the happy hunting-ground “we were not a nation; that we were of enlightened self-interest, as a funcinterfering with their foreign trade, tion of my desires.” All too many and that they would have to fight intelligent Americans, even to-day, us.” “Not a nation”! that is, a people would find no satire in these words. with no real national life, no collect- “Why, of course," they would doubtive interests of strong appeal, no less say: "to look out for number one unitary purposes or ideals. To such and fetch him out on top, is what we critics we are but a rubbish heap of are all after”—an affirmation that miscellaneous populations, lower in the average citizen is a scrambling grade even than Austria-Hungary, adventurer. because we have not even a dominant The strain of these war days, howrace, still less a government superior ever, is revealing to our calloused to the will of the masses.

minds the unworthiness of much that We are not likely to plead guilty we have accepted hitherto with all to this impeachment. We can see the too little challenge. The profiteer ignorance and provincialism of our for example-now so justly odious, critics, and their bias, also, due to with his blindness to the common their mediæval tradition that a real good, his squads of malingerers drawstate is necessarily feudal at heart. ing excessive wages for marking time Moreover, we have seen within a while he collects his fifteen per cent. year a rallying to the cause of democ- profit thereon from the government racy on the part of our people from —is actually doing only what is ordiocean to ocean, a steadily increasing narily approved, or connived at, by unity and firmness of resolution in a the business community. Why is it cause espoused in all openness of

wrong now?

Because it brings disvision and sobriety of judgment, a tress upon others? But it commonly swift response to the government's brings distress upon others, as we appeals for service and sacrifice—all have had abundant reason to know. of which betoken clearly that at least The victims of industrial exploitation the capacity for national purpose and are ever with us, and their cries are

by no means inaudible, though re under a national strain, albeit their mote enough too often to dull ears cost has often been twice that of and somnolent consciences.

equally good roads abroad—these The incompetent official, too, is things and their like, with their showing in his real character, with seamy sides of private interest, served his smug content to jog along in the at the expense of public welfare, and harness of red tape, his selfish esti of official incompetence due to unmate of political office as a place, not concern as to national affairs, take on a post (still less a trust); a berth, not new aspects in the glow of awakened a task; a reward for clannish service, patriotism and humiliating disapnot an opportunity for social service, pointment. That alleged "practical” that is, for a collective achievement temper of Americans, by reference worthy of reward. How we have been to which politicians and promoters humiliated of late by the exposure have been wont to dismiss disdainof feebleness where we looked for fully really scientific plans for imability, of pettiness where there

there provement, is now seen to be largely should have been vision, of small racial myopia-Anglo-Saxon indispride of rank and eagerness for per position to look beyond things near sonal credit where the situation to larger and equally certain things called for whole-hearted devotion to farther on, lethargic aversion to a cause unsurpassed in importance thinking things through to their conand sovereign appeal! Eight months sequences. If the French had been after entering the war part of our practical in the Anglo-Saxon sense, recruits drilling with dummy guns,

the world would now be Teuton, or in unconscious but tragic irony of the so near it that only the desperate unpreparedness teachings of our doc efforts of a generation could retrieve trinaire pacifists, and in painful con the situation. trast with “Kitchener's first one hun. The day for testing the German dred thousand,” enrolled, trained, judgment of us is at hand. Is the equipped, and put into the firing line, United States of America little more under even greater difficulties, within than a geographical expression (as a like period; young soldiers dying many of our pacifists seem to think), of pneumonia through lack of cloth.

a mere area peopled with a hodgeing and care, while a government un podge of immigrants, a magnified able to meet their needs forbade them Klondike or Kimberley? Our future the use of civilian garb and aid; depends upon the answer. Let us bureau chiefs more concerned about hope that a great disaster is not in the way United States troops will store for us, to teach us by the compare with foreign forces in ap- methods of nature's hard school the pearance and latest fashion of equip- folly of indifference to collective ment in 1919 than in keeping the ends and efficiency. world cause from ruin in 1918; even That lack of national spirit; that our big private industries repeatedly absorption in private concerns and coming short in their vaunted effi- indifference to collective interests, ciency (two hundred submarine referred to above, the functions of the chasers, for example, developing but state being regarded as merely those two-thirds of their contract speed), of a policeman, or, say, the keeper of and their plants and military stores a gambling house—that is an extreme becoming in a melancholy series of form of what is called "individual . instances the seemingly easy prey of ism.” Its merits (especially when German-paid incendiaries; our rail. somewhat restrained by human feel. roads, too, so often lauded as models ing) in the way of stimulation of profor the world, breaking down quickly duction, initiative, and forceful char

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