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air-raids imminent, with no waver- sources and the sacrifices of people. ing, fluctuating battle line on the We have measured the need of Belwestern front at his door. Though gium by the ships laden with grain the war overshadows the entire which have left our shores; we have world, and regulates the thought of measured the urgency for ships, by every individual in it, in America our the empty docks which once held the indignation is not heightened by the Lusitania and the Tuscania; we actual sound of bombardment; we have felt the call for men by the solimagine the cries of the wounded, we diers who have left our shores. It do not hear them. The publicity is all this which the artist must recampaign is urged, therefore, by a member, as he sits in his studio evolvcurrent that must travel three thou- ing the pictures which must keep the sand miles.
nation stirred to action. Yet that is not entirely true. War Another consideration. Slogans is sustained by Ideas and Ideals. are not merely fine phrases. They War is supplied by material re- are born out of the alembic of the
moment. History clings to them, been a "drive," whether for Liberty and identifies with them the men Loans, Red Cross, or Y. M. C. A.; who uttered them. Peculiarly our whether for recruiting or conservadistance has imposed upon us the tion, that the slogans have not been necessity for relying upon inspira- framed beforehand, composed by tion rather than upon the immediate that same largeness of creative imheat of the moment. There has not pulse with which a poem is shaped.
The slogan is made to fit the mo- that it tells the whole story. Such ment, and the artist attaches himself is the demand upon the artist, mobilto the slogan. That is the process ised to help win the war with his pen by which most of the posters in and brush. America have been made.
So far, Mr. Gibson's committee The public became aware of the has supplied posters for thirty-six artist and the slogan long before departments and organisations acthey knew that the artists in Amer- tive in war service. And this does ica had been mobilised. During the not mean alone that they have supvisit of Marshal Joffre to this coun- plied pictures to be reproduced, but try, they saw a card nailed to trees they have likewise sent artists out inand fences—a card called Three to the streets, to paint, as sign Sisters, and picturing the crucial painters would. To the left of the dates in the histories of France and New York Public Library building I America, 1776, 1789, and 1917. In recall seeing Mr. C. B. Falls when he sistently the picture came upon them painted, as though he were before his as they turned street corners, as they easel, that striking poster, Books went into stores. And gradually Wanted for Our Men. To the right, method came out of the widespread with all the feeling of colour and deuse of this poster. It no longer was sign worthy of a canvas, is F. Luis a mere picture, but the symbol which Mora's striking panorama of the Joffre's visit presented. It is such battle-field of France. Over the New publicity in its highest sense which York Treasury building, with the Mr. Gibson's committee has been detail of mural painting, N. C. asked to regulate.
Wyeth and Henry Reuterdahl comAppeal is the essential qualifica- pleted their decoration for the Third tion of the poster. Henry Reuter- Liberty Loan-a picture ninety feet dahl's Help Your Country pictures long and twenty-five feet high. This a battleship under full steam, with kind of publicity work illustrates its guns in action; it is aimed to stir what this war has most often emthe fighting blood. Albert Sterner's phasised—that the individual must Over There indicates the deeper ap- be ready to school himself for any peal of patriotism which impels the emergency. man to enlist. W. T. Benda's Stand Even as specifications are laid Behind the Country's Girlhood is a down for the building of cantondreamy embodiment of the Y. W. ments and for the construction of C. A.'s organisation; C. B. Falls's battleships, so are details furnished Premiers au Feu pulls enlistment to the artists who are now co-operating ward the marines. These random ex- with the Government. This is how amples are typical of the all-embrac- it is done. Mr. Gibson's committee ing quality of the poster—a specific receives a letter which says in subillustration of a general emotion; stance, We wish you to aid us in the pictorial embodiment of an idea, framing a suitable poster for shipso simple in its composition that it yards and airplane factories, in will not miss fire, so evident in its which “the idea to be conveyed is intention that it will appeal to the that the worker, by keeping dilisimplest intellect, so colourful that gently on the job, is doing his bit it will catch the attention, so typical just as much as the man in the
trenches, and that it is his duty to helped to bring the Third Liberty put forth his best efforts. The pos Loan far over the top. Could we ter must be twenty inches by thirty not prophesy that in the posters for inches.” With this in hand, Herbert the Fourth Liberty Loan, the artists Paus designed his picture, a stirring will picture this? Yet, rightly, there appeal for Labour to sustain the is reticence about the use of grewarms of the country.
someness in posters; nothing should The Liberty Loan Committees be suggested which would be either have sought the co-operation of the sickening or depressing. For the obartists in the same way. They have ject of the poster is to stimulate. outlined the insistent note for each Recall that when Charles Lamb sent campaign, and as the world necessity his book, Ulysees, to his publisher, became stronger, as Prussian men Godwin, it was returned for some ace became greater, the urge has in corrections. Children would be creased. In consequence the artists frightened by such and such inciwho have drawn posters for the dents, suggested the cautious pubLiberty Loans have been allowed to lisher, with his eye on over-squeamincrease the emotional appeal. It ish parents. But Lamb wrote back, is now conceded that the German There is only one correction I will raids upon
American hospitals make, and that is where the incident
strikes me as being disgusting. Such We might expect that the artist's was the substance of his letter to usefulness would not be confined at Godwin. The same applies to the home. When Walter Hale was alive, poster.
he showed us, by the visits he paid Public response to the artist's the front, what the pencil could do work is fickle. They like to look at under fire. It was to be expected Frank Brangwyn's American Sailors that when the American army got to the Rescue, or Charles Livingston to France, the artist would be called Bull's The Two Eagles, but they also. In the Signal Corps of the want to own Howard
Howard Chandler United States army, there is a Christy's Columbia's Call, because of Major Kendall Banning, who was its direct feminine appeal. Yet, as formerly the art-editor of System. posters go, it is characterless. Popu- It is through his advice and through lar demand, however, required that General Pershing's call that eight over a million copies of this poster captains' commissions were offered be printed. The American public to Mr. Gibson's committee. Who has not yet been schooled to look at would be the lucky men selected? the poster as anything more than a Through a process known to the Dimagazine illustration. I have before vision of Pictorial Publicity and to me a letter from one department, three officers in the army to whom written to Mr. Gibson's committee. the final selection was left, Captains It says, We want a poster with a Ernest Peixotto, Wallace Morgan, child in it. The fundamental emo W. J. Aylward, Harry Townsend, tions have to be reached in order to Harvey Dunn, Walter Jack Duncan, make the public dig down into their George Harding and André Smith, pockets. It is not too much to say now represent the American artists that a large part of the over-sub in France. They have not as yet scription to the recent Red Cross taken sufficient root to indicate how drive was due to A. E. Foringer's re they work. Their drawings will be markable poster, The Greatest official documents for the War DeMother in the World.
partment. They are painters and Every American artist of note is illustrators, selected to work in any contributing to the poster output. mediums
mediums required, — interpretative Gibson's House Manager, for the artists, who, in wash, pencilor Food Saving Campaign, is done with crayon can illustrate; who, with the old dash of the days when he il- brush, can record the colour of a lustrated Richard Harding Davis's battle; who, with pencil, can lay out Soldiers of Fortune; Joseph Pen scenes or detail structures; who nell, with a method shaped by sketch- could, if called upon, do decorative ing and etching, has produced a pos
work. ter for the ship-building "urge,” Right here let it be emphasised which loses none of its delicacy, how that these are not the men attached ever large it is reproduced—the list to the Camouflage Corps. The latgoes on interminably, including
including ter come under the jurisdiction of Blashfield, Harvey Dunn, Wallace the engineers; their work is a combiMorgan, Adolph Treidler,
Treidler, and nation of carpentry, sculpture others. One must check off with the painting. But these captains are art directory.
there strictly for pictorial work, for